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'' lodetil, Ibcre U a wtiun<ty lutk in naniES, sire, 
And a nmin mystery, an ii man knew where 
To vind it.'' 

(Ben JoNson, Tal/ of,. Tub. iv. a.) 









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^- • „,GixiJlc 


The volume now offered to those who were kind enough 
to be interested in my Romance of Names is a second 
offshoot of the Dictionary of English Surnames on 
which I have been engaged for some years. It differs 
in several ways from the former booklet. The Romance 
of Names was an attempt at a general survey of the 
subject, and, hke all such first attempts, it contained 
a good many inaccuracies and dubious statements ■ 
of which I have tried to purge later editions. It made 
no special attempt to deal with the curiosities of 
surname etymology, and the temptation to explore 
by-ways was firmly resisted. 

The present volume treats much more completely, 
and hence more ponderously, of certain groups of sur- 
names which I have investigated with some approach 
to thoroughness. It includes a very large proportion 
of names of etymological interest,' the majority of 

■ Sometimes due to accepting definite statements of my pr»- 
decesson ; e.g. Bardsiejr says, " It ia a well-known fact that Haddock 
is an imitative variant of Haydock." It may be, but John Haddok 
(Fi'w R., Close R., and City B.) shows that it was also a nickname 
c 1300, There are so many " well-known facts " that becomo 
fictions when tested with a little evidence. 

■ Many of these are so odd and fantastic that I may be SDBpected 
of having invented them, but, with perhaps half a doxen doubtful 


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which have not been mentioned by earlier writers, and 
hardly any of which have been hitherto explained. Its 
relation to the Romance of Names is that of a more or 
less erudite treatise to a primer, matter which in the 
former book was dismissed in a paragraph or two being 
here expanded into a chapter. This involves a certain 
amount of repetition which I hope may be forgiven. 

As the theories and etymologies proposed are to a 
great extent novel, I have thought it well to give some 
of the data on which they are based. Consequently 
the book will be found duller than its predecessor, and 
will, I fear, have little attraction for any but the sur- 
name enthusiast. The author's own inclination, suc- 
cessfully fought gainst, was to give for each name a 
mass of evidence, variants and early examples, which 
most readers would rather be spared. The method 
actually followed has been the rather unsatisfactory 
compromise of giving evidence and foreign parallels 
in a certain number of cases, and the author cannot 
hope that this has been done with much system or 
consistency. After the alternative plans had been 
considered of relegating the medieval examples to 
footnotes or to an appendix, it was finally decided 
to insert them in square brackets after the modem 
names to which they refer, an arrangement which will 
P^haps irritate the rapid reader without satiating the 
student. The chief sources of these early examples are 

cases, every EngUsh name printed in italic type and included in the 
index is, or was as late as the nineteenth century, actually existent 
in this country. 


enumoated on pp. xvi-xvii, but many otherdocuments 
have been consulted and are indicated with more or 
less fullness when quoted.' To my collet^ue Mr. E. L. 
Guilford, Lecturer in History at University College, 
Nottingham, I am indebted for many medieval names 
drawn chiefly from unpublished Midland records. It 
will be noticed that a native or foreign parallel has 
often been preferred to direct evidence. This arises 
out of the comparative method which I have 
adopted^ the only method which can lead to results 
of any value. 

The index contains some six thousand existing sur- 
names, including a certain proportion of French and 
German names and a sprinkling from other countries. 
In the body of the book appear probably almost an equal 
number of names which are presumably extinct, though, 
as a matter of fact, it is never safe to assume this even 
in the case of the most fantastic name. No student 
of the subject would be seriously startled at finding 
Longshanks and Strongbow dwelling side by side in 

sonrce quoted usually shows the century. The great ma)OTity of 
the examplBS come from the twelfth and thirteenth centuries, and 
names later than 133S are as a mle dated. The names are given just 
as they occur, except that baptismal names, when their form is not 
in question, are normalized, while ; and v are put for i and u where 
these latter are consonants. 1 have also occasionally, for the sake 
of clearness, added to final -i the acute accent which was unknown 
to the Middle Ages, llie county is also sometimes given when the 
habitat of the name is in question, but readers in search ol an 
ancestor should notice that in many cases the county is simply that 
in which the bearer of the name happened to be hanged. 

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some remote village, though he wouH experience some- 
thing of the exultation of a naturalist encountering 
a dodo in Kensington Gardens. 

The author's excuse for publishing this second 
instalment of his harmless researches is that the end 
of his Dictionary, Uke that of all similar undertakings, 
has a way of receding as it is approached. It seemed 
possible that information representing the leisure 
amusement of several years might be doomed to the 
waste-paper basket by harassed executors, ip which 
case some students of the English language might be 
the losers.' 

The " practical man," when his attention is accident- \ 
ally directed to the starry sky, appraises that terrific ; 
spectacle with a non-committal grunt ; but he would ] 
receive with a positive snort any suggestion that the 
history of European civilization is contained in the 
names of his friends and acquaintances. Still, even 
the practical man, if he were miraculously gifted 
with the power of interpreting surnames, could hardly 
negotiate the length of Oxford Street on a motor-bus 
without occasionally marvelling and frequently chuck- 
ling. As a review of my former book puts it — < 

" We go about oui dignified proceedings, solemnly ftddressmg 
each other by the names of beasts and birds and kitchen implements ; i 
we are dressed like savages in fantastic feathers, and the most 
important list of honoured personages contains a set of nicknames 
graceless enough to keep us laughing for a month " {The Times, 
February 22, 1914}. 

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I should like to thank by name all the friendly cor- 
respondents who have, often at real cost of time and 
labour, sent me information on the subject of surnames ; 
but the list would fill several pages. So I must limit 
myself to saying in the words of Captain Grose that — 
" Several gentlemen (and ladies), too respectable to be 
named on so trifling an occasion, have also contributed 
their assistance." 

Ernest Weekley. 

Univbrsitv Collbcb, Nottingham, 
April, 1916. 

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:laneous adjunct-names . . . 164 








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INDEX 331 

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Camden, Remains conceming Biitain (London, 1605). 

Lower, Patronymica Britannica (London, i860). 

Low^, English Suroames* (London, 1875), 

Guppy, Homes of Family Names in Great Britain (London, 

Bardsley, English Surnames* (London, igoi). 
Bardsley, Dictionary of English and Welsh Surnames (Osiord, 

BJOTkman, Nordische Personennamen in England (Halle a. S., 


Macbain, Etymological Dictionary of the Gaelic Language,* 

pp. 396-412 (Stirling, 1911). 
Matheson, Report on Surnames in Ireland (Dublin, 1909). 
J^mei, Handbook of the Cornish Language, pp. 192-202 

(London, 1904). 
Hooie, Names, Place-names and Surnames of the Isle of Man 

(London, 1890). 

Ritter, Les Noms de Famille (Paris, 1875). 

Langlois, Table des Noms piopres compris dans les Chansons 

de Geste (Paris, 1904). 
Cbastelain, Vocabulaire Hagiologique (Paris, 1694). 
Schatier, Heikunft and Gestaltung der franzosischen Heiligen- 

namen (MOnster i. W., 1905). 

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Pachnio,* Die Beinameii der Pariser SteueiTOlle von 1292 

(Konigsberg i. Pr.. 1909). 
Kremers, Beitrage zur Erforschung der franzosischen Fami- 

liennamen (Bonn, 1910}. 

Heintze, Die deutschen FamiJiennamen * (Halle a. S., 1908). 

Salverte, Essai historique et philosophique sur les Noma de 

Peuples et de Lieux (Paris, 1824). 
Yonge, History of Christian Names' (London, 1884). 


Searle, Onomasticon Anglo-Saxonicum (Cam- 
bridge, 1897) .... Searle 

1086. Domesday Book .... DB. 

1158-1192. Pipe Rolls (Pipe Roll Soc., 34 vols.) Pipe R. 

1189-1327, Abbreviatio Pladtorum, 

Richard I. — Edward II. . Pleas 

1195-1214. Fines, sive Pedes Finium. sive 
Finales Concordiae in Curia 
Domini Regis . . Feet 0/ Fines 

1199-1216. Rotuli de Liberate ac de Misis et 

Pfiestitis, regnante Johanne Lib. R. 

1199-1326. Charter Rolls , . . Chart. R. 

1199-1332. Fine Rolls .... Fine R. 

1200-1400. Documents illustrative of Eng- 
lish History in the thirteenth 
and fourteenth centuries, 
from the Records of the 
Queen's Remembrancer in 
the Exchequer , . Doc. III. 

1202-1338. Patent Rolls .... Pat.R. 

1205-1337. Close Rolls .... Close R. 

• Pachnio's dissertation, giving a great number of thirteenth- 
century French nicknames, is especially valuable for comparative 
purposes, and is freely quoted, especially in chapters vi. to viii. 



1216-1307. Calendarium Genealogicum, for 
the reigns of Henry III. and 
Edward I. . . . 

1216-1307, Testa de Neville sive Liber Feo- 
dorum, temp. Henry III. 
— Edward I, . 

1216-1377, RotulorumOriginalium in Curia 
Scaccarii Abbreviatio, 
Henry III.— Edward III. . 

1316-1336. Inqnisitiones post Mortem sive 

1272-1338. Register of the Freemen of York, 

Vol.I.(SurteesSoc„i897) . F. of Y. 
1273. Hundred Rolls . . Hund. R. 

1275-1377. The Letter-Books (A. to F.) of 

the City of London . Cily A., B., etc. 

1277-1326. Calendar of various Chancery 
Rolls : Supplementary Close 
Rolls. Webb Rolls, Scut^e 
Rolls .... Chanc. R. 
1284-1^31. Inquisitions and Assessments re- 
lating to Feudal Aids , Fettd. Aids 
Ancient Kalendars and Inventories of the 

Treasury of Hia Majesty's Exchequer . Exck. Cat. 
Liber Vitae Ecclesix Dunelmensis (Surtees 

Soc.. 1841) Lib. Vil. 

In addition to the above a great number of county Assize 
Rolls, manor Court Rolls, abbey Cartularies, etc., have been 
consulted, the titles of which are given more fully. 


Return of Owners of Land in Ei^land and 
Wales, 1873, generally called the Modem 
Domesday Book .... MDB. 

Dictionary of National Biography . . DNB, 




London Directory, 1842, 
Various Provincial Directories. 
Navy List, September 1914. 
Army List, January 1915. 
The London Gazette. 
The Daily Paper. 
The Casualty Lists. 

Paris Directory, 1907 .... 

Kangliste der Kaiserlich Deutschen Marine, 


The New English Dictionary 
The English Dialect Dictionary 


Wright-WQlcker, Anglo-Saxon and Old 
English Vocabularies * (London, 1884) . 

Promptorium Parvulorum (1440), ed. May- 
hew (EETS.) 

CathoUcon Anghcum (1483), ed. Herrtage 

Levins, Manipulas Vocabulorum (1570}, ed. 
Wheatley (EETS.) .... 

Skene, De Verbonim Significatione {Edin- 
burgh, 1599). 

Cowel, The Interpreter or Booke containing 
the Signification of Words (London, 

The same, enlarged (London, 1708). 

Blount, Law Dictionary (London, 1691}. 

White Kennett, Glossary (London, 1816). 

Nares, Glossary, ed, Halliwell and Wright 
(London, 1872). 

Prompt. Pan. 
Calh. Angl. 

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Halliwell, Dictionary of Archaic and Pro- 
vincial Words" (London, 1887) . . Hall. 

Skeat and Mayhew, Glossary of Tudor 
and Stuart Words (Oxford, 1914). 

Palsgrave, LescUrcissement de la Langne 

francoyse (1336) .... Palsg. 

Cotgrave, French- English Dictionary (1611) Cotg. 


Chancer, ed. Pollard [Globe Edition) . . Chauc. 

Piers Plowman, ed. Skeat . . . Piers Plowm. 

The Wydifate Translation of the Bible . Wye. 
Skelton, ed. Dyce. 
Cocke Lorelles Bote, sixteenth century 

(reprint, Aberdeen, 1848). 
Stow, Survey of London (1603), 

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AF. . 

. Anglo-French 

AS. . 

. Anglo-Saxon 

Ass. . 

. Assize 


. Paris Directory, 1907 

Cat. Gen. . 


Cart. . 

. Cartulary i>r Chartulary 

Cath. Angl. . 

. Catholicon Anglicum 

Chanc. R. . 

. Chancery Rolls (1277-1326) 

Ckart. R. . 

. Charter Rolb (1199 , . .) 


. Chaucer 

City A., B.. etc. 

. City o( London Utter-books (1275 

Close R. . 

■ ■ ■) 
. Close Rolls (1205 . . .) 

Cotg. . 

. Cotgrave's French Dictionary (1611) 

DB. . 

. Domesday Book (1086) 

dial. . 

. dialect 

dim. . 

, diminutive 

DNB. . 

. Dictionary of National Biography 

Doc. III. . 

. Documents Illustrative of English 

History (thirteenth and four- 

teenth centuries) 

Da. . 

. Dutch 

EDD. . 

. EngUsh Dialect Dictionary 

Exch. Cat. . 

of the Exchequer. 

Exck. R. . 

. Rotulonim Originalium in Curia 

Scaccarii Abbreviatio {Henry III. 

—Edward III.) 

f. . . . 

. fihus or fiUa 

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F»tt of Fines 

. Fines, sivePedesFinium (1193-121 4) 

Feud. Aids . 

. Inquisitions and Assessments relat- 

ing to Feudal Aids (1284 . . .) 

Fine R. 

. Fine Kolls (1199 . . .) 

F. of y. . 

. Register of the Freemen of York 

(1272 . . .) 

Fr. . 


Ger. . 

. German 

Goth. . 

. GotHc 

Hall. . 

. Halliwell. 

Hund. R. . 

. Hundred Rolls (1273) 

Inq. . 

. Inquests 

IpM. . 

. Inquisitiones post Moijem (1216 

Let. . 

- ■ ■) 
. Letters 

LG. . 

. Low German 

Lib. R. 

. RotuU de Liberate ac de Misis et 

Prajstitis (1199 . . .) 

Lib. Vit. . 

Manip. Voc. 

. Manipulus Vocabulorum 


. Modem Domesday Book {1873) 

ME. . 

. Middle EngUsh 

OF. . 

. Old French 

OG. . 

. Old German 

ON. . 

. Old Norse 


, Palsgrave, Lesclarcissement de la 

Langue franfoyse (1536) 

Pal. R. 

. Patent Rolb (1202 . . .) 

Piers Plowm. 

. Piers Plowman 

Pipe R. 

. Pipe RoUs (1158 . . .) 

PUas . 

. Abbreviatio Pladtonim, Richard I. 

—Edward II. 

Prompt. Parv. 

. Promptorium Parvulomm 

Reg. . . 

. Register 

Sc. . 

. Scottish 

Tesla dt Nev. 

. Testa de Neville 

Voc. . 

. Wright-Wiilcker, Vocabularies 

Wye.. . 

. Wycliffite Translation of the Bible 

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" Nomeo qnam dicirons, cognomen qnoqne et agnomen intelli- 
gator oportet " (Cicero). 

The study of surnames in England is chiefly asso- 
ciated with the names of Camden, Lower, Ferguson, 
and Bardsley, though many other writers have dealt 
with the subject, or with special aspects of it, both 
in books and magazine articles. Of these Camden, 
the first in date {Remains concerning Britain, 1605), is 
still in many ways the best. His brief essay, weak as it 
necessarily is from the philological point of view, gives 
fay far the clearest and most sensible introduction to 
the subject that has yet been penned. 

The first attempt at anything like a comprehensive 
Dictionary of Surnames is Lower's Patronymica 
Britannica (Lond. i860), which contams some 12,000 
names. He had previously published English Sur^ 
names (Lond. 1842, 4th ed., enlarged, 1875}. Lower 
seems to have been a genial antiquary, with a good 
deal of miscellaneous information, but no serious know- 
ledge of European languages. On the surnames of his 

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native county, Sussex, he has often good first-hand 
information, but outside that he is quite untrust- 
worthy. He knew, however, something about the 
general history of surnames and had read all that had 
already been written in English on the subject. 
Some of his suggested etymologies are rather furmy, 
and in many cases he does not seem to have taken 
the trouble even to open the Gazetteer. A couple 
of examples will suffice — 

" Bickerstaff. The O. Eng. bicker means to skirmish or contend. 
and a. ' bicker-staiF,' therefore, probably signifies a weapon analo- 
gous to a quarter-stafi, or single-stick. The name belongs to the 
same class as Longsword, Broadspear, etc." 

" Rigmaiden, Two gentry families, settled respectively in 
Counties Lincoln and Lancaster, bore ttiis remarkable name, which 
at the commencement of the present century was still extant. I 
can give no better etymology for the name than I have already 
assigned in Eng. Surn. ; vit., ' a romping girl.' " 

Now Bickerstaff, formerly Bickerstath (whence Bicker- 
stelh), is a Lancashire parish near Ormskirk. Rigmaden 
is a seat in Westmorland, and the local surnames de 
Bikerstaf and de Riggemaiden can be easily attested 
from the medieval records of the north. I have noticed 
fifteen variants of Bickerstaff in the Lancashire Assize 
Rolls (1176-1285) and Rigmaiden is also found in 
several forms. Similarly, Lower explains Fifehead 
as from a promontory in Scotland, whereas Fifehead, 
formerly Five-hide, is a place in Dorset, in which 
county Fifehead, Fifelt is a common surname. But 
tliere is a good deal of useful antiquarian, as distin- 
guished from etymological, information to be gleaned 
from 'Lower, and his rather ponderous good-humour 
does not excite the irritation which is evoked by the 
confident imbecihty of some of his successors. 

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Lower was followed by Ferguson, author of English 
Surnames and their Place in the Teutonic Family, 
The Teutonic Name System, and Surnames as a Science. 
He was by trade a cotton-spinner, by inclination an 
amateur philologist, and eventually a Member of 
Parliament. Like most people who dabble in the 
study of German, he was struck by its similarity to 
EngUsh, and jumped to the conclusion that oiu- 
surname system, like our language, was chiefly of 
Teutonic origin.' In other words, he became the 
victim of a fixed idea, a more deadly enemy in philo- 
logical matters than ignorance itself. The consequence 
is that his Surttames as a Science ' bears some resem- 
blance to an elaborate lark, which begins by amusing, 
but soon palls. It is, of course, true that thousands 
of our surnames can be traced to persona! names 
which were in use in Anglo-Saxon times, but, to 
estabhsh such connection, it is just as well to supply 
a little in the way of evidence. For Ferguson it is 
quite sufficient to find a somewhat similar Anglo- 
Saxon name in Kemble • or Thorpe,* or, failing these 
sources, an Old German name in Forstemann," or, 
faiUng Forstemann, in his own imagination, to ex- 
plain Tom, Dick, and Harry as coming straight from 
the Twihght of the Gods into the London Commercial 
Directory. So Thompson, whom the ignorant might 
connect with Thomas, is really the son of doom ! 
That a surname is obviously taken from a trade does 

■ Which it ie, of coarse, though not as Ferguson understood it. 

■ Second edition, reviaed, London, 1884. 

* C01U1 diplomalicus Xvt Saxonici, I^ndon, 1845-S. 

* Diplomaiorium Anglicvm Mvi Saxonici, London, 181;. 

* AUdeutsclies Namenbuch : pait i, P«)-foncnnatn«n, Mordhattsea, 

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not disturb him. Archer, Iremonger, and Prentice, 
which are recorded by hundreds as " le archere," " le 
iremonger," " le prentice," are "Old Prankish'* 
names, " and the resemblance to anything Enghsh is 
only an accident." Archer, we learn, is from OG. 
Erchear, Iremonger is related to Arminius the Chenis- 
kerfiirst, and Prentice comes from " an " AS, Premtsa. 
An imrecorded Old German name is just as useful 
for his purpose as one copiously attested. It is only 
a case of " not yet tumai up," a phrase that recurs 
constantly in his book. Occasionally the intrusive 
place-name annoys him, but only for a moment. 
Prendergast is derived from an imaginary Pendgast, 
" an ancient compound, from the stem bend, with gast, 
hospes." A footnote admits that it may perhaps, 
however, be from a Welsh place-name (as of course it 
is), but it " illustrates the principle just the same." 

A contemporary, and to some extent a disciple, of 
Ferguson, Dr. Chamock, pubUshed in 1868 a small 
lexicon of unusual surnames under the title Ludus 
Patronymicus, or the Etymology of Curious Names. 
On Shakespeare he gives us the following remarks — 

"I have elsewhere (see Notts and Qutries, vob. ix. aod x,). 
stated that Shakespeare might be a corruption oi Sigisbert, which 
would translate ' renowned for victory ' {sige, victory) ; in answer 
to which Mr. Ferguson seemed to think that the name might be 
from Sicisper, Sigisper, or Sigiper, which he would translate ' vic- 
torious bear ' (perhaps rather ' victorious man '). My suggestion 
would seem probable from the &ct that the name Shaheshaft might 
be from Sigishaft, Sighaft, used by the Franks for ' victorious," 
or from Sigishaved, ' head of victory,' ' victorious leader.' I 
am. however, disposed to think that the latter name is merely a 
' corruption of Shakestafl ; and, as I bave shown elsewhere, most 
names compounded of staff are derived from AS. sled, a place. Oa 
further consideration I am inchned to doubt my lormei derivatioa 



of the name Shaiespeare, although it would easily corrupt from 
Sigisbert, by contraction 'of the first vocable, and by dropping of 
the final t. I agree with another correspondent of Notes and 
Queries in tracing the name to Jacques Pierre. . . . The nearest 
names to Jacques Pierre that I have been able to find are James 
Peters, Jacques Henri Bemardin dc Saint-Pieire, and Petrus 

Perhaps, after all, it is only the gentleman's fun. 

Theories every whit as crazy are constantly put for- 
ward by amateur philologists, A few years ago I 
read in Notes and Queries that Jennins is of Norse 
origin and means the " iron man," and that this family 
gave its name to Jenningham, now corrupted into 
Birmingham ! This statement easily beats the famous 
definition of the crab both in quality and on points. 
More recently, in the same publication, the suggestion 
was made that the puzzling name SkUlito or SilUo was 
from the medieval " de Sigillo," Even if this were 
phonetically possible, the theorist should have sup- 
ported his case with modem names corrupted from 
Molendinarius, Albo Monasterio, Veteri Ponte, or 
Sexdecim Vallibus. 

In fact, the study of English surnames, being a 
region of knowledge which has never been scientifically 
explored, is a regular happy hunting-ground for the 
unauthorized amateur. Even men of learning, who 
should know how dangerous it is to stray from their 
own sphere of knowledge, occasionally trespass dis- 
astrously. I have recently read a most interesting 
and informative article on the " Place of the Wood- 
pecker in Religion," the author of which pomts out 
quite rightly that many of our surnames go back to 
instincts surviving from this prehistoric cult. But 
when he proceeds to tell us that the name Peckover 



is the OF. pic vert, green woodpecker, we are re- 
minded of those guileless etymologists who derive the 
Oxfordshire Shotover from chdteau vert, while the 
suggestion that Woodhatch (Surrey) takes its name 
from the woodhack, or woodpecker, makes us wonder 
whether there is some similar explanation for Colney 

The documentary study of surnames began with 
Bardsley, who shifted the field of investigation from 
the migration of the Aryans to the Middle Ages. He 
realized that practically all our surnames came 
definitely into existence between the Norman Con- 
quest and the end of the fourteenth century. His 
English Surnames ' contains a wealth of material 
drawn from various medieval sources, and his Dic- 
tionary of English and Welsh Surnames, published 
(Oxford, 1901) from his notes after his death, contains 
a valuable, though often wrongly grouped and wrongly 
interpreted, collection of authentic instances. Among 
all who have written on the subject, he appears to be 
the only one who knows that there are such things as 
chronology and evidence, and, where he goes wrong, 
it is simply from ignorance of medieval languages. 
I have given a few examples in the preface to my 
Romance of Names. Similar blunders are to be found 
on almost every page of his Dictionary, but it would 
be ungracious to insist on them. Personally I have 
derived the greatest help from his work, and, though 
I have never, when possible, used one of his instances 
without verifying it, I have often been guided to the 
origin of a name by his copious provision of early 
examples. His Dictionary is especially valuable for 
> Seventh edition, London, 1901. 





the later history of names, because of the careful 
study of church registers by which he is often able 
to show the identity of surnames which have become 
widely divergent. This part of the subject can only 
be nibbled at by one individual, and a real Diction- 
ary of Surnames cannot come into existence until 
every county has been thoroughly documented by 
competent investigators. 

The study of surnames is, for historical reasons, 
more complicated in England than in any other Euro- 
pean country. In all European nations there is a 
strong foreign element, especially in frontier regions, 
but our Directory is perhaps the greatest hodge- 
podge of all. • Taking the various elements in chro- 
nological order, we have first the " Celtic fringe," 
names from which (Gaehc, Welsh, Irish, Manx, Cor- 
nish) are now to be found in every comer of Eng- 
land. In fact, it is quite possible that the real old 
Welsh names {Cradock, Ennion, Trakerne. etc.), now 
replaced largely by the unimaginative Jones,^ Hughes, 
etc., are more numerous in England than in their 
native country. Then come the race whom we call 
traditionally the Anglo-Saxons, and from whom those 
few of us whose ancestors neither came over with 
the Conqueror nor escaped miraculously from the 
Massacre of St. Bartholomew are mostly descended. 
In the East and North, in Scotland, and sporadically 

■ The MDB. contains the names of 196 landholders in the Isle 
of Anglesey whose name begins with /, and every single one of 
them is Jones. The same phenomenon is observed in other coun- 
tries in which the adoption of fixed suntames is comparatively 
recent. Tbns in Sweden about one-half of the population is ac< 
counted for by tome fifteen patronymics of the type Otsen (Olaf), 
Jakobstn, Peltrstn, etc. 



all round the outer edge of the islands, names of 
Norse • origin are abundant ; and these, from the 
strictly philological point of view, should be divided 
into East Scandinavian and West Scandinavian. 
With 1066 we have the Norman irruption, and, 
through the centuries, a constant percolation from 
various French provinces,' culminating in the great 
Huguenot invasion of the sixteenth and seventeenth 
centuries. On the East coast Dutch and Danish names 
are not uncommon ; while London, as the commercial 
focus of the world, has for centuries attracted immi- 
grants from various European counfries, many of 
whom have been fruitful and have multiplied. In 
quite recent times there has been a steady peaceful 
penetration from Germany, and London and our 
manufactxuring towns are largely colonized by this 
energetic race, no doubt destined to be the ruling 
class of the future.' 

But, difficult as is the task of classifying and deriv- 
ing Enghsh surnames, it is nothing compared with 
that offered by American surnames. In the States 
the wear and tear of names, which in England extends 
over ten centuries, has been concentrated into one, 
and instead of half a dozen elements we have sources 
innumerable. In the early days of the Republic the 
problem was simpler, for the sparse population was 
drawn from practically four sources, British, Dutch, 
French, and German. In the earliest census taken, it 

1 I have described all names found before the Conquest as Anglo- 
Saxon, but many ot them are really Norse. Those interested 
should study Bjdrkman. 

■ French names ate particularly common in Devon, a result no 
doubt of intercourse with the Channel Islands. 

* This was written before the War. 

D,g,t,.?<l I,, Google 


is interesting to notice the distribution of these names.' 
We find, as we should expect, the French in the south, 
the Dutch in and around New York, and the Germans 
in Pennsylvania. But, since the time of the first 
census (1790), immigrants have crowded in from most 
countries, civilized and uncivilized, and their changed, 
distorted, or adapted names form a pathless etymo- 
logical morass. Even in 1790 one is struck by the 
prevalence of crude and grotesque nicknames, often 
obvious perversions of foreign names, but frequently, 
no doubt, deUberately assumed by, or conferred on, ■ 
men who had cut even the sumominal tie with Europe. 
In one respect only are our English surnames easier 
to trace than those of continental countries. .The 
possible variants and derivatives of any given personal 
name run theoretically into thousands, and in France 
and Germany, to take the two most important 
countries of which the surname system is related to 
our own, there has been no check on Has process of 
differentiation. By contraction, aphesis, apocope, dia- 
lect variation, and many other phonetic factors, one 
favourite name often develops hundreds of forms, mjiny 
of which appear to have nothing in common with the 
original. Thus Ger. Nolte can be traced step by step 
to OG. Arinwald, eagle mighty. The Old German 
names passed into France, underwent a new phonetic 
development, and were again varied ad infinitum. 
Thus Naudot is also from OG. Arinwald, which became 
Fr. Arnaud, whence, by aphesis, Naud, and, with the 
dim. suffix, Naudot. This dim. sufEx again, which 

» A Century of Population Growth in the United States {1790- 
1900), Washington, 1909. A copy of this elaborate and valuable 
work was most kindly seat to me by G. F. Parker, Esq., of New 
York, formerly U.S. Consul in Birmingham. 

D,9,t,.?<i I,, Google 


many other names share with Naudot, became, by 
a second aphesis, Dot, and then, with a new dim. 
sufiix, DoUin. Many such series could be quoted 
among modem French surnames, e.g. Hanotaux, for 
Hanotot, from Hanoi, from Han, from Jehan, i.e. John ; 
or Denis, Denisard, Nisard, Sard, Sardou, 

Now, in England, the parallel process was suddenly 
interrupted by the Norman Conquest. The Anglo- 
Saxon names which persisted remained in a state of 
arrested development and seldom formed femiliar 
derivatives. Those which seem to form exceptions 
do so because the corresponding name existed in Old 
French and thus preserved a vitality which the Anglo- 
Saxon form had lost. Thus, Rawle, Rawlins, Rawkins, 
etc., belong to Fr. Raoul, from OG. Radwulf, counsel 
wolf, and our Tibbs, Tibbels, Tibbies, etc., derive from 
the Fr. Thibaut, OG. Theodobald, people strong, rather 
than from the cognate AS. Theodbeald, a rather rare 
name. From the Conquest the favourite names were 
French names of Gamanic origin, e.g. William, Robert, 
Richard, or Biblical names, e.g. John, Thomas, Peter, 
of Greco-Latin or Eastern origin, and generally in- 
troduced in a French form. Nomenclature thus made 
a fresh start, and this start falls within historic and 
well-documented times. Practically all our surname 
groups of baptismal origin date from after the Con- 
quest and have no direct or conscious connection with 
their Anglo-Saxon or Celtic cognates. Taking at 
hazEird, from vol. ii. of the Hundred Rolls, a list of 
people from various counties described as sons of 
Adam, we find that the font-names represented are 
Clement, Eustace, Geoffrey, Gregory, Henry, Hugh, 
Humphrey, John, Nicholas, Peter, PhiUp, Ralph, 



Richard, Rob^, Rc^er, Simon, Thomas. WiUiam, not 
one of which was in real EngUsh use before the Battle 
of Hastings. 

But a close study of the cartularies of ancient 
manors and abbeys reveals the survival of thousands 
of Anglo-Saxon names among the peasantry, and 
most of them still exist. They do not, however, form 
groups of derivatives. Even when Anglo-Saxon names 
survived as such, they were often affected in sound by 
the Norman pronunciation, for it must be remembered 
that, during the period of formation of our surnames, 
French was the official language and a considerable 
proportion of the population was bilingual. For in- 
stance, Alphege is the Norman form of Elphick, AS. 
vElfheah, and the v of Elvin (£lfwine), Colvin (Ceol- 
wine), is due to the same influence. Wace makes 
Edward into Ewart, a name which has other origins, 
and Leofwin into Lewin — 

" Limine « Gnert furent od Ini " (Romwt dt Rou, 7857). 

The font-name is, strictly speaking, the only true 
name, the other classes of surnames, patronymic, 
occupative, or nickname, being descriptions, while the 
local surname is an address. Of all surnames those 
of local origin are of least interest, difficult though it 
often is to recognize the village or homestead in its 
archaic, distorted, or popular form (see chap. iv.). 
Probably at least half of our surnames are of the 
dull, unimaginative local kind,' but their etymological 

I It is rather curioos that a, few names of this t^e ahonid have 
acquired as aristocratic flavour. CAofntondtbyis simply the "Ua" 
of Ceolmund, who is now usnaliy Coleman, and FoHso»by ia the 
" by," or homestead, of Punshon. The cxclnaiva Carlton represents 
the most commonplace of onr village names, Ceorl's, or the chnrPs, 

D,g,t,.?<i I,, Google 


explanation bebngs to the student of place-names. 
As there is hardly a spot in England which has not 
given its name to a family, it follows that a complete 
etymological dictionary of EngUsh surnames would 
have to include a complete etymological dictionary of 
place-names, i.e. that one impossibility can only be 
achieved by the preliminary accomplishment of an- 
other. The study of these names would have to be 
carried on by counties or regions. If a circle, with 
say a ten-mile radius, were drawn on an ordnance map 
round a city such as Nottingham, it would be found 
that all the village-names in that circle existed in the 
town or county as medieval surnames. With the en- 
largement of the circle, these names would thin out 
in number and become more corrupted in form, until, 
except for their accidental appearance here and there 
in modem Et^land, they would fade away like the 
last ripple produced by a stone in the water. A 
profotmd historical knowledge of the earlier forms 
and of the local pronunciation would of course be 
essential for the study of these names. 

In investigating the origins of names we can work 
either backwards or forwards. The field is immense 
and the materials are available in overwhelming mass. 
Lower seems to have used as general som^ces only 
Domesday Book and the Hundred Rolls, the latter a 
kind of later Domesday Book compiled in 1273. These 
are perhaps the two most valuable dociunents we have, 
because they give not only the name but the locality 
in which it occurs. But there are many other sources 
of hardly less value. For pre-Conquest names we 
have Searle's Onomasticon Anglo-Saxonicum, a com- 
plete list of names extracted from all mann^ of 



sources, including the earlier compilations of Birch, 
Thorpe, Kemble, etc. After Domesday Book {1086) the 
most important sources are, for the twelfth century, 
the Pipe Rolls, beginning in 1158, and, for the thir- 
teenth century, the four great series of the Charier 
Rolls and Fitu Rolls, from 1199, the Patent Rolls, from 
1202, and the Close Rolls, from 1205. The earlier parts 
of these were printed in extenso early in the nineteenth 
century, and they are now continued in the form of 
Calendars, i.e. abstracts. Then we have the /«- 
quisitiones post Mortem, from 1216, a number of minor 
rolls and docunaents dealing with special regions, and 
the numerous local records published by various 
antiquarian societies, such as the Camden, Chetham, 
Surtees, and Lancashire and Cheshire Record Societies. 
These latter sources are especially rich for the north 
of England, but most counties have now their anti- 
quarian societies, from the Transactions of which any 
amount of information can be acquired. An ordinary 
lifetime would not suffice for the investigation of a 
fraction of the superabundant material, and the con- 
tribution of any individual to the subject must 
necessarily be but a drop in the ocean. 

The Rolls are nearly always written in medieval 
Latin, but the names which occur in them are put 
promiscuously in latinized form, e.g. Johannes Arcu- 
balistarius, Enghsh, John the Arblaster, or Anglo- 
French, Jehan le Arbalestier. There is nothing 
like uniformity of spelling. Even a monosyllable like 
Bruce has dozens of forms, and in one north-country 
document I have noted fifteen spellings of so simple 
a name as Bradshaw. This applies, of course, equaNy 
to the spelling of other words, but while tliis has now 



been normalized by a ktnd of collective effort and the 
authority of the printer, the differentiation in the 
spelling ' of names has gone on unchecked. 

From about the middle of the fourteenth century 
the records become of less etymological value, because 
the significant prefixes, le and de, del, atte, etc., tend 
to disappear. But even in the earliest Rolls caution 
is necessary. Many accidents and misunderstandings 
may have occurred between the verbal communica- 
tion made by the medieval peasant to the government 
official, who often had difficulty in understanding him, 
and the printed copy or abstract which we now pos- 
sess. It is never safe to draw inferences from isolated 
entries, which may be original mistakes, errors in 
transcription, misreadings of medieval contractions, 
or modem misprints. Le is constantly confused with 
de, especially in the Hundred Rolls, and in the earlier 
issues of the other series, and de is also otten found 
prefixed to obvious nicknames and personal names 
which can be certified from much earlier records,' The 
entries are to a great extent artificial. The common 
patronymics in -s and -son rarely occiu-, and the font- 
names are given in full instead of in the abridged 
form actually in use. We find Egidius i. Waltarii for 
Giles Watson, and Reginaldus, Dionysius, Petronilla, 
and Theophania for people who were certainly known 
to their neighbours as Reynold, Dennis, ParntU, and 

I It is considered a, teniblo aoledam to write of the poet Speneer 
or of •* rare Ben Johnson," but in Wettminrter Abbej' theM two 
Bpellingis inajr be seen over adjacent tombs. 

t Some of our connty histories are not blameless in this matter, 
and sprinkle de's in ludicrous fashion among the ancestors of th« 
local gentry. 

D,g,t,.?<l I,, Google 


It may be noted here that the nomenclature of 
the Middle Ages is much more ornate than the super- 
ficial study of history would suggest. Female names 
especially have much of the penny novelette about 
them. I have come across AmEinda, Bonajoia, Dulci- 
bella, Glorietta, Licoricia, Orgoylosa, Orielda, and 
many others. These gorgeous names seem to have 
been especially common among the Jews, e.g. the 
four Jewesses mentioned in vol. xxxiii. of the Pipe 
Rolls are Belleases, Duzelina, Pulcella, and Regina. 
In a great many cases it is impossible to say wheth^ 
a modem name is a patronymic or a metronymic, for 
most of the male medieval font-names had feminine 
form also, e.g.Abnarica,Alwina, dementia, Eustachia. 
Hudina, Theobalda, etc., and, as in modem times, 
we sometimes find a female font-name manufactured 
from that of the father or ancestor, e.g. Lescelina, 
daughter of Matthew f. Leising {Lane. Inq., 1205- 
1307), the latter gentleman's " by," or farmstead, 
having been the home of the Lazenby family. 

Occupative names given in Latin or French form 
have sometimes persisted {Faber, Bullinger), but we 
may be sure that Ricardus Molinarius or Richard le 
Houner was generally in private life Dick Miller. 
There are few commoner entries than Cocus and le 
Keu, both now represented by Cook.' The same is 
trueof nicknames, tiany a modem Whitehead descends 
from a Blanchef or Blaunkfrunt of the Rolls, and the 
Caprons of to-day are far less numerous than those 
of the Middle Ages, most of whom were simply Hoods. 
The form which any name takes in the Rolls is due 

> K«w still exista, but is not conunon, and often comM from 
Kmr in Sjaioy. 



largely to the personality of the recorder, often doing 
his best with a population whose dialect was to hira 
a meaningless jargon. Ralph Omnibon {Fine R.) 
looks Uke the official interpretation of AUgood, AS. 
^Ifgod, and le Petit Chose has a thirteenth-century 
prototype in Stephen Aliquid whom we find in Cam- 
bridgeshire in 1273 (Huttd. R.), apparently an un- 
couth fenman whose name the ol^cial compiler gave 
up as a bad job. 

The accidental character of modem names is illus- 
trated by the fact that the same man is often found 
with more than one description. With Pubhus 
Cornelius Scipio Africanus we may compare the 
humbler Adam Kokke in le Grene Pulter {F. of Y.), 
whose descendants may, along with other possibilities, 
now be Adams, Cox, Green, or Poulter, and Ricardus 
le Nouthird de Stanley Porter (ib.), who may now be 
represented by Richards, Nothard, Stanley, and Porter. 
So with Ralph Thomasman Fairfax {Pat. R.), Edmund 
Johanserjaunt Emmesone {ib.), Walter le Hore de 
Elmham called Starling {City D.), William Jones- 
someter Burdelays {Pat. R.), Nicholas Rogersserjaunt 
le Norreys {Coram Rege R. 1297), Everard WiUiamsraan 
Attemersche (ib.), Richard W'illiamsserjaunt Pykerell 
{ib.), William Rogereswarener of Beauchamp of Son- 
day {Pat. R.). John le Cappeler, called " le prest " 
{City B.), appears in the same volume as John Prest, 
cappeler (hatter). This brings us to the fact, which 
may comfort some people, that irade-naraes were very 
often nicknames, e.g. Stephen le Espicer, called le 
Homere {City E.), William Priour, cossun, i.e. horse- 
dealer {ib.), John le Naper, King's huntsman {Chart. R. 
1259), Elias Webster dictus Harpur {F. of Y.), Walter 



le Taillour, vicar of Crediton {Chanc. R.). It is pretty 
obvious that a man could not be Prentice by trade, 
nor could the Mawer or Plowman make much of a 
living by " mowing " or " ploughing " alone. Many 
names of this latter type date back to the manorial 
system, under which tenants had to put in a certain 
amount of time in mowing, ploughing, hedging, etc., 
for their masters. 

Just as a well-established medieval name must 
have modem representatives, a well-established modem 
name must occur under some form in medieval records. 
By a well-established modem name, I do not mean 
one which is chiefly attested by the contemporary 
London Directory, or even in our great manufacturing 
centres, for these may be of Huguenot or later foreign 
origin, but one that has a regional existence dating 
back for a few centuries. This brings us to the ques- 
tiOTi of modem sources. For a general dissertation 
on surnames the London Directory ' is sufficient. For 
the historical investigation of the subject it is useless. 
The method must be regional, and a great historical 
Dictionary of Surttames can only be compiled when 
the names of every county have been scientifically 
studied. This task is now being gradually carried out 
for place-names, and perhaps surnames will one day 
have their turn. Just as the main features in the 
political history of a country could be inferred from 

> I generally ase tbe edition of 134a, which, appeaxing before the 
conquest, is comparatively free from such misleading forms as 
Arbiter, Ger. Arbeiter, Frtedman, Frtedemann, Bloomingfitld, 
Blnmenfeld, BrilUsHppar. BriilensctUeifer, kns grinder. The 
modem Directory is full of such names, sometimes half translated, 
e.g. AUitottte, DiamondsUin, or folly, e.g. Batkmaker, BriUianhtont, 
or wrongly, e.g. Coopgrstnith, Knpfefscbmied, copper-emitb. 

D,g,„.«n„ Google 


a study of its language alone, so the history of each 
couBty and region, political, ethnical,> and industrial, 
is imbedded in its surnames. 

For even now our population is largely stationary 
in abode. The Welsh milkman comes to London, 
drives his cart for twenty years, and then builds him- 
self a snug villa on the coast of Cardigan Bay. If he 
remains in London, his dynasty generally dies out 
within a few generations. Moreover, in most families 
some members, at any rate, remain on the native soil, 
and there are now probably many people inhabiting 
the very spot where their ancestors dwelt when Domes- 
day Book was compiled. It is sometimes thoi^ht 
that all names get to London sooner or later. They 
may do so, but they do not remain, and I do not 
believe that half of our surnames of long standing are 
represented in the London Directory. 

The name Fillery is a good example of stationary 
character. The only FtUery ' I ever heard of used to 
bowl for Sussex some thirty or forty years ago. From 
the Percy Cartulary I find that Henry Filleray or 

I Here i* a concrete example. Gappy, Homes of Family Namat 
<P- 53)< uya, "The isolated coloojr ol the Norfolk Howells and 
Powelli invites some further explanation." I have also been stmck 
by the frequent occmrenco of Welsh names in medieval Norfolk. 
In an early volume of the PtOtnt Rolls I find that Hnmfrey de 
Bohun, Earl of Hereford, complains that while he was abeent in 
Wales on the King's service, assaalts were committed on the ser- 
vants of his household ai Norwich. Were there among these ser- 
vants some Welshmen from the Marches who settled down and 
married Norfolk wives 7 Some such solution is no doubt the true 
one. In Canada at the present day there are plenty of Macdonalds , 
Macgregors, etc., who speak French only, being descendants c^f 
disbanded Highland soldiers who took to themselves Frencti,- 
Canadian wives in the eighteenth centnry. V 

* I have since found the name in a casualty list ol the Sussex! 

D,g,t,.?<l I,, Google 


Fyleray, also called Fiz le Rey, i.e. king's son, was a 
Sussex landholder in the thirteenth century. The 
casualty lists now being issued tell the same tale. 
In to-day's (Feb. 11, 1915) paper occurs Wyartt, the 
name of a private in the Suifolks, and, opening 
Bardsley, I find his first example is Lena Wyard, 
(Hund, R., Suff.), My own name, which is very im- 
common, is derived from a village in Northants. It 
has occurred in the casualty lists as that of a pri%^te 
in the Northamptons. Peverall is foimd among the 
Sherwood Foresters, largely recruited from the Peak 
coimtry. The famous name Paston naturally occurs in 
the Norfolk Regiment. Himdreds of similar cases could 
be quoted. It is among the rank and file also that we 
find the great Norman names (Marmion, MaUravers, 
etc.), which have almost disappeared from the peerage. 
The best single source for modem names is un- 
doubtedly the Return of Owners of Land, officially com- 
piled in 1873 and generally called the Modem Domes- 
day Book {MDB.). From the two volumes devoted to 
England and Wales we find that, contrary to the 
opinion of the stump orator, the land of the country 
is held by nearly a miUion people, the immense majority 
of whom are small holders of the peasant class. As 
the return is by counties, it is easy to trace the names 
regionally in all their forms and corruptions, and to 
establish the locality in which any givoi surname 
first came into existence. Very often we may find 
the more correct form still borne by the squire and 
all manner of perversions represented by the cottagers 
who are his distant cousins. An odd-looking name 
can often be solved by a comparison with its neigh- 
bours. When we find Bathos by the side of Batimrst 



we recognize a natural corruption. The last -five 
names in /- in Essex are Judd, Judson, Justums, Jut- 
son, Jutsum. Here Jud, i.e. Jordan, has given the 
patronymic Judson, allied to Jutson as Hudson has 
become Hutson. Then our love of iinal -m (cf. Bran~ 
som, Hansom, Sansom) has produced Jutsum, from 
which, with a common metathesis (cf. Cripps for 
Crisp), we get the new patronymic Justums. When we 
find Phizacfclea in Lancashire, we hardly need the 
intermediate Phizakarley, or the imitative Fitmckerley, 
to guide us to the original Faiakerley, the name of an 
ancient parish now absorbed in Liverpool. In the 
East Riding we find MainpHce in the same locaUty as 
the perverted Mamprize, and even Mempriss, Mim- 
press, Mainpidge. If a name occurs in isolation, and 
no rapprochement with characteristic names of the 
county is possible, we have to do with an imm^rant 
whose kin must be sought elsewhere. In this way 
we can to some extent cover the same ground which 
would be explored in the impossible undertaking of 
examining the parish registers of the whole country. 
As a matter of fact, many of the surnames which 
seem to defy interpretation are found copiously 
represented in special districts. A few hours devoted 
to turning over the leaves of the MDB., or even a 
glance at Guppy, reveals the existence of numbers of 
imfamiiiJir names which surprise by their forbidding 
tmcouthness. The explanation is that they repres^it 
the name of some medieval homestead, swallowed up 
centuries ^o by the growth of towns, or even some 
field-name ; or they may spring from some dialect 
word which had died out before dialects became a 
matter of interest. Some of them m^ht be solved 



by local antiquaries, but they defy the phiblogist. 
Such are Benjafield, which swarms in Dorset, Bosom- 
worth, common in Yorkshire, Cudtipp,^ found all over 
Devon, EtUicknap, common in Surrey and Sussex, 
and the great Cumberland name Routledge. 

Altogether local distribution must be taken into 
account in proposing an etymology. Bardsley derives 
GodsaU, Godsell from Godshill (Isle of Wight) ; but it is 
almost entirely a Gloucestershire and Herefordshire 
name [Geoffrey de Godeshale, Fine R., Glouc], In 
Norfolk and Suffolk we find Garwood existing strongly 
side by side with Garrood, Garrod, Garrett. This sug- 
gests that Garwood, sometimes local (garth wood), is in 
these countiesalso the representative of AS. Gserweard, 
' with a change siich as we find in Grimwood from 
Grimweard. The northern Yarwood is the same name. 
In the same region we find the similar parallehsm of 
Legwood, Legood, Leggotl, all probably from AS. Leod- 
geard, of which Leggett is the regular diminutive. 
Gaunt has two well-attested origins, the gaunt [Gilbert 
le Gant, Fine R,], and of Ghent [Richard de Gaunt, 
City F.]. But the home of the name is Lincolnshire, 
which is also, as a fen country, one of the great centres 
of bird nicknames. In that county the crested grebe is 
called the gannet, or gant, and hence we may conclude 
that most of the Lincolnshire Gaunts take their name 
from the bird — 

" These biids fr«qu«iit . . . the great east fen in tincolnshire, 
where they are called gattnU " (Pennant). 

The fairly common name Bray has two quite clear 
local origins, viz. from one of the many places in France 

I This may be identical with Cutcliff, common in the same county, 
but neither ia this a specific pUce-name, 

n,<jv.<!h, Google 


called Bray, and from Bray in County Wicldow [Robert 
de Bree, provost de Develine,' Doc. III.]. No doubt 
Bray in Berks must also be considered. But the great 
home of the Brays is Cornwall, and Benedict le Bray 
(Close R., Cornwall) shows it to be a nickname from 
a Cornish adjective meaning " fine, brave." 

Finally, in dealing with nicknames, it must be 
remembered that, extraordinary and numerous as 
medieval nicknames are, many of them have gone 
unrecorded. As we have seen (p. i6), many indi- 
viduals, in fact perhaps the majority, had four names, 
of the t5T>e John Wilson at Town's End Saddler. But 
most John Wilsons had a fifth name, such as Whitehead, 
Shor^se, Nightingale, or Dolittle, and this fifth name 
stood the poorest chance, as a rule, of getting into 
ofhcial records. Therefore, although no solution of 
a name can be accepted as final without documentary 
evidence, it is at least probable that no common 
adjective or noun that could conceivably be used as 
a nickname is altogether absent from our surname list. 

The study of surnames may be regarded as a harm- 
less pastime or as a branch of learning. As a pastime 
it is as innocent as stamp-collecting, and possibly as 
intellectual. As a branch of learning it is an inex- 
haustible, and bith^to practically tmworked, mine 
of philological knowledge. A complete dictionary of 
Enghsh surnames would not only form a valuable 
supplement to the NED., but would in a great measure 
revolutionize its chronology. This may seem of Uttle 
practical importance at a time when our leaders of 
science, a word which used to me£m knowledge, are 
exhorting us in unattractive English to do away with 
' Dublin, hence tbe common Irish Devlin. 



" ce vfeux fatras de grec et de latin " and bend -all our 
efiorts on transforming the risii^ generation into a 
nation of super-plumbers.' Butamong the little band of 
aUardis who rally round the tattered flag of intellectual 
pursuits, there will always be some to whom the study 
of our glorious language will have an irresistible appeal. 
Now language consists of words, and the oldest 
articulate words are names. It is more or less an 
accident that some of these, having become proper 
names, are excluded from the dictionaries. Others 
still discharge a double function and are equally 
the prey of the lexicographer and the name-hunter. 
Dictionaries draw, as a rule, on literary sources, i.e. 
on language which has already reached a somewhat 
artificial phase of evolution, but in the names and 
nicknames of the Middle Ages we hear the every- 
day speech of our ancestors, a disconnected speech 
perhaps, and without that thread of continui^ 
which enables us to trace the dictionary word back 
through the centuries, but all the same a speech which 
is generally far older than Ut^ary records. Among 
words which occur as surnames in this volume there 
are few of which the examples do not ante-date by 
some centuries the earliest records in the NED. This 
applies especially to obsolete or dialect topographical 
words' (ch. iii.), and to trade-names' (ch. v.). 

> These gentlemen are apparently unaware tbat the oncannr 
efficiency of the Germans is not dae to the neglect of " nseless " 
BtndieB. Even in sach a by-way of knowledge as the study of 
samames, almost the only work that can be taken serionsly has 
been done by Germans or German-trained philologists. 

■ See, for instance, Borstall (p. 54), Fostall [p. 60). 

■ The NED. baa cfietstMongtr (c. 1510], guilt«r (1S63), chamoman 
(1596). The first two are aumames in the Pipe R. for 1186, and 
Alice Charwoman lived in Nottingham in the fourteenth century. 

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But there is hardly a noun or an epithet which can 
be hsed as a nidcname, apart from the everyday 
Anglo-Saxon vocabulary, which is not found in the 
Rolls long before its first appearance in Uterature. 
The nocturnal mammal called a "bat" is usually 
bakke in Middle English, and this is one origin of the 
name Back [Henry le Bak, Coram Rege R. 1297] — 

" Mold^warpia and baches, var. rer«-myis " (Wye /*. li. 30), 

The NED. dates the form bat from c. 1575. But it 
is a common thirteenth-century nickname [Geoffrey 
le Bat, Fine R., Reginald le Bat, Hund. R.l and 
of course one origin of Batt. * 

The study of surnames also reveals the existence 
of a large Anglo-French vocabulary which is other- 
wise almost unrecorded. These words must have 
been colloquially current during the period when 
the two elements were in process of fusion. In the 
long run they were rejectal in favour of the native 
equivalents and dropped out of the language, except 
in so far as they had become fossihzed as surnames. 
Examples of such words will be found passim in this 
volume, but they are chiefly illustrated by nicknames 
taken from adjectives or derived from names of birds 
and beasts. These two great classes of surnames, 
which would require a volume to themselves, are not 
included in the present work. One, unfortunately 
obsolete, nickname of this type may, however, be men- 
tioned here. Our familiar " pussy-cat," a word that 

■ Also from BarUioIomew and from th« AS. B»orkt- I'wni'w. 
Probably also an archaic ^>eUing of "boat" [Stephen del Bat, 
Clott B.y, cf. Bargt, Gailey, etc. (p. 171). Baleman is no doubt 
•onwtintes for " boatman." 

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we should expect to find in popular use long before it 
was put down in black and white, is a modernized 
" puss-cat " — 

'■ Mieia, » {nutt-hat, a. kitlin " (Floiio). 

The NED. first finds it in 1565. But it was a sur- 
name three centuries earlier — 

" Ityt le Messer vnlneravlt Robertnm Pnsekat Jnxta pontem do 
Corebrigge, ita quod statun obiit " (Nortfmmb. Ass. R, 1356). 

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" It seemeth to have been the manner, at givii^ of names, to 
wish the children might perform and discharge their names, as 
when Gnnthram, King of the French, named Clotharius at the font, 
he sud, ' Crescat pner et hujus sit nominis executor ' " (Camden), 

The names in use among all the Germanic races, 
including Scandinavia and Iceland, go back to that 
period in the history of the world when all men seem 
to have been poets. When we consider the beauty 
of the oldest of these names, their picturesque connec- 
tion with gods and heroes, war and the wilds, and with 
the great elementary abstract concepts which we no 
longer understand, and compare with them the name 
creations of the Romans, and still more of the Middle 
Ages, commonplace, prosaic, spiteful, or obscene, we 
feel thankful that there was once an age of poetic 
bandits and imaginative pirates. These Teutonic 
names were originally all dithemetic,' i.e. each name 

■- This very natural formation is common to the Aryan races, 
with the lather striking exception of the Romans. The chief Celtic 
names exemplify it, e.g. Donald, world-wielder, " much the same 
meaning as Dumnorix " (Macbain), Dugald, black stranger, i.t. 
Dane, Duncan, brown wamor, Morgan, sea-white. It is seen also 
in Oriental names, snch as the Biblical Absalom, father of peace, 
Jeremiah, exalted of the Lord, Jonathan, the Lord's gift. This 
latter is a very foivouiite comlHnation ; cf. Godiva (Godgifu), 
Theodore, DoroUiea, Deodatus, Dieudonn6, etc. So alsoinAr&bie 



consisted of two elements, e.g. Alfred, fairly counsel, 
and there can be no doubt that in the earhest times 
the elem^ts were understood by those who bore the 
names, as were the Greek names which they so strik- 
ingly resemble in structure and spirit. This resem- 
blance has often been pointed out, e.g. Godwin, God 
friend, Theophihis, Folkard, people strong, Demos- 
thenes, Sehert, Sebright, victory bright, Njcophanes. 

At the period with which our historical documents 
deal, these names had largely ceased to have a real 
meaning. The elements of which they were composed 
were drawn chiefly from the archaic and poetic lan- 
guage and these elements were often combined so as to 
make no sense. A very common practice in naming 
children was to compound the name from that of the 
father and mother, somewhat after the practice fol- 
lowed by modem racehorse owners. Or one element 
persisted in a family, e.g. in the six generations from 
Edward the Elder to Edgar Atheling practically all 
the kings and royal princes have names in Ead, 
bliss. The elements are juxtaposed without anything 
to show their grammatical relationship, so that in 
interpreting them one can only indicate the graieral 
idea which each half expressed. Still, there are many 
examples of these compound names which still occur 
in Anglo-Saxon poetry as common nouns, e.g. Gold 
wine, gold friend, whence our surname Goldwin,^ is 

Abdallah meana "servant oi God" {cl AS. Godesceak), Salftdin 
is " honotir of the &uth," cmd Nureddin, the name of the Turlcisb 
commanda in Mesopotamia, means " Lght of the faith." 

> Hence also Jeudmn, an Anglo-Fiench form [Richard Joldewin 
or Jeodewyne, IpM.]. Jawdewin's Lane, Oxford, was peihaps 
named after Richard Jeodewjrue, who is mentioned in the Godstow 

n,r.^^<!t.y Google 


used of a liberal patron, Heremaiui, army man, whence 
Harman, means a warrior, Maegenheard, might hard, 
our Maynard, is found as an adjective in the sense of 

Of the names dealt with here the great majority 
are common to the Teutonic languages, with certain 
small differences according as the forms are German, 
Scandinavian, or Enghsh. Some belong especially 
to one or other of these language groups, e.g. the 
names which contain the elements Brand, flame, sword, 
Cytel, cauldron, are Scandinavian, while those in 
-nand, bold, e.g. Ferdinand, are continental and of 
rare occurrence in Anglo-Saxon, In the following 
paragraphs I give the names in the normahzed West- 
Saxon spelling, from Searle's Onomasticon Anglo- 
Saxonicum, calling attention occasionally to the Norse 
or continental forms and the surnames which they 
have produced in English and other languages, I have 
already (Romance of Names, ch, vii.) mentioned a 
number of obvious examples. Here I have rather 
selected those of which the origin is not immediately 
apparent or which have an unusual appearance. The 
great variation in the modem Enghsh forms is due 
to many accidents of time and place, but chiefly to 
the fact that the same name has often reached us 
through different channels — EngUsh, French, and 
Flemish. Possibly some of them are really Celtic 
names which have assumed an imitative form. It is 
thought, for instance, that Cerdic may be for Cradock, 
Caractacus, If thisisso, Scott was doubly unfortunate 
in choosing a Welsh name for a typical Anglo-Saxon 
and then turning it into the ghost-name Cedric. 

The Teutonic name-system was carried into every 



comer of Europe, first by the Vikings, and later by 
those valiant Norman knights who were in the habit 
of setting out with a handful of followers to carve 
themselves out a kingdom. Thus Roderick, fame 
mighty, is found as wide apart as Wales (Pr other o,Ryne, 
Prytherick) and Russia (Rurik), and has named such 
national heroes as the Spanish Cid (Don Rodrigo), 
Roderick Dhu, and Rory O'More. For fuller informa- 
tion on the historic warriors and saints who caused 
certain names to be popular in special regions those 
interested should consult Charlotte Yonge's Christian 
Names, a book which contains a vast amount of learn- 
ing couched in gracious form, though the etymological 
theories put forward are sometimes inaccurate and 
out of date. 

Most of the elements ' used in these names can be 
put indifferently first or last, e.g. Hereric, whence 
Herrick, Richere, whence Richer, Reacher. Some are 
used only initially, e.g. Mesgen, as in Msegenfrith, 
whence Manfred, others only finally, e.g. -laf, as in 
Frithulaf, now Freelove, or -mund, as in Frithumund, 
whence Freetnont. Generally the gender of the second 
theme corresponds with that of the person, e.g. names 
in the feminine nouns -thryth and -hild were given to 
females only. Examples are jEthelthryth, Awdrey, 
Gierthrytb (Gertrude), Gartrude, and the two fierce 
queens Brunehild and Chriemhild. But this was not 
a fixed rule ; there are, for instance, many male 
names ending in the feminine -muitd. 

The elements which enter into the composition of 

Teutonic names fall into various groups, such as 

deities and supernatural beings, animals, abstract 

' The meaungB of these elements are diKuued farther on. 

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ideas, weapons, titles and epithets, adjectives. The 
chief divine elements are God, Ans, Ing.^ The great 
names of Odin and Freya seem to have been avoided, 
but Thor is very common. The element God appears 
to have been often felt as identical with good. 
Hence, perhaps, the later forms such as Goodrich, 
Goodwin, and also the shortened Good, which is by 
no means always a nickname. Here belong such 
apparently insignificant names as Gohh, Gobbett, 
Gobby, shortened from such compounds as Godbeorht 
(Theophanes), Godbeald (Theocrates). The latter 
survives in full as GodboU and Goble, while the 
fonner is represented in French by Gobert and Joubert. 
Shortened forms of God names are German Goethe 
and Italian Giotto. It appears also as the second 
element in many modem Enghsh surnames, e.g. 
Wingood, from AS. Winegod, Osgood, Hosegood, Horse- 
good, from AS. Osgod. 

The Aasir, as Miss Yonge calls them, the Ansen as 
they axe named by the Germans, w^e the divine race 
inhabiting Asgard, the Norse Olympus. This very 
interesting prefix, which may be taken as almost 
equivalent to God, appears in three forms. The Norse 
is As, the Anglo-Saxon is Os, and the German is Ans. 
From Ascytel we have Ashkettle and the contracted 
Askell, Astell, etc., while in France a kind of com- 
promise between the Norse and German forms produced 
Anquetil, introduced into England as Ankeitle. So 
also Fr. Angot is the doublet of Osgood. In Haskell 
we have the common addition of the aspirate [Has- 
chetill Werglice, Salisbury Chart.]. Several surnames 

> The final -ing, vhich appears in an immenBe oumber of uamei 
derived from Anglo-Saxon, was a tribal or patronymic anffix. 



preserve the Anglo-Saxon form {Osborn, Osman, Osmond, 
Oswald, etc.), while the German gave the famous 
Anselm, whence our Ansell, Hansell and the Dutch 
dim, Enstin. Ing, the name of a demi-god, seems 
to have been early confused with the Christian angel 
in the prefix Engel, common in Germfin names, e.g. 
Engelhard, anglicized as Engleheart.^ In Anglo- 
Saxon we find both Ing and Ingd. The modem 
name IngoU represents Ingweald (Ingold), and Ingleit 
is a dim. of similar origin. The cheerful Inglebrigkt 
is from Ingelbeorbt. The simple Ing has given, 
through Norse Ingwar, the Scottish Ivor. 

The Norse Thor became AS. Tkur, which in the 
compound Thurcytel gave Scottish Torqxiil (whence 
MacCorquodaU), and our Thurkettle, Thurkell, Thurtle, 
ThirkeUle, Thirkell, Thirkhill. Turtle, and TutUe,' as 
in TutOebee. from Thirldeby (Yorks). Thoroughkettle 
is found in the eighteenth century. Turketine may be 
formed in the same way as Anketin, Rosketin (p. 33), 
but Henry de Turkedene (Glouc. Cart.) suggests a local 
origin, from Turkdene (Glouc.) with the ending 
changed as in Heseltine (Hazeldean). Other com- 
pounds of Thor are Thurgisl, whence Thurgell, 
Thui^ar, now Thurgar, and Thiu^rith, the wife of 
Hereward (Torfrida), surviving as Turfery, Tuffery, 
Tollfree. The Thur names did not flourish in 
Germany, but the Norsemen took them to France, 
whence as Turbert, Turgis, Turpin, they came to 
England and gave Turbott, Turgoose, etc. The very 
conunon Thiustan became in France Tustain, Tustin, 

■ This may, how«ver, bo native [Petrcmilla f. Engelliert, Fine R.] , 

■ This baa also a local origin, from lootXili, a watcb-towec — 
" David dwdlide in the tota hil " (Wye. 2 Sam. v. 9). 

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Tuiin, all now well-established English surnames. I 
fancy that this will one day be found to be the 
origin of the supposed Celtic Tristram, of which 
the oldest form appears to be Durstan. Tarbath is 
a curious corruption of Thurbeorht and Tarbun of 

With these mythological names maybe grouped those 
in Ealk, temple, and the legendary Hun, giant.andMlf, 
fairy. In connection with the first it should be noted 
that four of the conunonest Anglo-Saxon elements, 
Mlf, Mthel, EaU, Ealh, very easily became confused, 
especially after the Conquest, and hence modeni sur- 
names in AU, AyU, EU {Alwin, Aylward, Elwin) may 
belong to any of them. We find historic Ealhfriths 
who were known also as Alfrith and Alfridus, which, 
as surnames, would easily fall together witii those 
derived from jElfred and ^Ifric. So Aymer, Aylmer, 
may represent, and does in individual cases, both 
^Ifmaer and jEthelmjer. The most famous name in 
Ealh is EaBiwine (Alcuin), which survives as Allchin, 
Alhin, and is perhaps not altogether foreign to Hawkins. 
Allcard is AS. Ealhheard, while Fr. Aucher corresponds 
to AS. Ealhhere, and may be derived directly from 
it, as the corresponding element is scarcely found in 
continental German names. Names in Mlf are very 
numerous and correspond to continental forms in Alb. 
Thus our Avery, less commonly Affery, Affray, Allfree, 
which stands for both jElfred and ^Ifric, is the same 
as Fr. Aubrey from Alberic. Alflatt, Elfieet, Elfiitt is 
from .Slfflaed, elf purity, Alliott from ^Ifgeat, Elver 
from ^Ifhere, Elvidge, Elvish from ^Ifheah, Elnough 
from iElfnoth, Elston from iEIfstan, Elwall from 
iEIfweald, and very probably Halsey from jElfsige, 



with the incorrect H-^ which we find in many names 
of this class. The tribal name of the dwarfish Huns 
was apphed, curiously enough, in Old German to 
legendary giants, and is still so used in poetic style. 
It is not common in purely Anglo-Saxon names, though 
we have a few good examples, e.g. Hunfrith, whence 
Humphrey, and Hunbeorht which is Fr. Hun^tert and 
appears also in the Ger. Humperdinck. Hunbeald is 
so rare that we dare hardly invoke it to explain our 
Honeyball, but it is represented by Ger. Humboldt. 

When we come to tiie names of animals which were 
used in the formation of human names, we naturally 
find a great difference between the Greeks and the 
Teutons. Among the former we find chief honour 
paid to the lion (Leonidas, Timoleon), and the horse 
(Philip, Hippolytus, Xanthippe). To the old Teutons 
the lion was unknown, though the rather late name 
Leonard, lion strong, formed from it, appears in most 
European languages. The horse was also of little 
account on the salt seas and in the German forests, 
and the legendary nicknames of the Jutish mvaders, 
" staUion" and "mare" (Hengist and Horsa), alluded 
to their flag, on which the white horse was a strange 
exotic beast to be classed with dragons and grifgns. 
The only commcm Anglo-Saxon name formed directly 
from " horse " is Roscytel. This is fairly common in 
Middle Enghsh, and still survives as Roskill [Swein 
f. Roskil, Pipe R.], while the derivative Rosketin 

1 Examplea &re HaUhard (OF. Acbard), Hanstll {p. Ji), 
Haskett (p. 30), Hasltelt (AS. AbUc], Hosmt (AS. Otnuer), uid 
Hmuard, from OF. Ansard, OG. Anahard. The vM of " Huisaid " 
by modem writers on economics in the sense of b member of tbe 
Haose League is a blunder. The first example of this use in tbe 
NED. is dated 1833 1 

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(cf . Anketin from Anscyte!) has given Ruskin [Andrew 
Rosekin, Pat. R.]. The original Roskill has generally 
been swallowed up by Russell. Rosamond, Roseman 
contain the same element, but axe of continental origin. 
For the Teutons the two kings of the forest were 
the bear and the boar, in connection with which we 
observe a very curious phenomenon. Beorn, so com- 
mon in Anglo-Saxon names, means warrior, while in 
Norse and German it means bear. Eofor, equally 
common, means boar in Anglo-Saxon and German, but 
warrior in Norse. In each case one langtiage has 
personified the formidable beast into a htmian being. 
Any modem Barnard or Everett is therefore etymologic- 
ally a strong bear or boar, or a strong warrior, accord- 
ing as his ancestry is pure Anglo-Saxon or continental. 
The favourite Be&rn name was Beornheard, whence 
Burnard, Burnett, Barnard, Barnett, etc. It has also 
many derivatives in French and German (Behrens, 
Bernhardt, etc.). Other names of this group which 
have survived are Beomheah, now Barnish, Burnage, 
Burnish (cf. Alphege, Elvish, from ^Ifheah), Beoniher, 
one origin of the common Fr. Bernier, and of our 
Berner, Beomstan, now Burnstone, Beomweald, now 
Barnwell, Bernal, Bumell, and BeomwuLf which would 
give the same result, but some of the EngUsh names 
here enumerated have an alternative origin. The 
same element is final in Sigebeom, now Siborne, 
Thurbeome, now Thorburn, Wigbeom, now Whyborn, 
etc. The simple Ber does not appear in Anglo- 
Saxon names, but Fr, Beraud, Beroalde, OG. Berwald, 
is the chief source of our Barrett. But the most inter- 
esting of the "bear" names in Fr. Birenger, OG. 
Beringar. It was very popular in England and shows 

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the common confusicai of -r-, -/-, -«-, in the moduli sur- 
names Barringer, Berringer, Ballinger, Bellinger, Ben- 
ninger [John Beringer or Beniger, IpM.]. Its latest 
transformation is BeUhanger. Eofor is less common in 
Anglo-Saxon than the corresponding Eber in Gennany 
(Ebers, Eberlin, etc.), and it is possible that the 
favourite Everard, Everett came to us from Eberhard, 
via Old French. But AS. Eoforwine, besides giving 
Evermn, has run riot with the vowels ' in Erwin, Irwin, 
Orwin, Urwin. 

Quite as important as the bear and the boar are 
the mysterious wolf and raven, the companions of 
Odin. AS. WtUf appears initially in a great number 
of names, and the modem name Wolfe, Woof, is some- 
times a shortened form of these rather than a nick- 
name. Most historical of all is the dim. Uliilas, the 
name of the translator of the Gothic Bible. Among 
compounds of Wulf are Wulfgar (Woolgar), Wulfrioth 
{Woolnough), Wulfred, Wulfric {Woolfrey, Woolfries), 
Wulfstan, whence the local Wolslenholme and Wolston- 
craft, Wujfwig (Woolley), and Wulfwine (Woolven, 
Woollen). In the Norse forms the initial has disap- 
peared, e.g. Ulph. Uff, and Uffendell, the doublet of 
the native Wolfendale, etc. In French these names 
replace initial W- by G- or Gu-, e.g. Golfier (Wulfhere), 
one source of our Gulliver and the origin of the local 
Montgolfier. Almost as numerous are the names in 
which -iffulf is final, but here the origin is generally 

I Oof nrnamea come from the dialects, and the dialects do aa 
the; like with the vowela, e.g. from Lamb we have Lomb, Lumb, 
conuoon Middle Eoglish fonaa, and aiao Lemm, Limb. LongiMtito 
Lang, Lung, Lmg, and pombLy aometimes Ling. CI the local 
CratiMom and Cranksham, the first element of which, meaning 
" crooked," also occnn as Crtnh-, Crink; Cronk; Cntnlh. 

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disguised,' e.g. Addle from ^thelwuH, with which cf. 
the fine German name Adolf and its atrocious " latiniza- 
tion " into Adolphus, Raddle, Rattle, from Raedwulf, 
Kinnell from Cynewulf, etc. In French names of 
similar origin the termination usually becomes -ouf, or 
-out, e.g. Burnouf, Renouf correspond to AS^ Brun- 
wulf, Regenwulf, while Raoul is our Ralph,* Relf, i.e. 

The raven appears initially in Rasfencytel, whence 
Rankill, Rjefenhild, which is one soiurce of RavehkiU, 
and Rffifensweart, now Ravenshear, Ramshire, Ramsher. 
Walrafen survives as Wallraven. The simple Raven, 
common also in place-names, is more often an Anglo- 
Saxon persona] name than a later nickname from the 
bird. The raven names are especially Norse, and the 
corresponding German names, and hence Old French 
names also, are not numerous, but we have con- 
tractions of OG. Raban in the well-known dithemetic 
names Bertram and Wolfram. More numerous are the 
eagle names, beginning with Earn in Anglo-Saxon. 
By far the commonest of these is Arnold, a favourite 
German name, which takes in Low German the form 
Arend, the source of the Norfolk name Arrand. It is 
rare in Anglo-Saxon, so the probabihty is that our 
Arnall represents rather the much commtmer Earnwulf . 
Two especially interesting Anglo-Saxon names are 
Eamthiir, whence the so-called Keltic Arthur, and 
Eamcytel, now Arkell, Arkle, Argles, ArkcoU, etc. From 
Arthur come the imitative Authors ^lnd Earthy. With 

I Endings sncb M -weald, -ami/, •AiM are ofUa coofoMd, e.g. 
Gunnell lepresenti both GanwuU and Gnnhild. 

* Ralph itself is, however, due to French iofineace, as is abown 
by the loss of the medial -d-. 

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the same group may be-classed the Norse Orm, dragon, 
serpent (worm), whence the famous Guthonn, still 
existing as Guthrum, Goodrum, while WormaU from 
Wurmbeald shows the Anglo-Saxon form. We have 
also a few names in Swan-, e.g. Swanhild, now Swannell ; 
but this is for AS. swan, a " swain " (see p. 42). The 
modem name Swan is more often a nickname. Many 
names similar to the above were used as cognomina 
by the Romans, e.g. Ursus, Aper, Lupus, Corvus, 
Aquila, but these were nicknames pure and simple. 

Among common Anglo-Saxon names we find no 
fewer than five elements. Bead, Gund {Outh), Heath, 
Hild, iVig, which contain the idea of war or battle. 
The names of Hildebrand and his son Hadubrand are 
thus identical in meaning. Sometimes these elements 
occur in combination, e.g. Gimbild (Gunnell), Heath- 
wig (Hadaway, Hathaway '), Other examples are 
Beaduric (Badrick, Batters), Gimdwine (Gunwin), 
Heathured {Hatred), Heathuwine (Hadwin), Hildegar 
(Hilger, Hillyar). Wigman (Wyman). Hilditch, Hildick 
looks local, but is AS. Hildheah, though the name is 
not in Se&ile [William f. Hildich, Close R.]. Wig is 
especially common as second element and is responsible 
for many names in -way which have a local appearance, 
e.g. EUway (^fwig), Harraway (Herewig), Kennaway 
(Coenwig), Goodway (Godwig), Redway, Reddaway 
(Rsedwig), Otway, Ottoway (Othwig), Bothway, Bother- 
way (Bodwig ■), and Hadaway (v.s.). So also in the 
first syllable we get Way-, as in Waymark (Wigmearc), 
Waygood (Wigod), alternating with Why; Wy~, as in 

» Atoo local, of the " heath way." 

■ Not in Seaile, but certified by the Nonnan ionn Bovig (DB.). 
and Alan But«w«y (Hund. R.). 

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WhyUrd (Wigbeorht). Whyborn, Wybum (Wigbeom), 
etc. With this group may be classed also names in 
Sige, victory, e.g. Sihbald (Sigebeald), Sibary, Sibrec > 
(Sigebeorht), Sinnott, Sennett (Sigenoth), Syreit, Secret 
(Sigered), Search,' Surch (Sigeric), Brixey (Beorhtsige) ; 
in Here, army, e.g. Folchexe, whence Folker, Fulker, 
Fulcher, Futcher, etc., Heregod, now Hargood; and in 
Far, danger, e.g. Faerman {Fairman* Farman, Fire- 
man). It is not impossible that our homely Farthing 
may sometimes derive from Faerthegn. 

Equally warlike are the numerous names derived 
from weapons. Arms of offence and defence are 
£sc, spear (ash), as in ^scwine [AshTBin). Bit, sword, 
as in Bilheard {Billiard), Bilweald (Billiald). Brand, 
sword (flame), as in Colbrand (Colbrain), Ecg, edge 
(of the sword), as in Ecgheard {Eachardj, Gar, spear, 
as in Gierwine (Garvin), Othgaer (Odgers), Helm, hebnet, 
as in Helmaer (Hdmer), Ord, spear point, as in Ordwig 
{Ordway), OnJgaer {Orgar), shortened also to Ord 
[Humphrey FitzOrd, Salisbury Chart.], and Rand, 
shield, as in RandwuU * (Randall, Rendle, Rundle), 
Beorhtrand (Bertrand), to be distinguished from Beorht- 
ram,' bright raven (Bartram). But some names in Bil 
belong to William, for we find WiUiam " dictus Byl " 
in the thirteaith century. Here belongs probably 
the dim. Billion. Brand is much commoner alone 
than in compounds, and has also become Brond. 

> For tbis rather nnnmal development cl the pronaociation of 

■ Rcf^oald Sericb or Serche (Coram Rage R. 1297). 

* Of tonne, also a nickname ; cL Pr. BMomme. 

* Randolph (shield ^wolf), RannU (raven woU), Radnli, Ralph 
(counsel wolf), are Beparate names, though often confased. 

■ Neither name is in Searle, They came to us through French. 

D,g,t,.?<i I,, Google 


GelHbrand, GilHhrand must represent Gislbrand [John 
Gilibrond, Lane. Ass. R. 1176-1285], though the name 
is not in Searle. Cytel, Ketel, cauldron (of the gods), 
is now found as Kettle, Kittle, Chettle, Cattle, etc., as 
well as initially in Keltleburn [Henry Ketelbem, 
Chart. R.], and in many names of local origin. 
Chitvers is for Cytelweard, found in DB. as Chilvert. 
Hence also Kilveri. 

Forming a transition from war to peace we have the 
important elements Burg, refuge, castle, and Mund, 
protection, as in Burgheard {Burchard, Burchett), 
Wilburg (Wilbur), ^thehmmd (Almond), Fjermund 
(Farrimond). Here also we might put Weard, guard, 
the derivatives of which easily get mixed with those of 
Heard, e.g. Coenweard (Kenward, Kennard). Frithu, 
peace, has given us many feivourite font-names which 
have later become surnames, e.g. Domfrith (Dumphrey, 
Dumpress), Frithugar (Fricker), Frithmund [Fiddy- 
ment*). To the last name, or to some other com- 
pound of Frithu, such as the once favourite Frithu- 
swith or Friswid, patron saint of the University of 
Oxford, belong Fiddy, Fiddian, Phythian, Phethean. 
This element often becomes fr«« in modem surnames, 
e,g. Freestone from Frithustan, Freelove from Frithulaf 
[Frelof Pollard, Chart, if.]. It also appears in Frizzle, 
Froyseii, which in Scotland has unaccountably become 
Frazer — 

"Simond* Fryul 
That was traytour and fykell " {Song, temp. Ed. I.] — 

1 Tb« r is lost, as in Biddy (Bridget), Fanny (Frances). 

■ The common Middle English use of Simond for Simon Boggeats 
that the modern Symonds, Simmondt is only occasionally from AS, 
Sigemand — " Symouni, I have nun thing for to s^e to thee " 
{W.yc. £.**#. vii. 40). 

D,g,t,.?<i I,, Google 


and in Fr. Froissart, represented by our Frushard, 

The importance of the tribal idea is reflected in the 
frequent occurrence of Folc, Lead, Theod, all meaning 
people, nation, e.g. Folcweard (Fotkard, Vaulkhard), 
Leodgar (Ledger), Theodric (Terry, Derrick, Dethridge, 
Deny, Todrick), Theodbeald (Theobald. Tibbies, 
Tipple. Tidball, Tidbald, Tidboald. Tudball, Deeble, 
Dipple, Tebbutt. DebuH, Dyball, etc). We have also 
the shortened Theed, Teed [William Thede, Hund. J?,]. 
With this important group may be compared the 
numerous Greek names in demos and laus. e.g. Demo- 
critus, Laomedon, Nicoderaus, Agesilaus, etc. The 
pubUc meeting of the tribe is commemorated by names 
in Mcsthel and Thing, both meaning assembly. From 
the first come A/awger, Ma/or (Msethelgjer), and Afaicr, 
Malabar, and Fr. Maubert (Msethelbeorht) ; from 
the second our Dingle. Tingle, a common personal 
name in Middle Enghsh [William Dingel, Hund. J?.], 
from AS. Thingwulf or Dingolf. Similarly Greek had 
names such as Anaxagores, Pythagoras derived from 
the agora, the market-place, which was to the Greeks 
what the forum was to the Romans. The modem 
surname Lawman may be AS. Lagmann, lawyer, the 
name of the poet whom we call Layamon, but the 
latter is so rare a name that it is probably safer to 
refer Lawman to I-awrence (cf. Jackman, Hobman, etc.). 

A very common element connected with authori^ 
is Weald (wield), rule, as in Wealdwine, now Walitnn, 
Wallen. but occurring much more commonly as a 
suffix, e.g. Beorhtweald (Brettle, Brittle), GrimbeaW 
(Grimble), Hygebeald (Hubble). Vl^inebeald {Wimble), 
etc. Property and its rights are represented by 



Geard, enctasure, "garth," Haga, enclosure, "haw," 
Mearc, mark, boundary, and Stan, stone, probably 
also in this case a boundary mark. Examples are 
Frithugeard {Freeguard), Haganfrith (Hen/rey), Wig- 
mearc {Wymark, Waymark), Goldstan {Galdstone), 
StaumxT {Stammer 5), SianheaM [Stumbles '^). To Haga 
belongs the famous Nibelung Hagen, while Hammond 
is Fr. Hamon, short for OG. Haganmimd. The Middle 
EngUsh contraction of Hagan was Hain — 

" HeyntiAVik a aewe cote and his wyf another'' [PUts PUmnum) — 

the origin of our Haines, Haynes, which may also be 
from the same word in its literal sense of hedge, en> 
closure. Land and sea have given us Lambert (Land- 
beorht), Saffrey, Savory {Sjefrith), Seagram, Seagrim 
(Saegrim), and especially Sagar, Sayers, Sears and 
many other variants (Saegaer). These compounds are 
often not to be distinguished fwm those of Sige {p. 38), 
e.g. Seawright may represent Saeric or Sigeric. 

From a very large number of abstract ideas we may 
select the following — Amal, work, as in AmaJric, 
whence, or from the transppsed Amalric. come, chiefly 
through French, our Amory, Amery, Emery, Imray, 
Imrie, while the Italian fonn Amerigo ultimately 
named a continent ; Dag, day, as in Ds^heard, 
Daggett, Diegmser, Darner, Daegmund, now Daymond, 
Dayman, Damant, etc., often altered to Diamond, 
and the shortened forms Dack and Day, the latter 
of which has other and more common origins; £111^, 
bless, the first element in so many Anglo-Saxon 

I Atan Stumbel {Pai. R.) ; d Rundie for RandU. " RonduU 
the/eve " [Purt Plowm. A. ii. 78) ia in the variants Rainald and 



names, some of which are now a little disguised, e.g. 
Ager, Adger from Eadgar, Admer from Eadmser ; 
Hyge, mind, courage, as in Hygebeorht, whence 
Hubert, Hubbard, Hibbert.Hobart, and the fevouriteME. 
Hugh from which we have so many derivatives{/fMg'g««s, 
Howckin, Hewlings, Hullett, etc.) ; Laf, remnant, as 
in Anlaf,' now Oliffe ; Maegen, might, as in Ma^enhild, 
one source of Meynell [Peter Maynild, Pat. R.'\ ; Nolh, 
fame, as in Nothgier, whence Ger. Notker, Fr. Nodier, 
and perhaps some of our Nutters ; Rad, counsel, of 
which the most popular compound was Riedwulf, our 
Ralph, Relf, Raw, and, via Fr. Raoul, Raoulin, our 
Rawle, Rawlin * ; Thane, thanks, as in Tancred or 
Tankard and Ger. Danckwertz. Most of these can also 
occur finally, e.g. jStheldseg, Allday, Ealdrsed, Aldred, 
AldriU. Alldread, etc. 

Besides Beom (p. 34), Anglo-Saxon used Mann for 
warrior, hero. This occurs as second element in a great 
number of compounds of a descriptive kind, e.g. 
Freoman {Freeman), Northman {Norman), Heardman 
(Hardman), etc., many of which are of course also 
nicknames of later formation. For servant we have 
Scealc, as in Godescealc, one source of Godselt, GtUsell, 
but much commoner in German {Gottschalk), and 
Sieegen or Swan,' usually occurring alone, Swain, 
Swan. All of these elements have poetically the 
meaning of warrior and in prose that of servant. 
Cttth, acquaintance, " kith," occurs in the favourite 
Cuthbeald and Cuthbeorht, the former of which shares 

> This Is the Anglo-Saxon form of Norse Olafr, Oliver. 
■ Rt^fe, Roff have often intercbuiged with this group, but Teaily 
represoit ON. Hrolfr, cognate with Ger. RudoU, fame wolf. 
' None and Anglo-Saxon forms of the same word. 



Cobbold with Godbeald, while the latter survives as 
Cobbat. CubiU. CuUell, Cottle may stand for either 
Cuthhehn or Cuthwulf. Wine, friend, is very com- 
mon both as initial and final, e.g. Winebeald (Winbolt), 
Gtedwine {Gladwin). The common Unwin, un-friend, 
enemy, is very rare as an Anglo-Saxon name, and must 
generally have been rather a nickname. Vinegar seems 
to be an imitative spelling of Winegxr. Gisl, hostage, 
is the first element of Gilbert, AS. Gislbeorht, but its 
popularity came through French. From Gislhere 
comes Ger, Gessler, the villain of the Tell myth. 
Thxurgisl is the origin of Thurgill, and alse of Fr. 
Turgis, whence Eng. Sturgess, and Todkill is earher 
Theodgikl, probably for Theodgisl. Waeltheof means 
the thief of slaughter, with a first element which we 
find in Valkyrie and Valhalla, while Fritbtheof, the 
hero of an ancient saga and a modem North Pole 
expedition, means thief of peace. Some authorities 
think the ending was originally -theow, servant, slave, 
which appears to survive in Walthew, WaUho, Waldo. 
Wiht, creature, sprite, is very common as first element, 
e,g. Wihtric, now Whittrick, Wightgar, now Widger. 
Another form, Uht, appears in the popular Uhtred, 
whence OugtUred and the imitative Outright. 

Among simple adjectives the commonest are Mthel, 
noble, as in ^Ethelweard {Aylward, Adlard, AUard) ; 
Beorhi, bright, as in Beorhtman {Brightman ; cf. Greek 
Androcles), Beorhtgifti (Brighteve), Beorhtmaer {Bright- 
more, Brimmer), also very common finally, e.g. 
Gundbeorht, whence Fr. Gondibert, our Gomhert, 
Gumpert, and Ger. Gompertz ; Beald, bold, as in Beald- 
hM-e (Balder), Ds^beald {Daybell, DabeU) ; Cene, 
keen, bold, as in Cenered {Kindred), equivalent to Ger. 


Conrad (Thrasybulus) ; Cyne, royal, as in Cynesige 
(Kinsey), Cynewulf {Kinnell) ; Deor, dear, as in Deor- 
weald (Dorrell, Durrdl) ; Eald, old, as in Ealdwig 
{Aldwy) ; Eorp, swarthy, as in Eorpwine (Orpen), 
common also in the shortened form Earp, Orpe , Freo, 
free, as in Freobeom (Freeborn) ; Grim, grim, as in 
Grimbeald (GrimbU), whence also, by a common meta- 
thesis, Gumbrell ' ; Healf, half, as in Healfdene {Hal- 
dane), the " half Dane " ; Heard, hard, strong, as in 
Heardbeorht, which has contributed to Herbert, Har~ 
bord, etc., Stanheard {Stanitard) and Gifheard {Giffard), 
the lattft rare in Anglo-Saxon, but a favourite Norman 
name (cf. Get. Gebhardt) ; Leof, dear, as m Leofsige 
{Livesey, Lovesey), Leofred and Leofric {Livery, Luffery); 
Hlud. loud, famous, rare in Anglo-Saxon, but very 
common in German names, e.g. Ludwig, Luther, whence 
Fr. Louis, Lothair, etc. ; Ric, powerful, rich, as in 
Ricbeald (Richbell), Ricweald {RiggalF), Ricweard 
{Rickard,* Rickwood, Record), Leofric [Leveridge, 
Loveridge) ; Snd, swift, vaUant, as in Snelgasr {Snelgar) ; 
Wacer, bold, as in Eadwacer {Edicker), corresponding to 
the continental Odoacer ; Wealh, foreign, as in Walkling, 
Waketing, a dim. of Old French origin, Vauquelin. 

Two common elements which hardly fall into any 
of the classes already mentioned are Regen and Gold. 
The former, related to Goth, ragin, counsel, seems to 
have been used in Anglo-Saxon as a simple intensive. 
From shortened forms of the common RegenweaW 
{Reginald, Reynold, Fr. Renaud), Regenheard (Reynard, 
Renyard, Fr. Renard), Regenhere (Rayner, Fr. Rignier), 

* For the chftngtt of vowel cf. Grimmttt, Grummetl, whidi are 
conunoD aids by sids in Lincolnshire. 

* Tbia ia also from Richard. 

D,g,t,.?<i I,, Google 


etc., we sometimes get Raine, Raines, while Raybould is 
from Fr, Reybaud, corresponding to Regenbeald. Gold 
occurs both as initial and final, e,g. Goldhavoc {Gotd- 
hawk), Goldwine {Goldwin, Jeudewin), Inggold {Ingold, 
Ingle) . Goldmore represents Goldmier, though this is not 
in Searle [Guldemorw. of Richard Astmund, Fine fi.]- 

The frequency with which any given Anglo-Saxon 
name occurs as a modem surname is not so much due 
to its wide use before the Conquest as to its associa- 
tion with some great personality. After the Conquest 
our baptismal system became, in the main, French, 
although the French names in use were largely c(^;nate 
with the Anglo-Saxon names which they superseded 
(see p. 10). But the memory of famous saints, Uke 
Guthlac and Cuthbert, or abbots Uke Thurcytel and 
Ealhwine, was reverenced in those districts where they 
had lived and worked, and their names were given to 
children bom of parents who had worshipped at their 

As we have noticed here and there, the modem 
surname often represents only the first element of the 
dithemetic personal name. A notable example is 
Pofc, which owed its popularity to the Angevindynasty, 
We fiBd among its variants. Folk, Fulk, Fewkes, 
Foulkes. Foakes, Fooks, Fowkes, Folkes, Volks, Vokes,^ 
and, with metathesis, Flook, Fluke, Fluck, Flux, while 
Fogg, Fuge, Fudge, Fuke are shortened from its com- 
pound Fulcher [Folker, Fulker, Futcher. Fudger, Volker, 

1 Hare aometiniM belooga Vatix, oeoaUy k»cal, from on« of 
many French place-wunes formed from vol. VaunkaU was one* 
■ manor beloDgtng to the notoriona Falkes de Bfiauti. Hi> duim, 
reaOy the nominstivQ of Falcon, Facon, mirvives a« Fakes, Fawkit, 
FtoMet, Ftggs. Though distinct from Fulk, the two names have 
b«en confnaed. 

D,g,t,.?<l I,, Google 


etc.). Foggathorp (Yorks) is Fulcartorp in DB., while, 
in tiie Coram Rege R. (1297), the same man is referred 
to as Henry Fulcher and Henry Fouch. The famous 
French name Foch is of course cognate. Other 
shortened names of this type, not akeady mentioned, 
are Oram from the Norse Orm [Drum solus. Lib, Vit.] 
and Worms from the Anglo-Saxon form, as in Wurm- 
here.frew, Ftow, from Freowine, whence Freut'Wjffwew, 
Gold, generally shortened from some such name as 
Goldwine, Main, Mayne, from Maynard or some otb^ 
compound of Magen, Wigg from one of the many 
Wig names. Winks, perhaps from Wincthryth (Ltfr. 
Vit.), etc. Many of these are simple, but a great 
many of our short names of Anglo-Saxon origin are 
very difficult to identify. This dif&culty is increased 
by the fact that names of this type are seldom recorded 
in the Rolls. The latter give almost invariably, in 
whatever language they are written, the font-name in 
its full conventional form. Occasionally a clue helps 
us, as in the case of Fogg and Fudge (v.s.), but the task 
of extending the work of Kemble ' by identif3ring the 
great mass of these names with their originals still 
awaits an enthusiast. 

N.B. — To have included many medieval examples 
would have made the foregoing chapter quite imread- 
able. The author's Dictionary of Surrutmes, if it is 
ever completed, will contain evidence of the survival 
and alteration of these Anglo-Saxon names. 

> In his pamphlet, The Nanus, Surnanus, and Nicknames of tM* 
Anglo-Saxont (Lond. 1846). Thii task has already been attempted. 
for GermaD, by Staick, in his Kottn^tmen der Gemutntn (^^eima, 

D,g,t,.?<i I,, Google 



" Nor indeed is he capable to beaie any nile or office in town or 
ccrantrey, who ia utterly aoacquainted witb John aa Okes and John 
aStileg" (Howbll, Forraint TrawU). 

Apart from the innumerable names derived from 
towns, villages and estates, we have a very large 
number which originate from features of the land- 
scape {Hill, Wood, Field), or from specific buildings or 
parts of buildings {Church, House, Kitchen). Many of 
the words from which such names come are quite 
obsolete or survive only in local dialect. Some of 
these, such as Hurst, Shaw, Thwaite, etc., survive very 
strtmgly in compounds, and are often curiously cor- 
rupted. For these, of which I have given a summary 
account in my Romance of Names, see ch. iv. Here 
I propose to deal rather with a number of obsolete or 
unfamiliar words which occur more often in tbeir 
simple form. A few others are included because of 
their peculiar use as surnames. The hst, though by 
no means exhaustive, contains a very large number 
of names which have never been explained, and the 
examples by which they are illustrated are usually 
some centuries older than the earliest records in any 
dictionary. A few others belonging to the same class 



will be found scattered about in other chapters of the 
book in which accident has led to their mention. 

In many cases names of this type are now specific 
place-names. We find constant refwences to " the 
Devizes," as to la Burcote, la Haye, la Poole, la Rye, 
la Sele, la Woodrow, etc., now known as Burcote, 
Hayes, Poole, Rye. Seal, Woodrow, but the entries 
show that the corresponding surnames often belong to 
the general as well as to the specific use of these words. 
In the early Rolls these names, or rather these addresses, 
are always preceded by prepositions, which have now 
generally disappeared. The following examples are 
put down just as they are printed in the Rolls : 

}ohn Abovebrok . . (Huad. R.) 

Roger Abovetun or Bovetnn (Pat. R.) 

Roger ad capud viU» de Weston {Coram Rege R. ngj). 

Laurance Atepleystoi 
Thomas Atteballyat 
Walter Attenovene 
Richard Atenoichaid 
John atte Chnrchestyghele 
Robert Attekirkstiel 
William Attelyhetewater 
Adajn BlakotbemoT * 
William Bithekirtce . 
Walter Biendebrok . 
Thomas Bihunde Watere 
John Binetheintbetowne 
GeofEiey Bynethebiok 
William Binoptheweye 
Richard Bysowthewiropel 
Ugbtred Bithewater 
William del Holewstret 
I^ul de Snbbiugo 
Richard de snt le Vile 
William de ant le Bois 

{Hund. R.) 


(F- 0/ V.) 

{Hund. R.) 

(Hund. R.) 

{Pal. R.) 

{F. 0/ Y.) 

(Cat. Gen.) 

(Exch. R.) 

(Close R.I 

{Fine R.) 

{Hund. a.) 

(Pat. R.) 

{Hund. R.) 

(Hund. R.] 

{Hund. R.) 


(Hund. R.) 


(Pat. R.) 

{Fine R.) 

A misprint for Bakothemor, back of the moor. 



Henry de ultra Aqna . . {Pipr R.) 

Edric de Ultra Usam ■ . . (Pipe R.) 

Henry in le Dyk . . (Leie. Bor. Rte.) 

Peter in leHawe . . . {Hund.R.) 

William in le Trees . . . (IpM.) 

John in the LaJie . . . {City A.) 

William Ithelane . . . (Fiw R.) 

William Inthemo . . . Ipine R.) 

Peter Oftheduiclkeyard . . (Ftn# R.) 

John Soorfleet . . . [Coram Regt R. 1297.} 

Walter snb Muro or Onderwal . [Ltic. Bor. Rtc.) 

William gnbtns Viam . {Norn. Vittarum Yprks.) 

Martin super loWal . . [Hu?ul. R.) 

William Surlewe . . . (Pat. R.) 

William ultra SwaUe . . (IpM.) 

Thomas under the Hon . {Coram Rtgt R. 1297) 

John uppe the Hull . . \pUas) 

Robert Wythouthetowa . (Hund. A.) 

Names in which the preposition has survived are 
still common in Enghsh as in other languages, e.g. 
Fr. Doutrepont, Ger. Zumbusch, Du. Bezuidenhout, 
south of the wood. At survives in many obvious 
names such as Atwood, AUewell. The following are 
less simple, Alhawes {haiv, a hedge enclosure), Atheis 
{hays, hedges), Athews (ME. kiwisc, homestead, whence 
Huish), Athoke (hook, bend), Atkey (quay), Alo, Atioe, 
Hatto {hoe, a sand-spit), Athoui {how, a hill). Attack, 
Attick, Attock (oak), Attenbarrow {barrow, a mound), 
Alirie{rye, seep. y2), Attrill, AS. ai tharehyUe[ThoTaa.s 
AtterhiU, Exch. R.]. Attread (reed), Attride (ME. nrte, 
ride, a small stream), Attru {trough, see Trow ; or per- 
haps from rew, street, row), Atiwooll (Wool,* Dors.), 
Atyeo (a Somerset surname, apparently from the river 

■ The Onse ; cf. SarUes. 

* I do not know the origin of this place-name, but AttaooU is a 
Dorset sotname, and this Boggests that Wool has sonu general 

D,g,t,.?<i I,, Google 


Yeo). AUerbury is " at the bury," i.e. borough, and 
though there is an Attenborough in Notts, the fact 
that Attenborough is found along with Atterbury in 
many counties si^gests that the two names are often 
of identical origin. So also Atherall, Attreall, at the 
heal (see p. 62). An interesting name of the same 
type is Athersmtth, ME. at tker smethe, or level field, 
for which see p. 77. Athersuch probably contains Sich 
(q.v.), but the ending may be Such, a variant of Zouck, 
Fr. soucke, a tree-stump. The reduction of At is seen 
in A'Barrow, A'Burrow, A'Hearn (comer), as in Abear 
(see p. 53), Avann (see p. 59), Agutter. In the 
latter name [Robert atte Gotere, Pat. R.] gutter means 
stream — 

" The guUr of waters " (Wye. H06. iii. 10). 

It seems to have been equivalent to gole, a channel, 
whence Gott [William atte Gote or de la GotCTe, of 
Boston, Pat. R.]. At- is also changed to Ad- and even 
Ed-, Et-, as in Edmead, Ethawes. 

Names such as Nash, Noakes, Nail are well known 
to be aphetic forms of atten ash, atten oaks, atten hall. 
With these go Niles, Nayland, Nyland [Thomas Atteny- 
londe, Pat. R.^, Norchard, Nendick (end dike). We 
also get aphetic fonns in which the initial A- alone has 
disappeared. The stock example is Twells, at wells. 
Here belong Tash (at ash). Taw [Athaw, v.s.), Toe, 
Toes (AUo. v.s.). Trill (Atlritl, v.s.), and probably 
Trood [Margaret atte Rude, Pleas.). The Border name 
Trodden may be from northern dial, roddin, a sheep- 

Occasionally the AF. al (a le) and a la seem 
to survive, e.g. Algate, Allchurch, Alipass. AUpike 



{HaUpike '), AUtoft, AUree, Allabyme (bum), but alter- 
native explanations could be given for most of these, 
e.g. the prefix may be aid, old, or Allabyme may be 
only an elaboration of Alabone, Allibone, which in its 
turn is a perversion of Alban [Hugh Alybon, Coram 
Rege R. 1297]. Allhusen seems to represent al and the 
old dat. plur. husunt, houses. But del, de la, are 
common, the former being often altered to dal, dil. 
dol. Examples are Ddahunte, Delahunty, Delhay, 
DaUicoat, Dallicott, Dallamore, Dillamore, Dollymore, 
Dellaway, Dilhway, Dolloway, Delbrtdge, Dealbridge, 
Dealchamber, Dillistones, Dallywaters, to which many 
more could be added. Dellow probably contains how, 
a hill [William Delhow, Hund. R.], while DeUm is 
for del ewe, water, also a common entry. 

Names in Du-, e.g. Dupree, Duppery, Fr. Duprf, of 
the meadow, Duberley, i.e. du Boulay (birch grove), are 
generally of more recent introduction from French. 
The retention of de in names of French origin, Danvers 
(Antwerp). Darcy (Arsy, Oise), Darcrs(Auvers,Mailche), 
Dorsey (Orsay, Seine-et-Oise), is common, but we 
seem also to have a few cases of this preposition 
coalescing with a purely EngUsh word. Such appears 
to be the explanation of Dash or Daish (ash) and Dash- 
wood, Delderfield ; cf. Nicholas Dinkepenne, i.e. of 
Inkpen (Chart R.). 

Besides the obvious Bycroft, By ford, Bysouth, Bylhe- 
way or Bidaway, Bythesea, Bywater, we have By- ' 
in Bygrave, Bygreaves, where the second element may 

' The aspirate iwed not trouble ns ; cf. Edwaid Hupconiehill 
(Stow), John Sterttaop (Clou R.). 

* In some cases this may be ttie noun by», homestead, e.g. Byat, 
Bytrs, Bitu, " by-honse," may mean the farm-honse. 

D,g,„.?<i I,, Google 


mean grove (ME. greve) or quarry, trench (ME. gr«/), 
Bygott, which beii^ a Lincolnshire name goes rather 
with GoU (v.s.) than with the nickname B^od (bigot), 
and Bying (see it^, p. 64). To these should, I think, 
be added Bidlake and Bidmead, BUmead, which con- 
tain the definite article, and probably Behagg, dial. 
hag, hedge, enclosure. For Overy, see p. 71. Names 
in Under- and Up- are iauly numerous and generally 
simple. UndreU is for Underhill and Upfll for Upfield 
or Upfold. With Upward cf. Downward or Downhard, 
Forward, Southward, etc. Sometimes in such names 
-ward is substituted for -wood {cf. Homeward for 
" holm wood," i.e. holly wood), but they are also to be 
taken literally. With Bartholomew Forward {Hund. 
R.) cf. Robert A vant {Ramsey Cart.) or Julian a Nether- 
ward (Hund. R.), evidently one origin of Netherwood. 
Downton and Upton must sometimes have been applied 
to men who lived " down town " and " up town " 

A few other prepositions occur sporadically. Inder- 
wick, Enderwick is ME. in ther wick, i.e. homestead, 
village, etc. The existence of Walter Underwater 
(Lane. Inq. 1205-1307) suggests that Bowater is for 
bove-water.^ Neathway is " beneath the way," and 
Withinshaw, if not a corruption of " withy shaw," 
willow wood, belongs to the same class. In Hindhaugh 
and Hindmarsh the prefix may have adverbial or 
prepositional force. 

The following are examples of obsolete, dialect, or 

obscure place-words which have given stunames. It 

will be noticed that they are mostly monosyllables of 

Anglo-Saxon origin, but they include a few Old French 

> Bom is older than aboM, 



words. Some are quite simple, but are mentioned 
because of their compounds. Others I am unable to 
explain. Quite a remarkable proporticm are names 
given to small strips of land, boundary ridges, trenches, 
etc. They seem to reflect the proprietary tenacity 
of the Anglo-Saxon. 

Bache, Batch, Bage. ME. bache, a river vall^ 
[Robert de la Bache, Pat. R.]. 

"Over bodies and holies " (Pwn Plowm. C. viii. 159). 

It is common in Cheshire place-names. Compounds, 
Greatbatck, Hurttbach. 

Bale, Bayles. AF. hail, an outer fortification, later 
replaced by bailey [Tessaunda del Bayl, Pat. R., John 
de la Baylle, Lond. Wills, 1258-1358]. Hence also the 
official Bailward. 

Ball. A common field-name in Somerset [John atte 
Balle, Kirby's Quest, Som.], The name has other 
and more usual origins. Newbatl is a corruption of 
Newbold, new building. 

Barff, Bargh. Northern forms of barrow, a mound 
[Thomas atte Barghe, Pat. R., Yorks]. 

Barih. Sheltered pasture for cattle or calves — 

" Wanne bank give lams 
Good food to theii dams " (Tosser). 

Bay. A dam or pool. Hence the common Cam- 
bridgeshire name Bays [John atte Bey, Hund. R., 
Camb.]. Bay is also a colour nickname [Robert le 
Bay, Testa de Nev.]. 

Bear, Beer, Bere. West-country word for wood, 
AS. hearu [Morin de la Bare, Huni. R., Dev., Henry de 



la Bear, ib., Elias de la Byere, ib.]. Compounds 
Langabeer, Conyheare, Shiltibeer and the deceptive 
Shebear. This is perhaps one origin of Byers ; cf. the 
parallelism of Bubear, Boohyer, in Somerset, but in 
this group of names there has been confusion with byre. 

Bent. Very numerous meanings in Middle English, 
ranging from bent grass to battle-field (see NED.). 
Also confused with Bend [Robert de la Bende, Testa de 
Nev.}. Compound Broadbent. 

Binks. Northern form of Banks [John de Nighen- 
binkes, i.e. near banks, F. of Y.]. See NED. The 
intermediate form was " benks " [Robert Neynbenkes, 
Bp. KeUawe's R^.]. 

Boak, Boakes. Northern form of balk, ridge, especi- 
ally as a boundary [Thomas del Bouke, 1429]. 
Boag is probably a variant. From balk also come 
Belk and BUke [Henry del Belk, ipM.. Norf.]. 

Boam. A common Derbyshire surname [John del 
Bom, ipM., Notts, 1279-1321]. I suppose it to be 
a phonetic variant of beam (p, 184). 

Boosey. A cattle-shed, byre, 

BorstaU, Burstalt. A winding hill-path, especially 
on the Downs [John Atteborstalle, Hund. R., Kent]. 
The example is just four centuries older than the first 
NED. record of the word. 

Boss. A conduit, fountain [Bartholomew de la 
Bosse, Close R.}. 

" Botits of water made at Belingsgate about the year 1433 " 

Breach. An opening, also fallow-land [Andrew de 
la Breche, ipM.}. 
Breeks, Brack. A northern dialect word, cognate 



with above and also used of rocks [Robert del Brek, 
Lane. Inq. 1310-33]. It is ON. brekkr, a brink. 

Brend, Brent, Brind. Brow of a hill [Simon del Brend, 
F. of Y., Richard del Brynd, »"6.]. 

Bremll, Browdl, Bruel. OF. breuU, wood, thicket 
[Simon del Bruill, Chart R.]. Part of Savemake Forest 
is called the " Broyl of Bedewind " in IpM., and the 
Broyle (Suss.) has the same origin. Cf. Fr. Dubreuil 
and df Broglie, the latter of which has given us BroUy, 

Brush. Broom, undergrowth, heather [Adam del 
Bnidie, Exch. R.]. Cf. Fr. Delabrousse, des Brasses, 
etc. Hence also Brushett (see p. 128, n. i). 

" Bmsslu to make bnuhea on, britytrt " (Palsg.). 

Budden. This surname is sometimes of baptismal 
origin [Ermegard Budxm, Hund. R.], from Bakiwin or 
from one of the Bod- names ; cf . Fr. Bodin. But it is 
also local, a variant of bottom, which occurs as bodan 
in one of the earhest Anglo-Saxon glossaries [Stephen 
de la Buden, Pleas. Hants]. It is still a Hampshire 

Buggins. ME. bugging, a variant of bigging, a build- 

" Cometh the maistei bndel brust ase a bore, 
Seith he wole mi bugging bnnge fnl bare." 

{Song 0/ tkt Husbandman, temp. Ed. I.) 

Buist. ON. bustadr, homestead, whence also the 
Orkney and Shetland Isbister. 

Bumhey. A quagmire (Nort and Sufi.). 

Burst. A br^tk in the land, from AS. gefrersf. It is 
so used in the Abingdon Chronicle [Hamelet de la 
Burste, Exch. Co^.]. 

Butt. A ridge or balk in pk)ughed land. Also a 



measure of land. But the surname Butt is often for 
Buck, altered in the same way as bat from bakke (see 
p. 24) [Roger le Buc or But, Close R., Hugh le But, 
Pat. R., James le But, ib.]. 

Cage. This may go with Penn, Mewis (p. 98), 
etc., or may be connected with a local prison — 

" C^«, catasta " (Prompt, Pant.). 

" Catatta, a cage to ptuUsb or sell bond men in " (Cooper). 

In the Coventry Mysteries it is used of the " pageant " 
on which a king stands [John del Cages, Bp. Kellaine's 

Callow. Applied in the west to bare land [William 
de la Calewe, ipM., Heref.], the same word as callow, 
hairless, unfledged, which is the more usual origin of 
the surname. 

Cheyne. This is simply a Middle English spelling of 
" chain," probably meaning the barrier by which 
streets were often closed at night [Richard de Catena, 
Close R.] ; cf. Barr. 

" For other wey is fro the gatis none. 
Of Daidanaa, there opyn is the cheyiu " 

(Chanc Troilus and Cristyit). 

Chuck. A tree-stump, OF. chouq, apparently re- 
lated to souche, a stump [Henry de Chokes, Close R., 
Roger de la Zuche, or de la Suche or de la Chuche, ib.}. 
Hence Choak, Ckugg, Chucks. Also a nickname 
[Robert Choc, Pipe R.. WilUam Choc, Hund. R.}. 
Cf. Block (p. 156). 

Clench, CUnch. I can find no clue to the meaning 
of this word, apparently the origin of Clinch in Wilts. 
[Richard de la Clenche, Fine R., Wilts, John de la 
Cleiiche, Hund. R., Wilts]. A stream called the 
Clenche is mentioned in Glouc. Cart. 



.Cloud. ME. elude, a rock [Robert atte Cloude, 
Kirby's Ques(\, the same word as cloud (cumulus). 
Hence also Chut and possibly Clodd. 

Clyne. Old Welsh dun, clyn, a meadow [William 
ate Clyne, Exch. R^. Also Clunn. 

Cock. The very common entry " atte Cok " refers 
not only to a shop-sign, but also to the same word 
commonly used of a water conduit. Cf. Boss. Hence 
also sometimes ylcocA, Adcock, Atcock [Ralph Atecock, 
Lond. Wills. 1282]. 

CockshoU, Cockshoot. " A broad way or glade in a 
wood, through which woodcocks, etc., might dart or 
shoot, so as to be caught by nets stretched across the 
opening " (NED.), 

" CocJusshoU to take woodcockes with, volte " (Pftlsg.). 

Cradle. A place in Sussex called " le Cradele " is 
mentioned in the Percy Cartulary [Richard atte 
Cradele, Percy Cart., John de la Cradel, Pat. R.]. In 
Middle EngUsh, as now, the word was used of various 
arrangements in the way of framework or scaffolding, 
but its meaning h^e is v^y dubious. Perhaps the 
ending is the same as that of the next name. 

Crundall, Crundle. More than sixty crundels are 
mentioned in Thorpe's Codex Diplomaticus. AS. 
crundel is dubiously explained by Sweet as a chalk-pit, 
cavity, pond. Its modem dialect meaning of a ravine 
with running water in it suggests rather " crooked dell," 
&-om the adjective which has given the nickname 
Crum, Crump. 

Curtain. Dial, courtain, court-yard, straw-yard. 
Late cortina. 

Deal. Dole. These are ultimately the same word. 



meaning boundary,division [Alexander de la Dele, Fine 
R., William de la Dole, Hund. R.]. Dale is often for 
Deal. The word is still in use in various forms. Here 
generally belong also Dowell, Dowl, DeweU, Duell, 
and the Kentish dowel, a marsh, is perhaps the same 
word. Most of the words for boundary appear also 
to have been applied to a piece of waste land betweoi 
two cultivated patches — 

" The waste oUled It doU " (Pal. R., Salop). 

Ddf, Delph, Delves. ME. ddf, quarry. [Hugh del 
Delf, Cal. Gen,\— 

" And thei gaven that monei to the cnifti men and maaonnB, for 
to bie stormya hewid ont od the Mvts, vax. quarrtris " > 

(Wye. a Ckron. xxxiv. ii). 

Dihb. Usually bapt. for Dibble, i.e. Theobald (see 
p. 40), but also from dial, dib, a dip, or valley [John 
del Dybbe, F. 0/ Y., 1469]. 

Dillicar. A dialect name, in the lake country, for 
a small iield. No doubt a compoimd of the very 
common Carr, Kerr, a fen, of Norse origin. 

Doust. ?A Middle Enghsh variant of "dust "[John 
del Doustes, Lane. Inq. 1310-33]. Cf. such names as 
Chalk, Clay, Mudd. 

Drain, Drane. Obviously from the drain or channel 
[John atte Drene, Kirby's Quest, Som.], a word first 
recorded by the NED. for 1552. Cf. Simon Drime- 
land [Hund. R,, Camb.]. The examples are from the 
two chief fen counties. 

Dron. Dial, trone, a trench, a west-country word 
[Geoffrey Attedrone, Glouc. Cart.]. 

Dunt. I suppose this to be a phonetic variant of 

* Thia is the origiii of Quarritr [Nicholu del Qaanre, Ptu, A.]; 



dent, dint, meaning a hollow [William Attedunt, Hund. 
R., Kent]. 

Ealand, Eland. A dial, form surviving from AS. 
igland, now corruptly written island under the influence 
of OF. isle. 

Eaves. Used in Middle EngUsh for edge, especially 
in the compound " wood eaves," whence Wouldhave. 
In Whiteaves the first element is probably with (p. 84). 

Fall. It is a httle doubtful what this means as a 
surname [Richard del Fal, Hund. R., Gilbert de la 
Falle, LaiK. Ass. R. 1176-1285], at any rate in com- 
pounds. In Horsfall, -fall may be for an earUer -fald,* 
i.e. fold, enclosure, while in Woodfall it means the 
place where trees have been felled [Richard del 
Wodefal, Lane. Inq. 1310-33]. Still, although the 
NED. has no record of fall, cascade, till 1579, " the 
watCT's fall " (Spenser), the name Waterfall [Richard 
de Watterfall, Hund. R^ points to a much earher use 
of the word. 

Fann. The winnowing fan [Gervase de la Fanne, 
Chart R.^. The west-country Vann is commoner 
[RichardatteVann, Picas, Wilts,]. CI the occupative 
Fanner and Vanner, 

Farndell. The obsolete farthingdeal, or fourth part" 
of an acre. Cf. Halfacre. 

Hence also Fardell, Varndell. Farthing was also used 
in the same sense. 

Flatt. A common field-name in Yorkshire, and used 

* The home of Hots/all is the Wert Riding, where it occniB side by 
aide vrith Horsfield. 

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in Suffolk of a flat oozy shore [Thomas del Flat, 
mariner, F. of Y.]. Hence also the Suffolk name 
Flatman. ' 

Force, Forse, Forss. This may be the northern 
force, a Scandinavian word for waterfall — 

" Tha fishery del fors " (Pa*. R., Westm. 1320). 

But the analogy of Wilberforce, from a place formerly 
called Wilberfoss, suggests that Foss is more often the 
origin. Cf. Forsdyke for Fosdike, lat^ corrupted to 

Fostall, Forrestal. Dial, fore-stall, a paddock or 
way in front of a farmhouse (Kent and Suss.). The 
NED. quotes it for 1661, but it is much older [Osbert 
de la Forstalle, Hund. R., Kent, Albreda de Forstallo, 
Cust. Battle Abbey, 1283-1312]. 

Foyle. Apparently some kind of excavation, Fr. 
fouitle [John atte Foyle, Cust. Battle Abbey], 

Fright. A Kentish form of fritk, a wood, deer- 
forest, etc., so common in the phrase " frith and fell " 
[Henry del Fridh, Feet of Fines]. 
, GaUantree. I only offer the conjecture that this 
Yorkshire name may be for " gallows tree," earlier 
" gallow tree," AS. gealgtreow ; cf. Godfrey de Galowes 
{Fine R.), Ral[^ de Furcis (Abingdon Ckron.). 

Garston. An example of a common noun, AS. 
geWs/MM, paddock, "grass town" [Henry de la Garston, 
Fine R.], which has become a specific place-name, Cf. 
Graiton, stubble field, AS, grtsd, grass, Barton, AS, 
beretun, " barley town," Leighton, AS. leactun, " leek 
town," kitchen garden, and the ubiquitous Burton, 
AS. burgtun, " borough town." From the latter we 
have Haliburlon, the holy dwelling. 

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Gort. OF. gori, properly a whirlpool (Lat. gurges, 
gurgii-). but used in England of a kind of weir ; cf. Fr. 
Dugort. See gorce (NED.), which is really a plural 
form and apparently one origin of Joyce, for Burton 
Joyce (Notts) takes its name from the de Jorz family. 
Grape, Creep. A dial, word for trench, also found 
as grip [John atte Gripe, IpM.}. 

Ground. Used in dialect for a field or farm ; hence 
perhaps the East-Anglian name Grounds. But Roger 
Grond {Hund. R., Hunts), Augustin Grand (»&.) sug- 
gest a shortened form of Grundy, AS. Gundred, as a 
more probable origin of the name. 
Hallows. Possibly ME. halwe, shrine, sanctuary — 
" Ferae halvts, kowtbe in sondry londes " (Chauc. A. 14), 
But more probably a dial, form of hollow [William in 
le Halowe, Hund. R.]. 

Hames. Northern form of " home " [Adam del 
Hames, of !e Hames, Cumb., ipM.}. Also Haimes. 
Hanger. A wood on a hillside [William del or atte 
Hanger, Pat. R.]. 
. Hard. In the obsolete sense of hard or firm ground 
(sixteenth century, NED.), as at Portsmouth [Gilbert 
del '".-4*.. Pat. R.]. Also Hards. In Harder 'the 
second element is -or, -over, a bank. 

Haugh. This very puzzling word occurs in an 
immense number of place-names and conseqU%iii> in 
many surnames, but nobody seems to know what it 
means.' It has several compounds, Ridehalgh, Creen- 

> " Healh, corner, hiding-place; bay, gulf" (Sweet), " recesa 
corner, hollow " (Milier). " Dr. Mutschmann is mistaken in thinking 
tbat the exact sense of OE. healh is ' very uncertain ' ; it means 
' river meadow ' " (Sedgefield). " It does not necessarily mean a 
riversiile pasture. A hale, in Gloucestershire, may occur on high 
ground away from any stream " (Baddeley). 

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halgh, Hesmondhalgk, Featherstonehaugh. Its dative 
gives Heal, Hale, and most of the names ending \a -all, 
-haU, -ell contain it, e.g. Brudenell (at the broad heal), 
Cleall (clay), Greenall, GreenhaU, Blackall, Blackhall, 
Whitehall [Gilbert del Whitehalgh, 1397, Bardsley], 
Midgall [Migehalgh, Lane. Inq. 1310-33], Thornell,^ etc. 
Related to it is ME. halk, a comer — 

" As yoQge clerkes, that been lykeroos 
To reden artes that been cnrious, 
Selttn in every kallu and every heme * 
Particniax sciences for to leme " (Chanc. F. iiig). 

Hence Halleck ■ and sometimes Hawke and Hawkes. 
In Halkett, Hallett,' it is compomided with -head (see 
p. 128, n.). Haugh is quite distinct from Hough {Huff), 
How, a hill, though it has bcMi confrised with it, e.g. 
in Wardhaugh, probably for " ward hough," the beacon 
hill, equivalent to Wardle (ward hill) and Wardlaw, 
Wardlow, AS. hlaw, a hill, mound, Ridehalgh has been 
confused with Redhougk [Thomas del Redhougb, Bp. 
Kellawe's Reg.]. From the dial, form eale, we h»ve the 
names Bales, Eeles, and it is probable that NeaU is 
sometimes of the same origin (see p. 50) . 

Heald. ME. AmU, a slope [Isabel de la H^i-X^Fin^ 
R.]. Cf. Ger. Halde, very common in place^iames 
uid snmames. Heald may be also for Heal with 
pxcres^wa -a ; cf. Neitd for Neil. 

Heath. This seems to have absorbed " hythe," a 
quay, harbour. The latter was once a very common 

> In this, and some other cases, it may have interdianged witli 

' A comer ; hence Haarn, Hurn, Horn, etc. 

* Cf. Frisian hallicli, low-lying land near the sea. 

* Also a dim of Hal, or Hairy. 

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name [Eustace de la Hythe, Hu»d. R., William atte 
Hythe, City F.}, but I find no modem examples. 

Helm. Dial, helm, a shelter [John de la Helme, 
Wore. Priory Reg.]. But Helm, Helms is more often 
short for one of the personal names in Helm- (p. 38). 

Herefaih, Herafiath. AS. herepath, army path, 
main road. Cf. Ger. Herwegh. Is it too vent\U'esome 
to derive the very common Cambridgeshire name 
Thoday from AS. theodteeg, people way, highway ? 
Both this and Tudway may be rather from the Anglo- 
Saxon name Theodwig. Fossey may be from Fr. fossi, 
a ditch, but is more probably from the historic 

Hoath, Hoad. An archaic word for heath • [John 
del Hoth, Hund. i?.]. 

Honour, Honnor. " A seigniory of several manors 
held under one baron or lord paramount" {NED.) 
[Stephen Adhonour, Pat. R.]. 

Hook, Crook. Both used of a bend in the river 
[Richard de la Hoke, Feet of Fines, John del Crok, 
Lane. Jnq. 1310-33], the latter especially in Scot- 
land. The first seems to have been used also of a 
sand-spit. But Crook is usually a nickname [Philip 
le Crok, Pat. R., Croc the huntsman, Chart. R.], and 
Hook is sometimes, Uke Hueks, a form of Hugh [Huka 
de Thome, Pipe R:\. 

Hope. Another word of very vague meaning, " an 
enclosure in marsh land," " small enclosed valley " 
{NED). But there also seems to have been a measure 
of land called a hope, cognate with Ger. Hube, Hufe, 

' I havQ only Halliwell's anthoirty for this. Is it a mixed form 
due to the constant coupling of " bcdt and heath " in Middle 
English ? 

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a unit corresponding in use, if not in dimensions, to 
our Hide. In a copy of White Kennett's Glossary 
which I possess, several examples of this use have been 
inserted in MS. by the learned antiquary Sir Edward 
Smirke, In compounds -hope becomes -ap, -ip, -op, 
-up, Harrap, Burnip, Alsop, Greenup. This rather 
common name has, however, another origin [Hugh le 
Hope, Lane. Ass. R. 1176-1285, Vital le Hope, ib., 
William le Hope, Archhp. Peckham's Let.] which I 
cannot explain. No doubt also an abstract nickname 

(p. 218). 

Horn. As a local name this is a variant of Heam, 
a nook, comer. Hence Langhorne, Hartshorn, Smalt- 
horn, Whitehorn, etc. ; see p. 62, n. 2. 

Hulk. A hut or shed [Agnes atte Hoik, Pat. R.]— 

" Tngnnum, kulc" (Voc.), 

Idle. An Anglo-French form ' of OF. isle, also ilde 
[John del id\e,IpM.. Christiana del Ilde, Hund. R.] — 

" tldt, lond in the ae, insula " {Prompt. Patv.) 

Other island surnames are Ilelt, appropriately found in 
Somerset and Cambridgeshire, and the Celtic Inch, 
Ince, Ennis [William del Enese, Hund. R.]. The form 
Enys is very common in Cornwall. 

Ing. A Middle English name for meadow, especially 
a swampy one, and still in dial. use. It is from ON. 
enge [Thomas atte Enge.Ftne R., Reginald de Inga.Pipe 
R.]. This word is very common in composition and 
one source of the name England,* for ing-land. Names 

• Cf. meddU from OF. vusUr, and see MadU <p. 250). 
■ In spite of the existence of English, I«glit, the name England 
" "'ely fiom^the name of the countiy, DtuUch is a Gennon 



such as Fielding, Penning, etc., have usually been 
explained as " man of the field, fen, etc.," but, 
although this tribal suffix occurs frequraitly in Ai^lo- 
Saxon place-names, it is perhaps equally probable that 
in surnames -ing means meadow, e.g. Wilding, wood 
meadow. Greening, Beeching, Bowrtng (bower). School- 
ing (cf. Schofield, Schoolcraft), Ravening, Watering, etc, 

Knaggs. Northern dial, knag, rock, hill-top. 

Knell, Knill. Apparently a phonetic variant of 
knoll [William atte Knell. Cust. Battle Abbey, John 
atte Knyle, Kirby's Quest, Som.]. Hence also Kneel. 

Knipe. Ridge, a lake-country word, surviving only 
in specific place-names (EDD.). 

Lart. A west-country word for " loft." Hencfi 
also perhaps Larter. 

Leach. Dial, letch, a boggy stream or a bog, earlier 
lache [John del Lache, Lane. Court R. 1323-4] — 

" Dnctnm aqiuE, qnem vnlgo Latcftt vocant " {Abim^on Chron.). 

It is still used as latch in northern dialect. This is one 
origin of the name Leach, Leech, usually the physician,* 
Its compounds are Blackledge, Bleakledge, Blackleach — ■ 

" Between le Misies and Blalu-laeh* unto the end of le Cawiaye " 
{iMtc. Inq. 1310-33) — 

Cartledge, CarUick [Robert de Cartelache, Lane. Court 
R- 1323-4]. Depledge. 

name, but I do not tbink Dentsdiland ia found, and the Fiendi 
surname Franct, not very conunoa, is a shortened form of Hm 
baptismal Fran(oU. EHgland is also an imitative form of the Old 
S^vnch font-name Engueirand, with the common change of r to I 
Udba Ingelond, Pal. R., Geofirey Ingelond, Hund. R., Simon 
Ingelond, *b.] 

I t find that Surgton still exists, also the lengthened Middle 
English form Surgttw. 

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Leese. Perhaps generally for "leas " {cf. Meadows) ; 
but there is a dial, lease,^ pasture, AS. las — 

" The yt&ta have gathered grayly , 
Since I danced npcoi this Itat* " 

(Hardy, WtoM Po*ms). 

Lew. A sheltered spot [Alice ate Lewe, Hund. R.]. 

Liberty. I have already suggested (Romance of 
Names, p. 123) that this name comes from liberty in 
the sense of district outside the city walls, but subject 
to the city jurisdiction. I have, however, found no 
early example. I do not think it is an abstract nick- 
name. The apparently parallel Licence is an imita- 
tive spelling of Lysons,* of Lison (Calvados), whence 
also Lessons. 

Ling. This very common > East Anglian name 
comes from the plant, and also specifically from Ling 
(Suff .), Lyng (Norf,), and Lyng (Som.), which accounts 
for the three regions which are the homes of the name. 
But the collocation of the word, in the following ex- 
tract, with sich, a trench, and put, a pit, suggests ^me 
other local meaning — 

" Le Putsch, le Mucbeleput, le Litlspnt, le Ling jnxta Coppeswell, 
and le Longsyche versus Clayputtes " {IpM., Warw. 1268). 

Link, Lynch. A ridge, sand-hill, AS. hlinc. Dial 
linch is especially used of an unploughed ridge making 
a boundary between two fields [Roger ate Lynche, 
Fine R.]. Link is possibly also a variant of Ling 
[John atte Lynk, Pat. R., Norf.]. 

« See NED. 

■ Final -j in local sumamea of foreign origin Is treated as aibit- 
raiily as in native names. We have Gamagt, Cammidgt, from Gam- 
aches (Somme), Cormtll, from Cormeilles (Eure), but LoiMlU*. 
from Lacelle (Otne). 

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Lippiatt. The leap-gate, or leap-yate, " a low gate 
in a fence, which can be leaped by deer, while keeping 
sheep from straying " (NED.). Also LipyeaU, LippOt. 
CI the variants of Lidgate, swing-gate, whence Lidg^, 
Lydiate, Liddiatt, etc. 

List. Used in Middle Enghsh in the sense of 
boundary [Peter de la Leste, Hund. R.]. Cf. the 
"lists" for a tournament. 

Loakes. East Anglian loke, path, road [Gilbert 
Ithelockes, Fine R.]. 

Lone, Loane. Dial, form of lane [John in la Lone, 
Glouc. Cari."]. 

Loop. Used in Middle English of an opening in a 
wall, whence modem " loop-hole " [Edith de la Lupe, 
Mahtesbury Abbey Reg.]. But this name, though 
not common, has an alternative origin, the wolf 
[Robert le Lupe, IpAf.]. 

Lyth. A Middle Enghsh and dial, word for slope, 
AS. hlith [Reginald atte Lith, Fine R.]— 

" Steep pastnies are caUed the Lilhe " (White's S»lbomt). 

But Gonnilda le Lyth {Hund. R.) points to a nickname, 
so that the surname, though raUier rare, has two well- 
attested origins. For similar cases see pp. 316-19. Lyde 
is a variant. 

Maw. A variant of mow, heap, as in " barley- 
mow." The name is very common in Lincolnshire, 
and medieiral examples of " de la Mawe " abound on 
the east coast [William de la Mawe, Hund. R., Suff.]. 
A local surname could, however, hardly come into 
existence in connection with such a transient thing 
as a haystack or comrick, so that we must assume 
that the word is here used in the wider sense of mound. 



hillock, or that it meant also the stackyard or bam. 
Maw is also a variant of Maufe, Muff (p. 246), 

Meals. ON. melr, dune, sandhill, especially on the 
coasts of Lancashire and Norfolk [Alan del Mels, 
Lane. Inq., 1310-33, Elota del Meles, 16.]. I fancy that 
this word, often meoU in Middle English, appears in 
AshmaU, Ashmole, and CattermoU. 

Mears. Two local origins — (i) mere, a lake, pool, 
whence also Marr, Marrs [Robert de la Mar, Lib. Vit.] ; 
(2) ME. nure, mear, AS. gemeere, a boundary, a very 
common word, also used of a green " balk " or bound- 
ary road. Hence in some cases Marston, ME. mere- 
stone, boundary stone. Mark, March, are also some- 
times from ME. mearc, boundary, apparently not 
related t» the above [Roger del March, Fine R., 
Robert atte Mark, City D.]. 

Minster. The rarity of this name is surprising, 
although it is represented also by the lengthened 
Minister. As we have Beemaster, Buckmaster, Kil- 
master, Kilmister, and Kittermaster from Beaminster, 
Buckminster, Kilminster, and Kidderminster respec- 
tively, it seems likely that Master, Masters, Mister, 
may also have been sometimes corrupted in the same 
way from the simple Minster. 

Mountjoy. Montjoie is a common French place- 
name [Ralph de Mungai, Pipe JR.], The name 
has no connection with the war-cry Montjoie, the 
origin of which is unknown. Also Mungay, Mun~ 
chay, Mingey — 

" Mont-jay*. & btziow ; a Uttlo bill, or heap of stones, layed in 
' or near a highway, for the better discerning thereof ; or in remem- 
brance o{ some notable act perfoniied,oT accident befallen, in tiuit 
place ■' (Cotg.). 

D,g,t,.?<l I,, Google 


Mudge. A Devon and ComwaH word for mud, 
swamp. The surname is common in both coimties. 

Ness. A headland, but not necessarily on the 
coast. Many of the examples I have found are 
inland [John atte Nesse, Pat. R., Richard atte Nesse, 
Coram Rege R. 1297, Suss.], The second example 
may refer to Dungeness. In the Abingdon Chronicle 
ness is used as equivalent to stert. See Sturt. 

Pallant. AS. palent, palace, Lat. palantium for 
falatium ; cf. the Palant at Chichester. 

Pammeni, Pameni. Middle English iorm of pave^ 
meni, street. In Nottingham are still High, Low and 
Middle Pavement, spelt pametit in the Borough 
Records. Cf. Cosway, Cawsey — 

" And whenae ; was nygh tlie awter y put of my showyi and 
kndyd on my kneys npon the pament " [Honk of Evesliain). 

Pett,Putt. Variants of P»«. The first is a Kentish 
form ; for the second cf. Hull for Hill. Compotmds 
Lampet, Lampitt, Lamputt, loam pit, AS. lampytt, and 
ClampiU, cloam pit. Cham, AS. clam, clay, is still 
used in dialect for earthenware. Burpitt is possibly 
for " bear pit " ' ; cf. BuUpitt or Bowpitt, and Buckpit. 

Pickles. The Yorkshire dial, form of pightle, an 
enclosure (see NED.). Hence also Pighills and Ptght- 
ling, the latter compounded with ing, a meadow 
(P- 64)- 

Pill. A west-country word for a creek [Robert 
Attepile, Hund. R., Som., Bennett de la Pylle, Fine 
R., Dev.]. Hence also Pile, Pyle, Pillman, and Pilla- 

' Bearhtoek appeara to mean the stnmp to wbich the bearwtu tied ; 
bnt Btarpark is a perversion of the local Btaunpain. 

D,g,„.«n„ Google 


way with the intrusive a which is characteristic of 
Devon names [Eastaway, Greenaway, etc.). 

Place, Plaice. ME. place has a wide range of mean- 
ings, including market square, plot of land, large house, 
hamlet, etc. But the modem name has absorbed an 
Old French word related to Plessis (p. 286), and 
mesining an enclosure [Richard de la Plesse, Hund. 
R.]. It is often entered as de Plexito. Cf. the Fr. 
Dupieix, which has assumed in England the imitative 
form Duplex. Hence also Pleass. 

Plank. Used in Middle English of a narrow foot- 
bridge [James de la Plaunche, Fine R.] — 

" Planche, a planke, or thicke board ; espedally one tiiata laid ov«r 
a ditch, brooke, ot moate, etc., instead of a bridge " (Cotg.)- 

Plaskett. A swampy meadow, usually " plashet," 
dim, of OF, plasq. The surname represents a Norman 
form. Also Plasked. 

PloU. The same as Piatt, a flat piece of land [Henry 
de la Plot, Lane. Ass. R. 1176-1285]. 

Pluck. Apparently a phonetic variant of ME. 
plecke, a piece of ground [Nicholas de la Plock, Glouc. 
Cart.\. It is also found in Duplock, earlier Duplac 
{Norf. Court R.). But Diplock is more probably 
" deep lake." 

Quick. Usually a nickname, but also a northern 
variant of wick, a village [Albert de la Quicke, Lane. 
Inq. 1205-1307]. Cf. Quarton for Wharton, and Quick- 
fall for Wigfall, the latter probably the " wick-fald," 
or Wiekfield. 

Rain. The name-group Rain, Rayne, Raines, 
Raynes, etc., has various origins. It may be baptismal, 
from the Anglo-Saxon element Regen- (p. 44}, as in 



Rayner, Reynold, etc. [Reine Bacun, Hund. R.], while 
the -s forms represent Rennes [Robert de Rennes, 
Hund. R.] and possibly also Rheims, It is also a 
nickname, perhaps from dial. Fr. raine, a frog 
[Robert le Rane, Pat. R.]. But the home of the name 
is Dm'bam, and in that county rain is a dial, word 
for a strip of land, boundary, etc., which is no 
doubt the origin of most of the northern Raynts. 
The word is common in field-names in north-country 

Rees} This name, usually for Welsh Rhys, is also 
from an obsolete word for stream, channel [Henry 
del Re or atte Ree, IpM., Herrf.]. There are several 
references in ipM. to " la Ree " (Heref.), but the 
word seems to have been in general use. The church 
of St. Mary Overy was in 1502 Saint Mary " over the 
re." Overy and Vndery are both existing surnames ; 
with the latter cf. Walter Underwater (Lane. Inq.). 
Ree may be related to ride {see p. 49) and Rye (Suss.), 

* Til* majorily of monoayllabic, and many dissyllabic, local 
names are commonly found with -j, originally due to analogy with 
wait, Jontt, etc., where -s is Ote sign of the genitive. It will be 
found that this addition of -t in local names generally takes place 
whenever it does not involve an extra syllaUe or any exertion in 
pTonnnciation, e.g. Birks but Bireh, NotUut but Nask, Marks but 
March, Meadows bnt Field, Syhti but Si(h. The only important 
exception to this phonetic mle is Bridges, which is usually derived, 
not from brid^, bnt from Bruges, once commonly called Bridges 
in English. This -s is also added to specific place-names, e.g. 
CkeaUs from Cheal (Line), Tarbox from Tarbock (Lane), BttrU 
from some spot in Essex formerly called Berle [Robert de Berle, 
Httnd. R., Ess.], Bhymes from Ryme (Dora.), ete. This tendency, 
mU very strongly marked in uneducated speech, leads to some 
very cnrioos results. I am told that the Earl of Stair is commonly 
called Lord Stairs by the Wigtownshire peasants. Still more ex- 
traordinary is the existing name Sltadmane*t, of obvious origin. 



which was formerly la Rie [Geoffrey atte Rye, City E., 
Robert Atterie, ipM., Suss.]. The word is perhaps 
of Flemish origin ; cf, the South African Delarey. 
The scarcity of Ree is due to absorption by Ray 
[Robert de la Reye, Close R.]. 

Raw, Rue. AF, rew, from Fr. rue, street [Robert 
atte Rewe, Pat. R., Dors.] ; cf. Atlru (p. 49). But 
Rew is also a nickname, a variant of rough [Walter le 
Rewe, Glouc. Carl.]. 

Rhine. A name given to the large drains or channels 
on the Somerset moors, AS. ryne, a channel. It was 
the Bussex Rhine which proved fatal to Monmouth's 
foUowers at Sedgemoor. I have, however, no evi- 
dence for a surname thus formed, so Rhine is perhaps 
rather for Rhind, Rind. There is a Perthshire 
hamlet called Rhynd, but the surname seems to be 
rather from a Welsh personal name [Rind Seis,* 
Chart. J?.]. 

Riddy. ME. rithie, apparently related to ride, a 
stream {p. 49) [Walter Atterithie, Glouc. Cart.]. 

Riding. Perhaps from one of the Yorkshire ridings," 
but more probably a variant of Ridding, a clearing in 
a wood [Raven del Riding, Pai. R.]. 

Risk. An archaic form of rush, AS, rise ; cf. Riss- 
brook. Hence also Rix, usually from Richard, but 
also from Exmoor rix, rushes [John de la Rixe, Hund. 
R., Som.]. 

' I.e. Rind the Saxon ; cf. Sayct, Stys, etc. 

■ Originally thriding, third part, the initial having been lost bjr 
confoaion with the final sound of the north, east, west which 
always preceded it. We have the converse in the Middlesex 
village of Ickeoham, formerly Tickenham. As time went on, 
people who lived "at Tickenham" found they were living "at 

D,g,t,.?<l I,, Google 


Roath. Apparently ME. roih, variant of root 
[William atte Rothe, Lond. Wills, 1305]. Or it may 
be identical with Routh, ON. ruth, a clearing, whence 
-royd, common in north-comitry siunames. 

Rood. A cross. Also Rude [Walter de la Rude, 
Fine R.]. Hence also Trood, "atte rood." Com- 
pounds Roodkouse, Roddis, Rodwell; with the latter 
cf. Crosswell. 

Rule. La Riole, near Bordeaux, latinized as Reula 
and Regula, is constantly mentioned in London records. 
It gave its name to a London street and to the church 
of St. Michael Paternoster " Royal " [Henry de la 
Rule, City B., Alvyn de Reule, Henry de la Riole, 
Exch. Cal.l. In Chesh. Chatnb. Accts. (1301-60) is 
mentioned Roger del ReuUe, a shipmaster bringing 
wine from Bordeaux. 

Sale, Seal. Related word?, the first representing 
OF. sale {salle), the second AS. sele, hall, dwelling- 
house. Compounds are Greensall and NormanseU. 
Seal has become Zeal in Somerset. These names have 
become confused with dial, seal, sale, a willow, whence 
the Yorkshire names Sayle, Sayles [Agnes del Sayles, 
1379]- Cf. Sallows, Salliss from the same tree, AS. 
Salteme. A salt house, also a salt marsh. 
Seath, Seth. AS. seath, a pit, pond, used in dialect, 
generally in the form sheath, of a brine-pit. Hence 
also Sheath and Sheat [Humfrey de la Shethe, Testa 
de Nev^. It should be noted, however, with regard 
to Sheath, that Fr, Fourreau, whence Eng, Furrell, 
seems to be a costume nickname from the sheath or 
Seed. I conjecture that this name, common in the 



north, may represent AS. geset, seat, dwelling, as in 
Somerset and the surname Honeysett. It occurs also 
in Adshead, Adsead (Adsett, Glouc], and in the simple' 
Sait. This would explain Liverseed, Loverseed, from 
the personal name Leofhere; cf. John de Burysede 
[Hund. R.] and the Lincolnshire name Whiiseed. 

Selden, Seldon, Seldom. The dative plural of the 
very common ME. selde, a booth or shop [John atte 
Selde, Land. Wills., 1294]. 

"One fair bnilding of stone called in record Seldom, a sbod " (Stow). 

Sell may sometimes represent the singular, but is 
usually baptismal [Nicholas Sell, Pai. R.], perhaps 
from Cecil. 

Shear. AS. scaru, division. Hence Landseer, AS. 
landscaru, boundary [Anthony de la Lanscare, Pat. R., 
Thomas de la Landshare, Hund. if.]. One example 
is from Devon, the other from Somerset. Hence this 
is the origin of the Devon name Shears, while Shar- 
land, also a Devon name, may contain the same 
elements reversed. The form Scare, Skeer is also a 
surname. Cheers seems to be a variant ' [Walter de 
la Cbere, Glouc. Cart.] and Chare also exists. Seear 
may belong here or to Sayer, AS, Saegaer. 

Sheard, Shard. Middle English and dial, sherd, a 
gap in an enclosure or bank [John atte Sherde, 
Pat. R.}. The same word as in " potsherd." Shirt 
is an imitative spelling. 

Shed. A section of land. The same word as in 
" watershed." Hence Shead, Shedd, Shade. No doubt 

* The substitution of Ck- for Sh- is not uncommon, e.g. Nicholas 
Cbepe, Ralph de Chepeye, Oabert le Chephirde occur together in tb« 
Pat. B. Hence Chtap is sometimes a nickname, " sheep." 



also froin the building, which is also shad, shade in 

Shields, Scales. The English and Norse forms 
respectively for a shieling or shelter. The first is ' 
very common in Northumbrian farm-names, hence 
Blackshields, Greenshields. It is the same as ME. 
schiel [Adam del Scheie. Percy Cart.], whence Shiel. 
From Scales we have the compounds Summerscales ' 
and Winterscale, corrupted into Summerskill, Sum- 
mersgill. Wintersgill. Related to the numerous Scandi- 
navian names in -skjdld, such as Nordenskjold, Lilien- 
skjold, etc. 

Shippen, Skippon. A dial, word for cow-house, AS. 
scipen [Richard de la Schepene, Coram Rege R. 1297]. 
Hraice also Shippings— 

" Thiopes, bernea, Mpius, dayeryes " (Cbaoc D. 871). 

By folk-etymology connected with " sheep-pen." but 
really cognate with " shop," But in Sheepwash, Ship- 
wash, Shipway, Shipsides, and most local names in 
Ship; the first element is " sheep." 

Shire. Used in the sense of boundary [Thomas atte 
Shyre. Lond. Wills, 1349]. Here belong also some- 
times Shear, Shears (cf. Lankshear, Hamshar) ; but 

> Various explanations are given aa ta local names in Summer-, 
Winler-. In Gennany the corresponding names are considered to 
indicate a sonthem and northern aspect respectively. In the 
examples above we no donbt have the summer and winter camp of 
the herdsmen. Other examples are Summtrhayts, from hay, an 
endoenre, fViiUtrford, WinUrftood, Winttrboltom. WinUrbum is a 
bom that mas in winter only. Another name, especially in 
Kent, for an intermittent spiing is >uiiB>mtm, later tyUbourM, whence 
tbe snmame Etbom and probably Ebont. On this interesting work 
see Skeat, Trans. PhU. Soe., igii-14, p. 37. 


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Thomas Palle, called Sheres (Lond. 1376) suggests a 
nickname for a shearsmith or cutler. For the usual 
origin of Shears see p. 74. In compounds other than 
county names -shire is generally a corruption of 
-shao) ; e.g. Ormeshire for Ormeshaw. 

Sich. A trench, AS. sic [Robert de la Siche, 
IpM-], hence also Sttch and the Yorkshire Sykes 
[William Enlesik, Pat. R., John del Sykes, Lane. Inq. 

" Sich, iiehtttum and sicheUus, a little cnirent of yiBixi, that uses 
to be dry in the snmmer, also a water-furrow or gutter " (Cowel). 

Slade. A valley, glade, strip of greensward [John o' 
the Slade, City Z).], AS. sUed, valley, familiar in the 
phrase the " greenwood slade." Hence also Slate, 
Sleath, and the compound Greenslade. ' This is another 

I Out aocestors did not show much imagiiiatton in describing 
scenery, and Gtmn occurs with monotoaoua frequency — Gr*tnacr», 
GrttndU (htal, p. 62), Greenaway (cf . Eastateay, Wtstaway, and other 
Devon names), GremUrry (bury), Grttnfiald, GtenftU, Greengrast, 
Grunhalgh, GrunhaU (p. 61), Gteenhead, Gntnkiil, Gnenkough, 
Grunhom {hough, a hill), GnenhorM {hem, a nook comer, p. 64, 
bat possiUy a nickname}, Grunhouse (cf. fVhitekouM, but possibly 
the house on the green). Greening {p. 64), Greenland {US., laund. & 
stretch of open country), Gteenisl (sec p. 95), Greenlaw {km>, a hill), 
GretnlMs, Greenop, Greenup (p. 63), Grtenrod, Greemroyd, Grinrod 
{royd, a clearing), Greensall, GretnsiU (see Seal, p. 73), GrunshiaUU 
(p. 73), GretnsUKh, Grisioch {sloh*. a homestead), Greeiuidts{p. 138), 
Gretnwell, Gretnuood, etc. In F. of Y. we find also Greenayfc (osik), 
Greenbank, Greenbe^h {barrow, hill), Greengare, Greengore {gorn, a 
triai^ularpieceof land),GTeenshagh. Butoccasionallythere has been 
confusion with the Anglo-Saxon name-element Grim. In SnSoUt wv 
find Grlmweard becoming Grim»ood, whence the transition to Gm#w- 
mood was inevitable. The compromise Greenward is also fonnd. 
Conversely the very common northern Grimsha», qtparently 
" Grim's shaw " or " Grim's haw " (enclosure) is generally a corrup- 
tion of " gre«n shaw," once as familiar as " green wood." 



example of the elusive meaning of tiiese dialect words. 
White Kennett defines it as a long, flat piece of land, 
while Wyclif actually uses it cfi a, presumably fiat, 

" Senuya gede bi the iladt, vai. cop, of the hil . . . and cvnide '' 
(3 Sam. xri. 13). 

The EDD. offers a very wide choice of meanings : 
valley, holbw ; grassy plain between hills ; side or 
slope of a hill ; small, often hanging, wood ; strip of 
greensward through a wood ; green road ; piece of 
greensward in ploughed land ; strip of boggy land ; 
stagnant water in a marsh ; small running stream ; 
sheep-watk ; bare, flat place on top of a hill. 

Slope. Very puzzling. There is an early Scot, slape, 
a gap, breach, but the examples of de la Slape are 
all from the west, chiefly Somerset. Slope is quite a 
modem word according to the NED. Perhaps related 
to sUpe, a long narrow strip, used in several counties, 
including Somerset. It also means the sloping bank 
of a dike or river ; cf. slype, a covered way from the 
transept of a cathedral to the chapter-house. 

Slay. Slope, lane through gorse, etc. (Suss.). Also 
Slee [Stephen atte Sle, Close R., Kent]. Ftobably 
identical with Slade (q.v.) ; cf, Smee for Smeed. But 
the surname is usually from ME. slegh, sly, skilful. 
Slipp. A long narrow slip (of land) ; see Slape. 
Smeed, Smeeth, Smedes. ME. smethe, a level place 
[Simon de la Smethe, Close R., Thomas atte Smyethe, 
IpMI\. See Athersmith (p. 50) and cf. SmedUy, 
Smidmore — 

" Smtth or smoth, plattieUt " {Prompt. Pan.). 

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Haice also Smee and Smy, dialect forms. All these 
are also nicknames from the same word' used in the 
sense of smooth, hairless [Philip le Smethe, Hund. R.]. 
So also the compounds Snteathman and Smithett (smeeth 
head) may be local or nicknames. 

Snaith, Snead. Specific place-names (Yorks and 
Wore), but from AS. snad, a piece o( land, from 
snithan, to cut, of. Thwaite from thwitan, to cut. Also 

Snape. A spring in arable ground, Devon (Hall.). 
But the word is quite undocumented, though recorded 
as a surname in various parts of England [Henry de 
la Snape, Hund. R., Suss., Adam del Snap. Lane. Inq. 
1310-33]. It appears also to have been used of winter 
pasture. Hence also Snepp. Compounds Harsnip, 
Dewsnap, Dewsnip. 

Snodgrass. This name contains the dial, adjec- 
tive snod, smooth, trim, 

SplaU. AS. splott, plot of land [William atte 
Splotte, Kirby's Quest, Som.] — 

" Landspht, tantiUuin tens " {Abingdon Chron.). 

Hence the compound Collinssplait. 

Spon, Spong, Spun. A long narrow strip of ground, 
also found as spang. Of doubtful origin, but probably 
Scandinavian [Liulf del Espaune, Feet of Fines, Line.]. 
The dialect glossaries assign it to East Anglia. 

Spring. A dial, word for wood, plantation [Robert 
ad Springe, Ramsey Cart.]. I know several " springs " 
in the woods of Bucks. Cf. Goldspring. Of course the 
name may be also from spring in its more usual sense 
[Adam de Fonte, Wore. Priory Reg.] ; but it is rarely 
taken from the season. The Teutons divided the year 



into Summer and Winter, hence the frequency of these 
words as surnames. Still, of. Fr. Printemps. 

Staite. ME. staihe, a landing-place, as in Bickerv 
steth. Hence also Staie, Staight. And, as Bicker- 
steth has given Bickerstaff, this local name may be 
one origin of Staff. Stay is a modem dial, variant 

Staple. A post [Roger Atestaples, City A.]. Gen- 
' erally Staples. 

Stent. A boundary, hmit ; probably OF. estente, 

Stile. AS. stigol, a stile, also an ascent. Hence 
Styles [Geofirey atte Stile, City F.]. StiU. StiUman, 
Stiggles [Richard del Stigels, Pat. R.], Steggall, Steggles, 
and even Steckles, Stickles [Robert Atstychele, Malmes- 
bury Abbey Reg.]. This group of names illustrates a 
phenomenon of some importance, viz. that surnames, 
and to some extent place-names, form exceptions to 
phonetic laws. The rigid phoneticians will say that 
the -g' of AS. stigol must disappear (cf. sail from segl^. 
The answer is that when it becomes a surname, its 
development may be arrested and an archaic form may 
persist. The home of both Styles and Stickles is Kent 
[Robert atte Estyghele, Hund. R., Kent], where they 
flourish abundantly side by side. The AS. Stigand 
should have become Stiant. It has done so and 
exists in the surnames Styants, Styance ; but it also 
survives as Stigand, Stiggants, Siiggins, Stickings. 
Similarly AS. fugol became fowl, but has also given 
the surname Fuggle [Robert le Fugel, Pipe R.], and 
Tickler perhaps represents a sharpened form of " the 
principal rebel Walter Tighlar " (Stow). Stoyle may 
be for Style, as the local Royle is for Ryle, but a ship 



called ta Stoyle {Pat. R.) is obviously OF. esioile, 
star, and LesUnle is a common French surname. 

Stitch, Styche. Dial, stitch, a ridge, a balk of grass- 
land in an arable field [Richard Attestyche, Pleas.]. 
Styche is a good example of the effect on pronuncia- 
tion of an archaic spelling. 

Stoop. A dial, word for boundary post. Hence 
also Slopes, Siopps [William del Stopp, 1379, Bardsley] . 

No slopii ot rails,' was ths cry at the time of the Notta 
of 1825 ■■ (EDD.). 

Sfftdd. A variant of Stead, place, dwelling ; cf. 
Richard del Pleystude {Glouc. Cart.), i.e. Playsted. 

Sturt. AS. steoTi, tail, as in the bird-name redstart, 
used of a tongue of land [William de la Sturte, Hund. 
R.]. Hence also S/drt. Cf. Start Point. 

" BoscDS qui dicitnr Owt " (F»tt of Pints). 

Swale. As this is chiefly a Yorkshire name, we 
must assign it to the river (see p. 161, n.). But swaU 
has also various dial, senses, a valley, a salt-water 
channel (between Kent and Sheppey), a pleasant shade, 
to one of which probably belongs Tedric atte Suele 
{Pipe R.). Hence also Swell. 

Swire. ME. swire, neck. The surname Smremacy 
be a nickname (cf. Neck, p. 135), but is also a dial, 
variant of Sy«»>c, In ME. swtre was also swer^ and was 
evidently used of a " neck " of land. A " bottom " 
called "le Swere," " le Sweres," is mentioned in 
Malmesbury Abbey Reg. Hence Swears. 

Tarn. A mountam lake. Hence Tamsitt, tam-side. 

Tart. Fr. tertre, a mound, hillock [Emma sur le 
Tertre, Leic. Bor. Rec.]. 

D,9,t,.?<i I,, Google 


Thahe.Theak. AnEastAnglian word for thatch. I 
have found the name in Suffolk. Cf. the occupative 
names Thacker, Theaker, Thackster. 

Thay, They. An existing, though rare, surname, 
which is amply recorded [Philip atte Thegh, Cu^, 
Battle Abbey, John de la The, Pat. R.]— 

" In la Thtgk vi acise grossi bosd " (Cxri. Batltt Abbey). 

It seems to be identical with Tye, Tey (q.v.), which 
is latinized as theia in the Pipe R. 

Torr. A west-cotmtry word for a rocky hill [Henry 
atte Torr, Fine R., Dev., Robert de la Torre, Coram 
Rege R. 1297, Com.], Hence Hayter, Haytor, Hector, 
high tor, and Grinter, green tor [Hugh de Graietorre, 
Chanc. R., Dev.] Pictor, a Somerset name, prob- 
ably contains the same element. Torr has another 
origin from OF. tor, a bull [Hamo le Tor, Pat. R., 
Gilbert leTor, City A.]. 

Trow. A Middle English and dial, form of " trough " 
[William atte Trowe, Hund. R.}- 

" Trow, vessel, alv4us, alvtolui " {Prompt. Pan.). 

This is also one origin of Trew [William Attetrewe de 
Bristow, F. of Y.]. The same word is used in the 
west of a small barge, in which sense it is still the sign 
of an inn at Jackfield (Salop). So the surname may 
belong to the same group as Barge. Hoy, etc. (p. 171). 
Tuer. A narrow passage or alley [William de la 
Tuyere or de laTwyere, Archbp. Romeyn's Reg. 1286- 
96]. I am not sure whether Twyer still exists. Tewer, 
Tuer has an alternative origin, the Tawyer, or 
leather-dresser [Martin le Tawyer, City E.] — 
" Ttw4T of ikymies, eaHdiiarin* " {Catk. Angl.). 

D,9,t,.?<i I,, Google 


TuffUl. Tugield, Tofield. Dial, tuffold, twofold, a 
small shed, " lean-to," pent-house, ME. tofal. also 
spelt tuffaU. Cf. Nicholas de Apenticio {Fine R.)— 

" To/at, Bcbndde, appendix, appendidum " {Prompt. Pdm.). 

Tuffill may. however, be equally well derived from 
Theophilus [Simon fheofill, F. of V.]. 

Twiss, Twitchen, Twttchell, Twizel. I put these 
together because they are no doubt related. They 
all contain the idea of a fork or branch. Tmss, un- 
recorded by the dictionaries, unless it is the dial. 
twitch, a bend in the road, is probably the original of 
which the others are derivatives [Hugh del Twys, 
Pat. R.]. With excrescent -/ itgives Twist. Twitchen 
is used in dialect of a narrow passage connecting two 
streets [Richard de la Twitchene, Fine R.]. Hence 
also Twitching. Twizel, Twissell, Twttchell are AS. 
twisla, fork of a stream, as in Entwistle (Lane), 
whence the corrupted surname A nihistle. Birdwhistle is 
an imitative spelling of Birtwistle. Elys Bridestwesil 
or Britwesil was almoner to John of Gaunt. The first 
element is probably " bird." 

Tye. An extensive common pasture (Hall.), Also 
Tey. Tee [Hugh de la Tye, Hnnd. R.. Adam de la Teye, 
Coram Rege. R. 1297]. Tighe represents an archaic 

Verge. Possibly in the sense of edge, boundary, 
but it may be OF. verge, rood, fourth part of an 
acre [Richard de la Verge, Close R.l. Also Varge. 

Voce, Vose, Voice, Voase. Ft. Vaux, plural of val, 
a valley, but common also as a specific French place- 
name [John de Vaus, Lib. Vit.]. This elemait appears 
in a few English place-names, e.g. Rievaulx, whence 

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Revis, Rivis, sind Jervaubc, one origin of Jarvis. With 
these cf. Clarvis, from Clairvaiut [Albin de Clairvaux, 
Ramsey Cart.]. 

Vyse, Vize. 01 Devizes, once commonly called 
" the Vyse " and latinized as Divisa [Richard del Vise, 
Exch. R.]. 

Walne, Wawn. ME. walm, a well, spring, 
Waud. Variant of weald or wold [Walter de la 
Waude, Pat. K.]. Hence also Wdd and Weale. the 
final -d of the latter being lost as in Wiles [Stephen de 
la Wile, Pat. fi.] from the related Wild^ 

" A fnnUin in the wild of Kent " (i Htnry IV. U. i). 

The Weald of Sussex is also called the Wild. Hence 
the name Wildish ' and the imitative Wildash. 

Waylett, Waylat. AS. weg-gelatu, place wh^e two 
or more roads meet [Cecily de la Weylete, Chart. R.] — 

" Sche ut in the wttM, var. place of two wtysi, that ledith to 
Tampna " (Wye. Gen. xxxviii. 14). 

Waythe, Wath, Wathes. ON. vathr, a ford, once 
fairly common as second element m place-names, but 
now usually replaced by -m0t, -worth, e.g. Langworth 
(Leic.) was Langwath in the thirteenth century. 
Similarly -wade, a ford, its native cognate, has mter- 
changed with -wood, so that Braidwood may sometimes 
be identical in meaning with Bradford [Reginald de 
Braidewad, Pife if.]. 

Wham, Whan. Possibly from AS. hwamm, a comer 
[William atte Whaune, Cust. Battle Abbey]. Cf. dial. 
wham, a morass. 

* Cf. Devmisk, from Devon, KintUh, etc 

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Wish. A damp meadow, marsh, common in old 
Sussex field-names. Hence Whisk, which may, how- 
ever, be for Heuiish, Huish, AS. kiwisc, a homestead — 

" ' Halp yourself, Mr. WMsk, and k«ep the bottle by you.' 
' My friend's name is Huish, not Whisk, bit,' said the captain." 
(Stevenson and Osbonme, Th» Ebbtidt.) 

With. ON, vithr, wood, once common in place- 
names, e.g. Asquiih (ash). It has interchanged with 
wath (q.v.), and, like that element, has [^d tribute 
to -worth, e.g. Askworth, Ashworth.^ Also Wythe. 

Wong. A meadow, AS. wang. There are several 
"wongs" in old maps of Nottingham. Compound 
Wetwan [Thomas de Wetewange, Archbp. Peckham's 
Let. 1279-92]. Identical with ON. vangr, as in Stavan> 

" WoHg of lond, Urrilorium " {Prompt. Pant.). 

Woodfine, Wood/in. A wood-heap, fairly common in 
Anglo-Saxon, now only surviving as a surname — 

" Struea, tmdefint " {Voc.]. 

Wroe. ME. wra, nook, comer [John in the Wro, 
Pat. J?.]. It has usually become Wray [Thomas del 
Wray, Lane. Ass. R. 1176-1285], and hasgiven a num- 
ber of north-country names in -wra, -wray, -ra, -ray, 
-ry, etc., e.g. Doowra (dove), Thackwray, Thackeray 
(tiiatch), Rothera (ME. rather, cattle), Cawthra. Cawthry, 
Whinray, Wtnnery, etc. It has also contributed to 
Rowe and, indirectly, to Rose ' [Simon ithe Rose, Pat. 
R., Yorks]. Hence the Staffordshire name Durose for 
del Wros, and the Lincolnshire Benrose, Bemrose, Bem~ 

> In both of these the -worth is, of course, sometimes original. 

' Cf. Rum from Rew (p. Jt). 

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roose, in which the first element in probably " bean." 
Here may belong the Yorkshire name Ringrow, Ring- 
rose. Wroe may also sometimes be the second element 
of Morrow, as " le Murwra " (Cumb.) is maitioned in 
ipM., and of Woodrow, Witho'ow, the latter having 
the Norse with (p. 84) for Eng. wood. With Bithray 
cf. Bidlake, etc. (p. 52). 

There are some local surnames which are of obvious 
origin, but whose rarity makes them mteresting. 
Such are Cowmeadow, Farmmedows, Forresihill, Ozier- 
brook. Monument, Marthouse ' (market-house). Ground- 
water, Bullwinkle, the bull's comer (cf. Bulpitt), Leap- 
ingwell, evidently from some pool associated with the 
old ceremony of leaping the well — 

" Liaping (jU bwM, going through a deep and noisome pool on 
Alnirick Moor, called the Freemen's Well, a tine qua non to the 
freedom of the borongh " (Hall.). 

I do not know whether the name of the famous 
Whig pamphleteer Oldmixon still survives. It is a 
compound of the dial, mixen, a dimghill — 

" Fvmier, & mixtn, dnnghill, heape of dnng " (Cotg.). 

> Mart is more probably short for Martin. 

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" ' Wbei« d'yoa liv« i ' I demandsd. 

' Bmggleamith,' was the answer " {Kiplinc}. 

The connection oi a surname with a specific place- 
name is often obscured by considerable difference of 
form and sound. Sometimes the surname preserves 
the contracted local pronunciation &miliar only to the 
inhabitants of the district. Such are Aram, Arum 
{Averham, Notts), Ansier • (Anstruther, Fife), Littler 
(Littleover, Derb.), Wyndham (Wymondham, Narf.), 
Rowell (Rothwell, Northants), Startin (Staverton, 
Northants), Sneezum (Snettisham, Norf.), Bustin (Bris- 
lington, Som.), Badgery (Badgeworthy, Glouc.), Rosier 
(Wroxeter, Salop), These examples, taken at random, 
can be largely added to ' by any reader according to 
the district with which he is acquainted. In the 
above cases the local distribution of the surnames 
confirms the origin indicated, e.g. I have found Roster 
only in Salop, So also Finbow, found in Lincolnshire 
as Fenbough, is now chiefly represented at Stowmarket 
(Stiff.) within two miles of its birthplace (Finborough) , 

> Hence alao, I suppose, AnsUrberry, the borough of Anstnther. 

■ Por instance, I have no doubt that tbo Devon name Widgery 
is from Widworthy In tltat connty, while Esstry is for Atwortky, 
the " aah liomestead." 

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Often enough the surname has got back to the actual 
locality from which it was taken on the emigration of 
the ancestor, e.g. there are people called Freshney 
living at Friskney (Line). Sometimes such contrac- 
tions are made from local names which have not become 
specific place-names, e.g. Timblick for Timberlake. 
The contracted pronunciation of local names in Saini 
isa familiar phenomenon.' Some interesting examples 
of French origin are Cinnamond, or Sinnatnon, from 
Saint-Amant, Cemery from Saint-Msiry, Savigar from 
Saint-Vigor [Thomas de SanctO Vigore,' Fine R.], 
and Santler from Saint-Helier [Roger de Seinteller, 
Testa de Nev.'\. 

Sometimes the local pronunciation or later perves'- 
sion appears to be simply eccentric, e.g. Stuckey 
(Stiflkey, Norf.), Escreet (Escrick, Yorks), Orlebar 
(Orlingbury, Northants), Occasionally the surname 
preserves an archaic form,' e.g. Hockenhall (Huck- 
naU, Notts), Keyhoe (Kew, Surrey), Staveley (Staley 
Bridge, Chesh.), or represents a correct and natural 
development of a place-name which has become ortho- 
graphically perverted, t.g.Sapsworth (Sawbridgeworth,* 
Herts). Tyrwhitt is the older form of Trewhitt 
(Northumb.), and Traskol Thirsk (Yorks). Shrosbree 
is evidently more phonetic than Shrewsbury, and 
Linkin is a fair attempt at Lincoln. 

^ Are Smiltt and Smirke from St. Miles and St. Muk } To the 
latter we certainly owe Seamarh. 

* I can find notiiing about this place or 13xe name Vigor, vbence 
OUT Vigors, Vigeri [Ely Viger, Finf R.J. 

■ Or even an obsolete name, e.g. some of the Duniulti come from 
Lannceaton, the earlier name of which was Dnnheved. 

* Etymol<4Jcally the " worUi," or bomestead, of Sebert, AS. 
Sirbeoiht. Hence the sumame SawMdgt, 

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As a mle, the further a local stimame wanders from 
its home, the more it becomes distorted. Perhaps no 
name of this class has a greats number of forms than 
Birkenshaw, birch wood, also spelt Berkenshaw, Bur- 
kenskaw, Burkinshear, Bircumshaw. With the common 
change • of t for k it becomes Berienshaw, Birtenshaw. 
Burionshaw, and even BuUonshaw. Metathesis gives 
Briggenshaw (cf. BrickeU for Birkett or BirkheaS), 
Bruckshate, and finally Brokenshire. There are prob- 
ably many other variants. The substitution of 'Shire 
for -shaw is also seen in Blackshire and liirbyshire 
(kirk bye shaw), while we have the opposite change in 
Wilshaw. Both are unoriginal in Scrimskaw, Skrim- 
shire, the " skirmishw," or fencing master. Shire 
itself has many variants, which are, however, easily 
recognized, e.g. Lankshtar, WiUsher, Hamshar, etc., and 
Upcher, from Upshire (Ess.). A phonetic change 
which is rather the opposite of the usual tendency is 
the change of shaur to shall in Backshall, UpskaU, 

Other examples of the corruption of north-country 
names are Barradough, from a spot near CHtho'oe, 
which becomes Barrowcliff in Notts and reaches 
London as Berrycloth and Berecloth {cf. Fairchth for 
Fairclough) ; Carrtithers, a Dumfries village, which gives 
Carrodus, Crothers, Cruddas, etc, in the north of 
England, and in the south sometimes Crowdace ; Bl^i- 
karne (Cumb.), whence Blenkiron, Blenkin, Blinkkom ; 
Birchenough [hough, a hill), found in East Anglia as 
Bicheno, Beechner ; and of course the -thwaHe names, 
e.g. Branwhite (Branthwaite, Ctmib,), Michaelwaite 
> Cf. Kirtland for Kirhland, a common north-coontry place- 

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(Micklethwaite), Possdwhite (Postlethwaite), Mussel- 
white, Kibhlewkite, and even Wkitewhite. Frequently 
-wood has been substituted in the south for this uncouth 
ending, e.g. Thistlethwaite is the original form of Thistle- 
wood, for the first means the clearing or open land 
where thistles grow and the second makes no sense. 
The simple Tkwaite appears also as TwaiU, Twite,' 
Dwight, Thoyts. 

Occasionally the perversion of a local surname is 
due to the imitative instinct, e.g. Strawbridge, Strow- 
bridge for Stourbridge (Wore), but many names 
which look as though'they belonged to this class, e.g. 
Barnacle, Clown, Hartshorn,* Stirrup,* (Stymip, Notts), 
Unthank, Winfarthing, are genuine place-names re- 
corded in the Gazetteer. A very slight change of 
spelling is often rather disconcerting, e.g. Wincer 
(Windsor), Farnorth (Famworth), and occasionally we 

* Cf , Croatwif^t (Norf.), " croaa thwaite." There is, however, a 
di&l. twiu, meaning a, kind of linnet. 

■ Here the suffix ia horn, a noolc of land (p. 64) ; cf . Heamt, Hum, 
etc. But some of the -horn names are probably also nicknames. 
Sn(^ are Greenhorn, Langhom, Rouhom (rongh), Whilehom [MarkWy- 
thorn, Hand. R.]. In the medieval play of Cain and Abel (Towne 
ley Mysteries] Cain's seven horses are Greynehorne, Whitehome, 
Gtyma, Mall, Morell, Stott, and Lemyng, every one of which is 
nowaaumame. Leeming^iUiamLenang.Hund.R,] is the present 
participle of the obsolete faom, to shine — 

" Radieux, radiant, shining, glitteiing, biasing, flaring, learning, 
[nit of beames " (Cotg.). 

• In the year laSo occurs the name of Richard Stiirappe {Archbp, 
Wiekaane's Reg.), the form of the entry, and the agreement of the 
spelling with the Middle English form of stirrup, suggesting a nick- 
name. But it ia merely an early instance of a wrong entry. Richard 
was a Notts man, and the Archbishop's clerk, unacqnainted with 
the tittle Notts hamlet, took the local name for a nickname and 
omitted the ic, a good example of the care that has to be exercised 
in drawing condusiona from old records. 

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come across alterations of the most violent kind, such 
as Vickerstaff, a well-estabhshed Lancashire surname, 
which apparently belongs to Bickerstaffe. 

In fact, local surnames are, when once they stray 
from their habitat, most subject of all to corruption. 
The immigrant possessed of a baptismal or occupative 
name would generally find it accepted in his new 
surroundings without much change, and, if his nick- 
name were unfamiliar, he would soon be provided with 
a new one; but the man who tried to teach his new 
Midland or East Anglian neighbours the name of the 
Northumbrian village by which he had hitherto been 
known, would be very much in the position of the 
medieval Baskerville or Blondeville, whose descend- 
ants have now become, not only Baskwell and 
Bloomfield, but even Pesterfield and Blunderfield. 
The existence of a well-known town serves in some 
cases to normahze the spellii^ of a common surname. 
We do not, for instance, find many variants of York 
or Sheffield, but a place-name which has failed to 
develop into a specific settlement is especially subject 
to variation. In Lancashire documents there are 
several references to Gosfordsich [Walter de Gose- 
fordsiche, Lane. /«?.], i.e. the " sicb " (see p. 76) by 
the "goose ford," a name which now exists as Gors- 
tidge, Gostige, Gossage, Gostick, Gorsuch. 

The suffix portion of local names varies in bewilder- 
ing feshion. We find -wood, -worth, -with (Norse for 
-wood), -wadi, a ford, -ihwaite, constantly interchanging, 
not only with each other, but also with the -ward 0/ 
Anglo-Saxon personal names and with the adverbial 
-ward. Thus the common names Norwood, Southwood, 
Eastwood, Westwood are sometimes for names in -ward 



[Robert a Westward or de la West, Hund. R.]. In 
iact -wood in surnames is generally to be regarded 
with caution, e.g. Stallwood is simply a perversion of 
the nickname " stalworth " or " stalwart." On the 
other hand. Homeward is an alteration of Homewood, 
for Holmwooi, ME. holtn, a holly. 

Yatt, i.e. gate, is well disguised in Boyeatt (bow, an 
arch, town gate), Ditcheatt, Rowatt [Robert de la 
Rougate, Hitnd. R.], Windeatt {wynd, an alley), 
WhiddeU, WiddeaU (Woodgate ') ; BurnyeaU has in 
Scottish the special meaning of small watercourse. 
Gate itself, whether meaning gate or street, is not at 
once recognised in NorkeH (north gate), Forget, Forkett 
(fore gate), Claggitt, Cleggett (clay gate), Foskett (foss 
gate), Poskitt (Postgate), Sloggett, Sluggett (slough gate). 
To these may be added Felgate, for field gate [Robert 
de Fildegate, Pat. R.] and Falgate, Folgate. for fall 
gate [Peter de le Falgate, Hund. J?.], the latter mean- 
ing a gate across a high-road. 

We have a large mmiber of surnames in -fitt, which 
may represent -field, -foot, or -ford, e.g. Morfitt, Murfitt 
(moor field or moor foot ?), Belfitt (Belfield or Belford 7), 
Bre^ (brae foot), BrumfiU (Broomfield), RumfiU (Rom- 
ford), WdfiU (Welford). So also we find Kerfoot for 
Kerfield (Peebles), Playfoot for Playford (Suff.), Fifoot 
for Fifield (see p. 128, ». 3), Linfoot for Linford, etc. 

One of the most interesting cases of sufiix change is 
the confusion between -cock and -cote, -c(M, a confusion 
that we find already in the Rolls. Grewcock, Growcock, 
Groocock, Grocott, Groucuit, Growcott all spring from 

> WhiddeU may also be for Woodkiad. In fact this group b 
easily confused with that of local names in -fuad (p. 138, n. i,), 
Tbeie ia not mnch diflerei)c« between Ditchttt and DUetMott. 

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an original of the same type as the nicknames Pea- 
cock, Woodcock, and represent ME, grew-cok, from 
Fr, grue, a crane [Henry Grucok, Cat. Gen., Gerard 
la Grue, Fine R.]. On the other hand, Ellicock, 
Elcock, possibly dims, of Ellis, may also be for EllicoU, 
from Elcot (Berks), formerly EUeootte {Chart. R.). 
The derivation of this name is, however, complicated 
by the existence of Elacota la Regrateresse (City 
B.) and WiUiam Alicot {Pat. R.), the latter of whom 
may also be responsible for some of the apparently 
VdcaI Alcotts, Aucutts, etc. To get back to firmer ground, 
the Oxfordshire name Didcock is certainly from Didcot 
(Berks), Slocock is for " slough cote," Woolcock for 
Woolcott (Som.), and Bulcock for Bulcott (Notts). 
Even Peacock is sometimes an alteration of the common 
Fr. Picot [Nicholas Pikot or Pyekoc, City A.^ Ckil- 
cock is for Chilcote, and Peter de la Polecok {Testa de 
Nev.) should be " pool cot," while Robert Balkoc or 
Barkoc or Balkot [Cal. Gen.) shows how early the two 
endings were confused. Moorcock, which might be 
identical with Murcott (moor cote), is certified as a 
nickname by Martin Morkoc {Testa de Nev.) and by 
the existence of Morehen. Heathcock is also a nickname 
[Walter Hathecok, Hund. R.]. Among genuine com- 
pounds of -cote the most interesting is Caldecote, with 
a very large number of variants, such as Coldicott, Goldv- 
cott, Calcott, Cawcutt, and Corkitt ! Cf. with these Adam 
de Caldesete {Bp. Kellawe's Reg.) ; see Seed (p. 73). 

Another deceptive ending is -acre, a field, as in 
Hardacre, Hardaker, Hardicker. Its compounds are 
less simple than they look, e.g. Oldacre, sometimes 
eqmvalent to Oldfield, represents more often the ME. 
alder car, a " car," or marshy waste, overgrown with 



ftlders. This is of frequent occurrence in Middle 
English, and is still used in dialect in the form 

" Aleyr ktyr, alnetum " {Prontpl. Parv.). 

" AH the londa, iiiei73, marysses, alitrkars " (Will, 1484). 

With Oldacre cf. Oldershaw, the *' alder shaw," and 
the still earher form in Ollerhead, Ollerenshaw [John del 
Holerinchawe, 1332]. and Ligkiollers,^ Lightowler. 
Whittaker, which represents not only " white acre" (cf. 
Whitfield), but also " wheat acre " and " wet acre," 
is also sometimes a -car name [Adam de Whitdcar, 
Lane. Court R. 1323-4]. Fouracre, Foweraker looks 
simple enough, but may very well come from the dialect 
foreacre, headland of a ploughed field, whence certainly 
Farraker. The well-known Lancashire name Stirzaker, 
Sturzaker, less commonly Steriker, is a genuine -acre 
name, the first element being ME. steor, a steer, bull. 
In Dunnaker the first element may be dun, a hill, or 
dun, brown. Waddicar, Waddicker are from a Sf)Ot in 
I^ancashire formerly known as Wedacre. In Waraker 
the first element is Domesday u>ara,* an outlying por- 
tion of a manor. This is further corrupted into 
WalUker and Warwicker, the latter of which has been 
assimilated to Warwick by imitative spelling. Half- 
acre was used in Middle Enghsh for any small piece 
of ground; ci. Half hide {p. 128. ». 3). Part of Brentford 
High Street is still called the Halfacre. Ranacre, 
Ranigar, Runacres seem to represent the Anglo- 
Saxon name Rsefengar, raven spear. 

> Cf . with this Lightbirkea, a Northumberland shieling mentioaed 
In the Fine R. 

* On this important word see Round's Feudal England (p. 115), 

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Among names compounded from trees the oak 
easily takes first place. Most villages have, or at any 
rate had, before the devastating effects of enlighten- 
ment were really felt, an old oak, gallows oak, batmted 
oak, or some other oak out of the common. In com- 
pounds the word often becomes -ack, -ick, -ock, -uck, 
and in some of the following examples the identifica^ 
tion is more or less conjectural. Whiteoak, Wkittock, 
Whitiick, and Greenoak [Thomas de Greneayk, F. of 
Y.] are simple cases, also Shurrock, Shorrock, Sharrocks, 
[Herbert de Schirhoc, Fine R.}— 

" Skin oak, an oak tree marldng Uie boundary of a shin at a 
meetrng-plaGe for a shin court " (NED.). 

Holyoak, Hollyoak may represent both the " holly " or 
"holm" oak, i.e. the evergreoi oak, and the "holy 
oak " or " gospel oak " at the parish boundary where 
the procession stopped for the reading of the gospel 
when " beating the bounds" — 

" Dearest, bury me 
Under that holy ok*, or gospel tree " 

(Henick, To Amh$a). 

Copfock, Coppack may be for " copped," i,e. polled, 
oak, for the earhest example of theword"cop"inthe 
J\r£Z>. is " coppede ac," Bantock, BantickistoT"hent 
oak"; cf. Adam del Crokedaik (/^Jtf.), Crummock, 
Cromack, crump, i.e. crooked, oak, and Cammack, from 
dial, cam, crooked. But the last three names may 
be dims, of crum and cam used as nicknames. In 
Brideoke, Briddock, the first element is probably ME. 
brid, bird, while Triphook, Trippick may be for 



"thorp" oak" (v.i.). There is also the classical 
example of Snook, Snooks, from Sevenoaks, not neces- 
sarily always the place in Kent so called, for a spot 
called the " seven oaks" is mentioned in the Abingdon 
Chronicle. The intermediate Sinnocks also survives, 
and I find that John Hardyng, of Senock, Kent, was 
indicted for horse stealing in 1551. Snake is probably 
the same name. In Buckoke we have the name of 
some famous trysting oak of medieval hunters. 

Another word that assumes very numerous variant 
forms when used as a suffix is -thorp,* e.g. HiUdrop, 
Guntrip, Westrope, Redrup, Gilstrap, Winthrop, etc. 
Whatrttp, which looks as though it belonged to the same 
dass, is an iUiterate alteration of Wardrop [Thomas de 
la Wardrobe, Hund. i?.]. Hurst, a wood, is slightly 
disguised in Fairest, Greenist, Everest. The last name, 
of reposeful appearance, belongs almost exclusively 
to Kent [Tenentes de Everherst, Hand. R., Kent]. 
The prefix is AS. eofor, a boar, common as first 
element in place-names. Wich, a dwelling, as in 
Norwich, has, as a suffix, often assumed the deceptive 
form -age, e.g. Swanage (Dors.) is Swanewic in the 
AS. Chronicle. Similarly Colledge represents Cohvich 
(Staff.), and Stoneage, Woodage, Middleage, Winterage, 
which si^gest epochs of civihzation and of human hfe, 
also contain the ending -wick. Curiously enough, from 
the alternative -wick we get the equally deceptive 
Middleweek. while Nunweek is of course Nmiwick 

> Browning has " The glowing tripkook, thumbscrews and Qi« 
gadge " (Sotd'i Tragedy, i. 331), but two ont of the three instni- 
meuta are ghost-worda. 

* See exaniplea in Boddeley'e Glouc*tltr*Min PUut-Hmiut (p. x). 



But hardly any suffix is so well represented as the 
simple word house. We have from it many quite 
obvious compounds, e.g. Newhouse and Whiiehouse, 
and others whose survival is interesting, such as Ale- 
house,^ Bathhouse, i.e. tan-house, Duckhouse, Dyhouse, 
Porthouse (gate-house), Sainthouse, Seedhouse, Tap- 
house, Woolhouse, together with the somewhat dis- 
guised Felthouse (field). Childerhouse, though not in 
the NED., presumably means orphanage [John de 
la Chyldrehus, Chart. R.] ; cl Children [John Atte- 
chikiren, Pat. R.] aJid Fr. Auxenfants (p. 280). The 
well-known Suffolk Aldhouse is generally an imita- 
tive form of a personal name Aldus, well recorded 
in the Rolls [Nicholas f. Aldus, Close R., Aldus 
Waveloc, Hund. R.] ; it is also found as Aldus, Aldous, 
Aldis, Awdas, etc. 

But often -house as a suffix is changed into -ows, -ers, 
or -as, -ess, -is, -os, -us, e.g. Bellows, Churchers, Dyas, 
Portess* Burdis, Stannus, Stannas, SUtnnis, all obvious 
except Burdis {Burdas, Burdus), which may be for 
" bird-house," or for Bordeaux. Bellows has a variant 
Billows, and Windows • is probably for Windus, i.e. 
wynd-house. Meadows is sometimes for " mead 
house," whence also Meadus. Other examples in -ers 
are Duckers and Drakers, Smithers, Smeathers (see 
Smeeth, p. 77), Salters, Charters (charter-house), Stalkers 
(ME. stathe, landing-place), Parkers, Jewers,* Childers 

> The two bearera of this name in the Lond. Dir. (1S43) ue botti 

■ This may be for Portrous (p. 156), bnt it is quite posaitde that 
the latter name is sometimes altaed from Portlumtt. 

* Cf,, however, the French name Laftnestn. 

• Cf. the Jew-house at Lincoln, said to be the oldest inhabited 
bnilding in Hogland. 

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(for Childerhouse, v.s,), HiUers, Baggers, Suthers. We 
have something similar to these foims in Janders, 
which actually represents the heroic Chandos [Robert 
de Jaundos, Lib. i?.]. 

Examples of the oth^ endings are Dyas, Hollas, 
Hollas or Wholehouse, for " hole house," Dallas (dale), 
Beddis, Biddis, from AS. bedhus, chapel, the origin of 
the common Welsh place-name Bettws and, sometimes, 
of the name Beddoes [John del Bettis, Nott. Bor. Rec.]. 
With Bullas [Simon de la Bulehouse, Fine J?.] cf. 
Ramus and CouUas, Cowtas, CouUish. Brockis is 
for Brookhouse, Nunniss for Nunhouse, Roddis for 
" royd-house," from the northern royd, clearing, or 
for " rood-house." Charteris is for ChartCThouse, an 
imitative corruption of Chartreuse. For MiUhouse we 
have Mellers. MeUis [Richard de Melius, Chart. R^, 
and even Millist, the latter with an excrescent -t as 
in Middlemist for Afiddlemiss (Michaehnas) ; cf . 
Bonus, Bonest, for " bone-house," i.e. chamel-house. 
I am not sure whether Porterhouse still exists, but 
Pendrous, Pendriss is for " pender-house," the Pender 
being the same as the Pinder or Pounder. Malthus, 
Brewis,' Cottis, Loftus, Lowas, Lowis, Newts are ob- 
vious. With Boggis cf. Finnis [WiUiam del Fenhus, 
Hund. R., Sufi.], and Carus, Carass, Caress, from 
car, a marsh (see p. 93). Harkus is for "hawk- 
house," as Harker is for Hawker, Fawcus, Falkous, 
suggest early shortened forms of Falconas, but are 
more probably variants of the personal names Fawkes 
ifalco), as -us for -es is common in some Middle English 

* Possibly also one of the many variants gf Bruct ; Alan del 
Breuhons (Pat. R.) confirms the first derivation, but Jolm de Brew> 
onae (Clou S.) might b« for either. 

D,g,t,.?<i I,, Google 


texts. With Falconas goes Mewis, from " mew," in 
its original sense of a cage for hawks.* 

Wortos contains the archaic " wort," v^etable. In 
P«a«s we have the Kentish Pett, for PiU. With Crannis 
[Richard de Cranehous, Pat. R.} cf. Duckers. Barkis 
was an East Anglian name long before Dickens [Alfred 
de Barkhus, Pai. R., Suff.]. Barrass may be for " bar 
house," the house at the entrance to a town (cf. Gatus), 
or from the obsolete barrace, a barrier or outwork of 
a fortress, whence the French name Barras. Baylas is 
for " bail-bouse " (see j5a/e, p. 53}, and the very common 
Bayliss must also sometimes belong here. Burrus is 
" bower-house " and Burrows may sometimes have the 
same origin. Dayus is still used in dialect for a dairy 
(see Day, p. 233), and Adam del Cheshus {Hund. R.) 
suggests that Buttress may sometimes represent 
"butter-house." The Lincolnshire Govts is perhaps 
connected with the dial, verb to gave or goave, i.e. 
to store com in a bam, whence the occupative Gover, 
Govier. Copus [Thomas del Cophous, Fine R.] may 
be the house on the " cop," or hill, or the house witii 
the pointed roof, Uke the " copped hall " of the City 
which still survives in CopthaU Buildii^s. Names of 
the type here dealt with are especially common in the 
north and the Roll of the Freemen of York has many 
early examples of them. The above Uit is far from 
complete. Circus perhaps belongs to the same group, 
though I can suggest no origin for it. Lewias is 
probably connected with AS. hleow, shelter (see Lew), 
Wyclif has the inverted kouselewth. Dwerryhouse, 
formerly also Dwarryhouse, means "dwarf house" — 
" Ho dmry Is but lyko a gyaunt longe " (Lidgate). 
> On the origin of one " mBirs " sm my Rohmuk* 0/ Worit, p. lao. 



The compotmds of -land ' offer no phonetic difficulty, 
but include some names of antiquarian interest, and 
others of deceptive aspect. Olland, old land, is still 
used in Norfolk and Suffolk for land that has lain 
some time fallow. Buckiand* is etymologically " book 
land." i.e. land held by written charter. Headland is 
not necessarily a cape — 

" Headland, that which 'a plonghed overthwart at the ends of the 
other lands " (Worlidge, Dia. Rust. 1681]. 

The Scottish term is Headrigg (ridge). Frankland, AS. 
Francland, was used in ME. for France. EasUand was 
applied specifically to the Baltic countries [Eremon 
de Estland, Hund. R., Godeschalke de Estlaund, 16.]. 
and Norland, Westland, Southland may also refer 
to large geographical areas. Brilland once meant 
Wales. The Devon name YaUand, Yelland, Yol- 
land contains the adj. yald, a West Saxon form of old 
[John de la Yaldelonde, Huni. R., Dev.]. Mark- 
land was originally a division of land of tiie annual 
value of a mark. The surname has an alternative 
origin from mark, a boundary. In Trueland the 
adjective has the archaic sense of good, suitable, 
genuine. Cf. TruefiU, where the suffix is probably 
field (p. 91). Both Freeland and Goodland are some- 
times persona] names [Hugh Freeland, Hund. R., 
Hugh Godland, 16.]. They would be AS. Frithuland 
or Freoland, and Godland, names which are not given 

* But it shonid be remembered that the ending -land often repm. 
aents ME. lautid, open coiutiy, F. landt, a moor. 

■ Uke all place-names in Buck-, it may also have to do wMl 
eithei bocks or beech trees. ■ - - 

D,g,t,.?<i I,, Google 


by Searle, although the elements of which they con- 
sist are copiously attested. Other -land names cor- 
rupted from personal names are Checkland, for Checklin, 
a variant of Jacklin [Ranulf Jaklin, Pat. J?.], Jose- 
land, for Jocelyn [Joselan de Nevill, Yorks Fines, 
temp. John], and Candeland [Kandelan de Slyne, 
Lane. Ass. R. 1176-1285], more usually CandUn, 
from Gandelyn. 

Many apparent compounds of -way are from AS. 
personal names in -u'tg' (p. 37). Genuine local com- 
pounds are Birkway (birch), Buckaway (AS. hoc, 
beech), Salway, Selway ' (AS. sealh, willow), Rodaway 
(road), Narraway, etc. Carroway is probably for 
Garroway, from Garway (Heref.). Faraway is from 
Farway (Dev.), with the -a- which is characteristic of 
Devon names (see Greenaway, p. 76, ».). The Dorset 
Samieays was formerly (1517) Samwise, which seems 
to point clearly to AS. samwis,* doll-witted, Ut. half 
wise. Jennerway is one of the many variants of 
Janways, the Genoese. Jackways shows the the old 
dissyllabic pronunciation of Jacques — 

" The melandioly Ja-^usi grieves at that " 

(As You Lih» It. il. 1). 

Spurway seems to be a phrase-name, the native equiva^ 
lent of Pickavance (p. 268), and I should assign a like 
origin to Harkaway, though the NED. has no early 
record of the phrase. Of. Rumbelow, no doubt a nick- 

* This even is dnbioiu. It may be AS. Selewig [Richard Salewy, 
Wore. Priory R»g.]. 

: :* This tarn still snivives in the perverted " sand-blind " and 
] soine dialect expressions, 

D,g,t,.?<i I,, Google 


came for a sailor. Stephen Roraylowe was Constable 
of Nottingham Castle in 1355 — 

" Your maiyners shall aynge arowe 
Hejr how and rumby lowt " 

(Squirt 0/ Low Degree). 

D,g,t,.?<i I,, Google 



" SitAt entri, le prnniflt moatardier saluA d'nn air galuit «t M 
diiigoa vera le bant perron oA le P&pe I'attendait poor lui remettre 
Ub laaignn d« son gr^^i ^ caiUer de buis Janne et Thabit'de 
nftaa " (Alivonsk Daodkt). 

Besides the large number of occupative surnames of 
obvious meaning (Draper, Fuller, Singer, etc.) and 
those which, though a little more difficult to trace 
{Cordner. Latimer, Pilcher, etc.), have a well-docu- 
mented history and have not got far from dictionary 
forms, there are a good many names of somewhat 
rare occurrence or of deceptive appearance, of which 
I propose to give here a selection. Many of them 
present no difficulty, but their survival seems 
interesting. First it must be noted that many sur- 
names in -er, suggesting an occupation or a habit, do 
not belong to this class at all. Some of them are 
Anglo-Saxon personal names, e.g. Asker. Asher, Asser, 
AS. iEschere, Fricker, AS. Frithugar, HoUier, HuU- 
yer, AS. Holc^ar [William f. Hold^ar. Pipe R.], 
Ringer, '^ AS. R^engar [Richard Reynger, Chart. J?.]. 
Diver and Ducker are no doubt nicknames, both 
words being used of various kinds of diving birds, 

» PoMiblj also fot BellrtHgtr, or even for " wringw ■■ [John 1« 
Wringer, Pint R.] ; bnt Ringer is still a foat>nain« in Morfolfc. 



while the two surnames are found especially in the 
fen-country. Diver has been a Cambridge name since 
1273 [Gunnilda Divere, Hund. R.. Camb.], while Ducker 
is common in Lincolnshire. Cf. William Plungun 
{N<M. Bar. Rec.) and Fr. Leplongeon — 

" PloHgton, the mt^-fowle called a duclur " (Cotg.). 

Duckering, also a Lincolnshire name, is local, the 
" ing " frequented by " duckers " ; cf. Ravening 
(p. 64). Dipper, which looks as if it belonged to the 
same class as Diver and Ducker, is local, of Ypres 
[John de Ipre, Lane. Ass. R. 1176-1285]. Diaper ' is 
a variant. The same place has given the Scotch name 
Wiper, Wypers, and the medieval Ypre, locally 
"Wipers," Tower of Rye reminds us of the connection 
between the Cinque Ports and Flanders. Thus history 
repeats itself.' 

Many names in -«■ are from specific place-names, 
e.g. Docker (Lane), Hever (Kent), Laver (Ess,), and 

> The old etymologists alao derived, thongh wrongly, the material 
called diaptr from Ypret. 

* A chapter could be writtoi on var-maps and mmames. II 
we follow to-day (Feb. 28, 1916), aa the great strnggle lor Verdun 
is proceeding, the sketch-map in the Timti frgm Nicnport to that 
fortress, we see to the immediate east and west of the allied line, 
aawe go through the conntry of the Flemings, Pichards, Champneys, 
Loringi, and Butgoynes, the original homes of the families of 
Bttkutu, LyU, Dowty, Aris, Amyas, Cambrty (Ktmbery, Gambray)* 
Noon (Noyon), Susioiu (Soissons), Reames, CkaUm, Vardon, to note 
Qie chief places only. Armentitees ought to be represented, for it 
is vwy common in the Rolls, and John Darmentiers was aberifl 
of London in 1300. All the above are amply attested and there 
are many variants. A Uttle farther south the famous salient of 
Saint-Mihiel reminds us of the popular form of Michael, irtdch has 
givcu ns MighiU, MyhiH, MiaU. and is the chief source of MUtt. 
With the intermediate MiggU* ct Span. MigneL 

D,g,t,.?<i I,, Google 


others represent the local or vulgar pronunciation, 
which is very fond of substituting -er for a more dis- 
tinctive ending. Such are Laidler (Laidlaw), Powner 
(Pownall), Pepler (Peptow), Scatter (Scottow). Crafer 
(Crayford), Stunner {Stanhoe), Snusher (Snowshill), 
Bearder (Beardall '), Priestner (Priestnall '), Hensher 
(Henshaw), Brister (Bristow, i.e. Bristol) — 

" Nnnk I did ever I tell thee o' my BriUfr trip, 
Ta lee Piunce Albert an' the guit im ship 1 " 

(John's Account of his Trip to Bristol, 1S43}. 

With this cf. Brisker for Briscoe. All the above 
place-names also exist as surnames in their more correct 

So also Mesker is for Measure, which, in its turn, is 
Ft. masure, a hovel, tumble-down dwelling ; cf. Fr. 
Desmasures. The Yorkshire name Creaser, Creazer 
appears to be for cress-over, where over, which regularly 
becomes -er in compounds,' is an archaic word for bank 
[John de la Cressovo-e, Close R.]. Stopper is a variant 
of Stopher. for Christopher, Mailer is the Welsh name 
Meyler [Mayelor Seysenek, i.e. the Sassenach, ExcH. 
Cal^, or, as a Scotch surname, means a payer of rent, 
and Hinder is the comparative of hind, courteous, a 
later form of ME. hend— 

" As kitide u an hogge 
And Idnde as any dogge " 


Cf. such names as Elder, Richer, Younger, and even 
Better {p. ^23). 

' Neither name is in the Gazetteer. They represent small spots 
in -h*al (p. 61), probably the " priest's heal " and the " bird heal." 
■ As in Gre*n*r from grttn-ootr. 

D,g,t,.?<i I,, Google 


The multiplicity of occupative names is largely due 
to the iniinite differentiation of functions in the 
Middle Ages. Nowhere is this more apparent than in 
the names derived from domestic office. We even find 
the name Household, with which we may compare 
Fr. Minage. In a fifteenth-century Courtesy Book * 
we find precise directions as to the duties of each Sar- 
vant, viz, the Marshall, Groom, Usker, Steward, Panier, 
Ewer, Sewer, Cook. Squire, Yeoman, Amner. Carver, 
Waiter, Gentleman, Page, Porter, Butler; and several 
of these genera were further subdivided into species. 
Other names of the same type are Chamberlain and 
Seneschal, the latter also corrupted to Senskell and 
Sensicall. The Storer, Storrar [John the Storiere, Pat. 
R.I was also the convent treasurer. And there were, 
of course, a number of assistants to each of the digni- 
taries mentioned above, e.g. the Cook had the help 
of the Sculler, Squiller, Skiller [John le Squiller, City 
E.I in the " squillery " or scullery, and of the Skeemer 
[Richard le Skymere, Cal. Gen.} and Baster in the more 
dehcate processes of his art. A more responsible 
office was that of the Guster, or taster [Robert le 
Gustur, Fine i?.]. Jester is also a surname, but the 
ancestor was not necessarily a buffoon — 

" Of alle maucr of mynslTEtles, 
And gesliovTs that tellen tales " 

(Chancer, Houst of Famt, iii. 107). 

In many cases the official bore the name of his realm, 
e.g. Chambers appears as de la Chambre,' so that 

' "A generall Rnle to teche every man that is willynge for to 
lerne to serve a lorde or mayster in every thyng to his plesnre" 
(ed. Oiambers, E.E.T.5. 1914). 

* Cf . Roger atte Bedde, king's yeonum (Close R.). 

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corresponding to the above names we find not only 
the obvious Kitchen and the rather uncommon Draw- 
bridge, but also many less simple names. The Mar- 
shalsea ' was originally a court which had jurisdiction 
over the royal household ; the name is also found as 
MarshaUsay. With the Usher, Husher, is connected 
Hush, Fr. huis, a door, and also Lush [Thomas de 
le Uisse, Hund. i?.] and Lusher [Geoffrey le Ussher or 
Lussha-, Lib. Cust. Lortd.]. Wiicker, Whitcher are 
variants of the same name [Richard le Wicher, Feet of 
Fines]. The Panter, now sometimes Panther, has also 
given the name Pantrey [John de la Paneterye, Pleas\, 
while Lewry, Lury, from the ofl&ce of Ewer, even sur- 
vives as the fuller Delhuary. Cf. alscLewer and Lower 
[Robert Lewer or le Ewer, tpM.]. Spence, from the 
"dispense," or store-room, is also found as Expence 
[Ralph de Expensa, Bp. Kellawe's Reg.]. With Cook 
is connected John de la Cusyn {City F.), possibly now 
represented by Cushion, Gushing, which run parallel 
in Norfolk. With the Amner, or almoner, goes Am- 
bery, Ambrey. This might be from the archaic and 
dialect aumbry, a cupboard, store-room, Fr. armoire, 
but it is also a corruption of " almonry " — 

" Tbe almonry (of Westminster), now oormptly called the Ambry " 

The Butler's domain was the " butlery," whence 
Buttery [WiUiam de la Botefrie, Yorks Knights' Fees, 
1303I. Even Nursery exists as a surname. 

There are many other names which come from the 
various offices of great households and monasteries. 

■ Perhaps no snrname of the occupative class has so wide « 
nnge of meanings as MarthaU, See NED. 

D,g,„.«n„ Google 


Spittle, i.e. hospital, is also found as Ashpital. Farmery 
is for infirmary [Robert de la Fermerie, Pat. J?.] — 

" Fermory, infirmarinm, infirmatorium " (Cmh. Angl.). 
The misericord, " an apartment in a monastery in 
which certain relaxations of the rule were permitted " 
{NED.), has given the contracted Mascord [John de la 
Misericorde, 14th century]. Frater, which looks like 
the latinization' of " brother,'* is Middle English for the 
monastery refectory [Thomas del Freytour, F. of y.] — 

" ffreytowT, refectoriam " {Prompt. Pare.). — 
or the name may be for ME. fraterer, the superinten- 
dent of the irater [Walter le Freytur, Glouc. Cart.]. 
Saxty, Sexty are for sacristy (cf. sexton for sacristan) and 
Vester, Vesty are both related to the vestry, or robing- 
room [John del Vestiarie, ipM.]. The first represents 
the French form vestiaire, while in the second the -r- 
bas been lost, as in Laundy for Laundry (p. 108) and 
Dunphie for Dumphrey (p. 39). Herbage is OF, her- 
berge, hostel, shelter, and a similar origin must some- 
times be assigned to Harbour, Arber [William le 
Herberere, Lond. Wills, 1318-9]. The Herber, or CoW- 
harbour, was at one time the mansion of Sir John 
Poultney, near Dowgate — 

" A great old hotue called the Erber " (Stow). 
Wimpress is " winepress." For Fann, Vann, the 
winnowing-^n, see p. 59 — 

" Van, a pimm,* or wiunoning sive " (Cotg,). 

' PaUr is a vaiiant of Peter, AfoWr of Matktr, mamtz. 

* This is not always a result, as in VowUr, for Fowler, of west- 
country proDunciatioii. Fan a Anglo-Saxon from Lat, vaxnMS, 
while v«ii ia the some word though French. Cf. William 1« Fannen 
«r Vanneie (Lartd, WiUt, 1391-3). 


D,g,t,.?<i I,, Google 


Other names connected with the subdivision of 
labour are Furnace, Furness, corruptly Furnish, Var- 
nish, Darey [Alan de la Dayerie, Pat. R.], and Landry, 
Laundry [Robert de la Lavendrye, Fine R.]. But the 
last, though not common, has an alternative origin 
from the French personal name Landry, OG. Landrich 
[William Landri or Laundry, Fine R.]. Another un- 
common name with a double origin similar to that 
of Fraler is Parlour [Ralph le Parlour, Fine R., Henry 
le Parlour or del Parlur, Cal. Gen.]. The parlour 
was originally the conversation and interview room 
at a monastery. Gennery,^ Ginnery are from the 
" enginery," some kind of workshop. The NED. has 
the word first for 1605, in the sense of the art of 
constructing miUtary engines, but William del Engin- 
nerie {Close R., temp. Hen. III.) shows that its popular 
form was in use more than three centuries earher. 
Among the many forms of Jenner, the engineer, is 
Genower. Chevery is OF. chevrerie, goat-fold, and John 
Chivery, if the name is genuine, was of like descent. Of 
the same type is Bargery, from Fr. bergerie, a sheep-fold. 
I suppose that Gallery may be from an official whose 
duties lay in that part of the mansion, while Roo} may 
have been the sentinel on the tower. Bardsley e:q>lains 
this name as a variant of the Norse Rolf, but Bartholo- 
mew del Rof (Pat. R.), the common Fr. Dutoii, and 
the Du. Vanderdecken point to an alternative origin. 
Still more limited is Cornell, Crennell, AF. quemel, 
F. crineau, a battlement [William de la Karhayle or 
Kernel, Ramsey Cart^. And it is probable that Garrett 
owes something to OF, garite, a watch-tower, turret, 

I January may be an imitative alteratioii of this, or from OF. 
gtntvroi, a juniper thicket [Roland de la Genveray, CUnt A.]. 



which is also the oldest meaning of our garret; cf. 
Seller {John del Soler, Pat. J?.], still used in dial, of a 
loft or upper room — 

" Sollere. a loft, gamier " (Palsg.). 

" Thei wenten up in to the soler " (Wye, Ads, i. 13). 

Postans is derived from the postern gate [John de la 
Posteme, Testa de Nev."]. 

Some of the above names may be simply due to the 
accident of locality rather than to occupation. This 
applies still more to the followiog, which I put here 
because they approach the others in character. Frary 
is Middle English for a brotherhood, or Friary. Chan- 
try, Chantrey is from residence near a chantry, an 
endowment or endowed chapel with the function of 
praying for the soul of the benefactor. Chaucer's 
Poure Persoun of a Toun looked after his flock — 

" He sette not his hia bene&ce to hyre 
And leet his sheepe encombred in tlie myre. 
And ran to Londotin, onto Seint Ponies, 
To seken bym a chaunUrie for sooles " 

(Piol, 510), 

It has absorbed the domestic chandry, or chandelry, 
the candle-store [John of the Chandry, John of Caunt's 
Reg. 1372-6]. Charnell meant both a mortuary chapel 
and a cemetery [Ahce de Ciraiterio, Malmesbury Abbey 
R^.]. Mossertdew is the ME. measondue, synonymous 
with hospital — 

" Maison Dieu, an hospital!, or spittle, for the poore " (Cotg.). 

XjyvN suggests that Domesday, Dumsday may be the 
same name latinized, domus dei, but, in default of 
evidence, it is perhaps safer to regard it as a pageant 
nickname (ch. x.), from some representation of the 

D,g,t,.?<i I,, Google 


Day of Judgment. Mattdling may also derive from 
a religious institution [Nicholas atte Maudelejme, 
Pal. R.]. Monnery is OF. moinerie, a monastery, 
and I imagine that Mendary, found in the same 
county, is an altered form. Tabernacle was used 
in Middle English, not only in connection with the 
Jews, but also of a canopied structure, niche, etc., 
and in dial, for a woodman's hut. Monument, Mone- 
ment probably record residence near some elaborate 
tomb, the oldest meaning of the word in Enghsh. 
Checker, Chequer, is official, of the exchequer [Ralph del 
Escheker, Fine R., Roger de la Checker, Hund. R.], 
and I conjecture that TolpuU may be for tolbooth, 
now associated only with Edinburgh, but a common 
word in Middle English — 

" A pupplicao. Levy bi name, sittynge at the toOtolke " (Wye, 
Lulu, V. 27). 

A few uncommon surnames have an official origin. 
FitcheU itself [William le Fychde, Hund. R.] is the 
natural popular form of " official " [Nicholas le Official,* 
Pat. R.]. Brevetor meant a bearer of " brevets," ' 
i.e. official documents, especially Papal indulgences— 

" Brevlgeralns, anglice a bmytour " (Voc,). 

Evoy antiquarian dictionary of the seventeenth and 
eighteenth centuries contains the mysterious word 
spigurnel. a sealer of writs, on the origin of which the 
NED. throws no hght. " It is evident that the word 
had no real currency in English, and its appearance is 
due to Camden and Holland, copied by Phillips, Blount, 

1 a. Fi. LojfUiaux (Bottin). 

* Hence perhaps the St&fiordsbire name BrmrUt ; cf. Portttms 
(p. 156). But it may be ratherforthe local Breffltt. brae foot (p. 91). 

D,g,t,.?<i I,, Google 


Harris, Bailey, etc." {NED.). It is, however, of such 
frequent occurrence in the Rolls [Edmund le Spigomel, 
Fine R., Nicholas Sp^urnel, Hund. R., Henry Lespi- 
gumel. Doc. III., Henry Spigomel, City C], that it is 
surprising that it is not better represented as a sur- 
name. It exists as Spickernell, Spicknell, Pickernell.^ 
To the official class belong also Regester and Macer — 
" Maeert, or he that beryth a mace, sepiiger" {Prompt. Parv.). 

The oldest meaning of Sizer, i.e. " assizer," is a " sworn 
recognitor " {NED), and I imagine that a Vizer or 
Vizor [John le Visur, Hund. R.} had to do with " re- 
vismg." Gawler, Gowler [Geoffrey le Cooler, Pleas\, 
besides meaning usurer — 

" Coulart, or osaiare, wnworfiH, Qmvraiot " {Prompt. Parv.)— 
may also come from the same word, gaveller, gawler, 
applied to a mining official in the Forest of Dean. 
Alner is the name of the official more usually called 
" ainager," from Fr. aune, an ell, who attested the 
measurement and quaUty of cloth. 

Some rather rare occupative surnames are due to 
the fact that in Middle Enghsb there were generally 
two words, Enghsh and French, for each of the 
commoner callings. The native Flesher has almost 
disappeared, absorbed by Fletcher and superseded by 
the French Butcher. The native Baker has generally 
prevailed over both Bullinger (also found as Pullinger, 
PiUinger) and Pester* [John le Pestur, City A^. So 
Peacher, Petcher [John le Pechur, Pat. R.], Paster 
[Henry le Pastur, Hund. R.], Scotcher, OF. escorcheur, 
make a very poor show against Fisher, Shepherd, 

D,g,t,.?<i I,, Google 


Skinner. The latter is sometimes represented by Flear, 
for flayer. Sotcher is the natural result of OF. and 
ME. soudiour, a soldier — 

" Sodioure, miles, bellator " (Manip. Voe.). 
Flecker, Flicker [Simon le Fleckere, Norihumb. Ass. R. 
1279] are variants of Fletcher, the arrow-maker, and 
Shermer, Shurmer, Skirmer, Skurmer, etc., represent 
the obsolete scrimer, fencer, sword-player [William 
le Schirmere, Pat. R.] — 

" The serimtfs of their natioD, 

He swore, had neither modon, ^ard, nor eye, 

If you opposed them " {Hamlet, iv. 7). 

More common is the extended Scrimygeour, with a 
great nmnber of variants, Scriminger, Scrimger, etc. 
(see also p. 88). Guyer, Gyer, Gwyer, is OF. guieor, 
guide [Henry le Gyur, Chart. R.] — 
" Conscience, that kcpere was and gywre " (Pier* Ptodwi, B. XX. 7 1 >, 

It is also found as Wyer, Wire, from an Old French 
dial. form. Carker, Charker, are Anglo-French equiva- 
lents of Carrier, Charrier, formed from cark, chark, a 
burden {charge). 

Many names of deceptive appearance can be solved 
by the study of old records. Bardsley guesses Punter 
to mean the man in charge of-a punt. But Ralph le 
Punter, custos pontis de Stanes {Close R), shows that 
he was a Bridgman ' or Bridger, less commonly Brick- 
master.* Rower also savours of the water-side, but a 

■ Punt ia of course equivalent to Bridge [Roger del Punt, PtU. R.}. 

* For " brig-master." Cf. Brich, Brichsloch for Brigstock, and 
Bricker for Bridger. But most names in Brich- probably contain 
" birk," e.g. BrichdaU, BticktU, Brichland, Brickaiocd, etc. The 
last may, however, very well be an alteration of the ME. briggt- 
wari, jost as Haywood is often for the official Hayward. 



record {City C.) of a payment made by the Corporation 
of London to Dionisia la Rowere for wbee^ makes 
it clear that she was of the same craft as Robert 
Rotarius, i.e. Wheeler {Chart. R.). The rare name 
Setter is wisely explained by Lower as " probably some 
handicraft." Later writers have assumed, I know 
not on what grounds, that a setter was one who put 
on arrow-heads. The NED. gives several mean- 
ings for the occupative setter, but the only one old 
enough for surname purposes is " setter of mes, 
prepositor" (15th century). It knows nothing about 
arrow-heads. In City E. 1 find that John Heyroun, 
" settere," and Wilham le Settere were called in as ex- 
perts to value an embroidered cope, hardly the work 
of an arrowsmith. This confirms a suspicion I had 
previously had that this Setter may represent OF. 
saieteur, a maker of sayete, a kind of silk. 

Some rare surnames connected with hunting are 
Varder, the verderer [WiUiam le Verder, Exch. i?.], 
Berner, OF. brenier, the keeper of the hounds [John le 
Bemer, Close R.], and the synonymous Brackner 
[Gilbert le Braconer, 16,], which in modem French 
(braconnier) has come to mean poacher. Related to the 
latter is Bracher, from ME. brack, a hound, though there 
has no doubt been some confusion between this and 
the names Brazier and Bracer, the latter of which 
means brewer. Fr. brasseur. Juster, Jewster, is evidently 
the jouster [Thomas le Justur. Fine R.], and Punyer 
is from OF. pugneour, poignour, a champion — 

" De Sarragnce Carles guarnist les tuis. 
Mil cbevalera 1 laissat puigneurs " 

{Ckamon de Roland, 3676). 

In the Lib. R. we find William le Poignur or Pugnear 


or Punner de la Galee, apparently a formidable mariner. 
Ferler, Furler, is OF. founelier, a Sheather — 

" Foumlitr, a scabberd maker " (Co^gO- 

Stamer is OF. estamier [John le Stamer, Fine R.], now 
rqjlaced by itameur — 

" Eslttmur, a tynner, tynne-man ; pewterer " (Cotg.)- 

Fttlloon, from Fr. foulon, a fuller [Thomas le Fulun, 
Pat. R.], is an example of the small group of French 
occupative names in -on. The above examples, to 
which many more could be added, show that medieval 
England was bilingual to an extent which has hardly 
been realized. 

Among occupative surnames derived from archaic 
or obsolete words, whether French or Enghsh, may be 
mentioned Biller, a maker of bills or axes [Hugh le 
Biller, Fine R.], Power, a sweeper, scavenger [Roger 
le Fewer, Hund. i?.] — 

" ffnaar, or cleosar, mitndtOor, tmundaior, purgalor" {Prompt 

Kittler. kettle-maker, Alefounder, inspector of ale, 
still found in Suffolk, Flather, a maker of fiathes, or 
flawns,^ Theaker, a northern variant of Thacker, 
tbatcher,' Crapper, similarly a variant of Cropper, 
which the NED. defines as " one who crops," Meader, 
a mower, whence Grasmeder, Bester, a herdsman [John 
le BestCTe, Hund. R., Hunts'], Keeler, a bargeman, 

' There is also a surname Flawn ; ct. Cakf, WasUU, Cracknell. etc. 
' Cf. WkaUter, from AS. walot, hurdle, also used of thatch. 
* It is still found in that county. For its deceptive appearaDce 
cf Beitman (p. 337]. 

D,g,t,.?<l I,, Google 


still used io the north of a manager of coal-barges and 
colliers, Marler, a worker in a marl-pit [John le Marler, 
Pat. R.], Retler, a common Devon surname, perhaps 
from ME. retten, to rate, reckon — 

" Retta not the innocent blood in the myddil of the pnple Istael " 
(Wye. Deut. xxi. 8)— 

Counter, a keeper of accounts, treasurer — 

" A shirreve hadde he been, and & eountour, 
Was nowbec such a worthy vavasour " 

(Chauc. A. 359)_ 

Dyter, an " inditer," or scribe — 

" The dyUrU, var. $ndylers, scribis, of the kyng " (Wye. Estlur, 

Render, Rinder, the renderer [John le Render, Archbp. 
Wickwane's Reg, 1279-S4], the exact meaning of which 
cannot be decided. Shutter, Shittler,' and Spindler, 
makers of shuttles and spindles respectively, Styer, a 
horseman, rider — 

" Bite the f««t of an hors, that the ai»r$ therMf falls bacwaid " 
(Wye Gen, xUx, 17) — 

Stickler, an umpire. Heckler* a dresser of hemp or 
flax, Cosier, a cobbler. Oilier, an oil merchant [R^inald 
le Oyler, Leic. Bar. jRec.], Sarter, an " assarter," or 
clearer of forest land, and many more. Some names 
of this class, e.g. Faggeter, Basketter, Trumpeter, 
Preacher, Teacher, Minstrcll, Pronger, Organer, Outlaw, 

* For this fonn see p. 130, n, Simllai^y a Britcher ia net a 
maker of " britches," but a thinned form of Btachtr ip. 1 13), 

* Hence out verb to heckU, i.e. to " tease." Seo Rotnanci of 
Words, p. la. With the name HeckUr cf. Burier, a doth-dreasei^— 

" Burler, ertnberarius " {Calh. Angl.). 

D,g,t,.?<i I,, Google 


are interesting only by their survival. Cheeper, 
Chipper means buyer, or rather, haggler, cheapener— 

" So many chtptrs 
So (ewe biers 
And K> many borowers 
Sawe I never " 

(Skelton, Maner of the World, 105). 

In Lincolnshire occurs the compound Colcheeper, but 
this is perhaps Du. koolschipper , a collier, for Dutch 
names are not imcommon in the county. 

Then we have a number of names which look very 
simple, but the exact meaning of which is very difficult 
to estabhsh. Such are Borer [Robert le Borier, CUy 
£.], Drawer, Dresser, Gatherer, Sealer, all susceptible 
of various interpretations, e,g, a Sealer [William le . 
Seeler, Pat. J?.] may have made, or affixed, seals. In 
Acts of Parhament he is coupled with the chaff-wax 
(see p. 317) and also defined as identical with the 
" alnager," or official measurer of cloth (p. iii). The 
earliest sense given by the NED. for dresser is cloth- 
dresser (1520) ; but John le Dressour {Chesh. Chamb. 
Accts. 1301-60) may have been something quite 
different — 

" DrBss*ur, a straightDer, directer, leveller ; settler ; a raiser, 
erecter ; framer, fashioner, orderer, instructei " (Cotg.). 

Still, as it is a Yorkshire name, it very probably has to 
do with cloth. A Rayer [Ralph le Rayer, Fine R."] 
" arrayed," but the verb is almost as vague as " dress." 
So we cannot decide whether the original Drawer drew 
wire, water, beer, pictures, or a barrow. In the sense 
of tavern waiter it appears to be a Tudor word. In 
modem dialect a Gatherer works in the harvest fields. 



Binder means book-binder [Nicolas le Bokbindere, 
Lond. Wills, 1305-6, William Ligator Libror', Hund. 
R., Oxf.]. It is still an Oxford name. 

A certain number of these surnames have two or 
more possible origins. An obvious case is Porter, 
which may mean a door-keeper or a bearer.' Burder 
may be for " birder," i.e. Fowler, but would equally 
well represent OF. bourdour, jester [John le Burdeur, 
Pat. R.]— 

" Bourdtur, a. mocker, jeaster; cogger, lier, foister, guUer of 
people " (Cotg.) 

" Codes mynstrales and tius messagers and hus muiye bordiours " 
{Piers PUmm. C. x. 136). 

Bowler, Boater, a maker of bowls, had also in Middle 
Enghsh the meaning of one who loved the bowl. In 
1570 two inhabitants of the parish of St. Martin in the 
Fields were presented as " common bowlars" — 

" For hit beth bote boyes boilers atteo ale " 

{Pitrs Plowm. C. x. 194). 

Disher means dish-maker [Richard le Dischere, 
Pat. i?.]. But in Piers Plowman " Dawe the dykere " 
or " Dawe the delvere " is also called " Dawe the dis- 
sckere." Therefore Disher may be for " ditcher," 
Cf. Dishman for " ditch-man." Pillar, Piller, is 
generally local [Thomas Attepiler, Close Rl\, but also 
occupative [Dike le Pilur, Lane. Ass. R. 1176-1285], 
perhaps a plunderer — 

" PyUmrt, or he that pelyth other men, as cacbpolU or odyro lyk, 
pilalor, deptedator " {Prompt. Patv^ — 

' It has very probably also absorbed the " portraycr " [Nicholaa 
le FoTtreonr, Ctiy £>.}. 

D,g,t,.?<l I,, Google 


but quite as possibly a respectable " peeler " of trees. 
As late as 1732 I find in the Nottingham Borough 
Records a payment to — 

" The pillars of tb« baik for work done in the copies." 

Salter has two origins besides the obvious one. It 
may mean a player on the psaltery [Pagan le Salterer, 
Northumb. Ass. R. 1256-79] and also a Leaper, Dancer, 
Hopper, Saylor, Tumber, Fr. tombeur — 

" Master, there is three carters, three shepherds, three neatherds, 
three swineherds, that have made tbemselveB all men of hair ; they 
call themselves salturs ; and they have a dance which the wenches 
say 13 a gaUimaufty of gambols " {WivUr's Tale, iv. 3). 

This suggests Skipper,^ which is not always a sea- 
faring name. Cicely la Skippere {Pat. R.) was evi- 
dently so named from her agility. The word skip had 
in Middle English no suggestion of youthful frivohty — 

" And whanne the apostlis Banabaa and PonI herdeo this . , 
thef skipUM ont among the pnple " (Wye. Acts, xiv. 13). 

Curtler, Kirtler may be identical and mean a maker 
of kittles, or short gowns, ME. curtil, but Gilbert le 
Curtiler {Pat. R.) may represent OF. courtilier, a 
gardener, found occasionally in Middle EngUsh as cur- 
tiler. Sellar, Seller, means not only a saddler, Fr. sellier, 
but also what it appears to mean in plain EngUsh* 

' Oddly enough Saylor, Salitr, F. sailUur, leaper [Hugh le 
SaylUur, Hund, J7.]. is also uncoDnected with the sea, although G. H. 
Lt Stitltur, A.B., H.M.S. Lion, was mentioned in Admiral Beatty's 
despatch, January 34, 1915. The very numerous American Sayhrt 
are mostly German SeUeri, i.e. Ropers. 

* It is of course also connected with " cellar " [William atte 
Selere, City F., Rannlf le Celerer, Pat. R.]. 

D,g,t,.?<i I,, Google 

[Gilbert le Seller, CUy A., William le Vendur, Chanc. 

A few occupative names are of somewhat deceptive 
appearance. Foister, Foyster, is a variant of Fewster, 
Fuster, the maker of the wooden frame of saddles. 
This is also one source of Foster [Thomas Foster or 
Fuster, Kirby's Quest, Yorks, 1285], which more usually 
represents Forster, forester — 

" Forty /osUrt of the to 
These ontUwes had y-sUwe " 

{Ballad of Adam B«JJ). 

Nor can we doubt that the name Foster also represents 
ME. foster, used both of a foster-child and foster- 
parent ; cf. Nurse, Gossip, etc. 

" The Greekea, whom wee may count the veiy fathers and /oslert 
at all vices " (Holland's PlUty), 

Caller means a maker of " cauls," net-work head- 
dresses. Robert le Callere was sheriff of London in 

" Call for maydens, r«U d» soyi " (Falag.). 
Milliner is for MUner, i.e. Miller, or is a thinned form 
(see p. 130, «.) of the synonymous AF. MuUiner. 
Copper represents the once common Cupper fRoger 
le Cuppere, Chart, i?.], now almost swallowed up 
by Cocker, as " buttoner," a common trade-name 
in the City Letter-Books, has been by Butler. Comer 
may be a variant of Comber, but a ME. comere [John 
le Comere, Pat. R.] was a newcomer, stranger — 

" For knowynge of eomtrei thei copyde hym as a fTW« " (Pi»rs 

n,<jv.<!h, Google 


Cf. Guest, Strange, Newcome, etc. Pardner, Partner, 
are from " pardoner " [Matthew le Pardonner, Close R.]. 
Booer is for " boar " or " boor," which have become 
indistinguishable as surnames [Robert le Boor or le 
Bore, Exch. fi.]. Ripper is a variant of rippier, one 
who carried fish injand for sale in a rip, oi basket, and 
is also a dialect form of reaper. Sirdar is quite a 
modern alteration of ME, serdere, a sworder [John le 
Serdere, Pat. R.\. Swindler is altered from Smngler,^ 
a beater of flax. Cheater is for the official escheat^-, 
but may also, Uke Chaytor, come from the normal 
Fr. acheteur, which we have generally rejected for the 
Norman acatour. Cater, Cator. Tricker, a Suffolk 
name, is probably Du. trekker, as hard to define as 
our own Drawer (p. ii6), but Treacher [Matilda le Tres- 
shere, Pat. R.] is OF. trecheor (tricheur), a traitor — 

" Knaves, thieves, and treachtn by spbeiical predomiDODce " 
{Uer. i. 2). 

Pooler, Puller, represent OF. poulier, hen-keeper, or 
poulter [John le Pulier, Pleas] — 

" Poulier, a poulter " (Cotg.). 

Nipper and Plyer, which seem to have some affinity 
with each other, occur in the country of the Nappers, 
or Napiers, and the Players respectively. Poucher has 
a parallel in Purser, a maker of purses, but its habitat, 
Lincolnshire, suggests something more adventurous. 
A Powncer "pounced," i.e. pulverized, various pro- 
ducts, e.g. woad (p. 275). Latter appears to mean a 
lath-maker. Wader has not to do with " wading," but 

* We have the opposite change in Skingler, for onr thingU, a 
loof-latb, ia ultimately Lat. seinduia, wbeuce G«r. StMndtl. 

D,g,t,.?<l I,, Google 


with "woad " [Robert le Weyder or le Wodere, Land. 
Wills, 1305]. It is common in north-country 
records. With Wadman, Wademan. cf. Thomas le 
Madennan {Land. Wills, 1258-1358), who was not 
necessarily more insane than other men. Finally, the 
original Bircher was not an educationist but a shep- 
herd [Alan le Bercher, Hund. R.]. Fr. berger, variants 
berchier, berquier, latinized as bercarius or bercator, 
is one of the commonest entries in cartularies and 
manorial rolls py[artin Bercarius, Cust. Battle Abbey, 
Richard Bercator, ib., Geoffrey le Berkier, Testa de 
Nev.'\. It has usually become Barker, as in Piers 
Plowman — 

" Thyne btrktrts ben al blyude that bryngytb forth thy lambren " 
(C. I. 260.} 

The NED. follows the late Professor Skeat in errone- 
ously explaining these blind shepherds as " barking 

The endmg -ster, originally feminine, soon lost this 
distinction in Middle English^ It has given us Bolster 
[Robert le Bulester, Pat. R.] for Bowler (p. 117), and 
possibly Bolister, though the latter may be for Ballister, 
Balstar, the " balestier," or cross-bow man, who has 
generally become Bannister. Broster is for " broiderei " 
[GeUs Browdester, F. of Y. 1375], and Sumpster, spelt 
Somister in Manchester ' in the sixteenth and seven- 
teenth centuries, is the obsolete summister, explained 
by Halliwell as " one who abridges." 

Many names in -er are rather to be regarded as nick- 
names. Laker means one fond of fun, from a dialect 

' Now Simi$ltT, a common Manchester name. Cf. Simtur tot 
Sumner, Bummoner, and see p. ijo, n. But Simisier is also for 
" ttmpaUt," 



verb which has now become " lark " [Robert dictus 
Layker, Bp. Kellawe's Reg.] — 

" Lakeri, such is the denomiuatioD by which ne distingnish 
those who come to see our country, inttmatiiig thereby not only 
that they aie persons of taste who wish to view oui lalces, but idte 
peisons who love laMng ; the old Saxon word to ' lake,' or play, 
being of common use among schoolboys in these parts" (N£Z>.'i8o5]. 

Scambler may be a maker of " scambles," > or benches, 
but in Scottish it means a parasite, sponger — 

" SaumbUr, a bold intruder on one's generosity or table " 
(Johnson's Dictionary). 

Ambler, a nickname of gait, has absorbed the occupa- 
tive " ameller," i.e. enameller (John le Aumayller, 
gokismith. City B.]. With Copner, ME. copenere, 
lover [Richard le Copenere, Testa de Nev., Dors.], cf. 
Lover, Paramor, Woor [John le Wower, Hund. R.}. 
Shuter, Shooter, was once, as is shown by numerous 
puns, the r^ular pronunciation of " suitor," whence 
also Sueter, but the " wooer " sense is much later than 
that of litigant ; cf. Adain le Pledur {Fine R.). It is 
possible that Spouncer may be a nasalized form of 
" espouser " [Thomas leEspouser, Hund. R.], explained 
l^ the iV£I>. (1653) as an arranger of marriages. Spyer, 
whence Spire, is rather official, the watchman [William 
le Spiour, Chesh. Chamb. Accts. 1301-60] — 

" Hie wayU, var. spier*, that stode upon the toura of jetrael " 
(Wye 3 Kiitgi, ix. 17). 

Revere is the Middle Enghsh form of reiver, robber 
[Alwyn le Revere, Cust. Battle Abbey] — 
" The r»iitr$ of Gentilia hymself shal leren " (Wye. Jer, iv. 7,) 

^ Hence skambks. See Romance of Wordi, p. 106. 

D,g,t,.?<i I,, Google 


The first Trouncer was presumably a man of his 
hands, though the verb was not always colloquial — 

" But the Lord« trounsed Sisara and all his charettes, and all hys 
hoste, with the edge of y* swerde, before Barak " (Judges, iv. 15^ 
tn^. of 1551). 

Boxer is probably for Boxall (Boxwell, Glouc), though 
Sfephen Pi^il is found in the Pipe R. Yarker, Yorker, 
are from dialect yark, for jerk,^ used of the " jerky " 
mamier of sewing of shoemakers — 

" Watt Tinlinn was by profession a suior, but by inclination and 
practice an ardhet and warrior. The captain of Bewcastle is said 
to have made an incursion into Scotland, in which tie was defeated 
and forced to fly. Watt Tinlinn pursued him closely through a 
dangerous morass. The captain, however, gained the firm ground ; 
and, seeing Tinlinn dismounted and floundering iu the bog, used 
these words of insult : — ' Sutor Watt, yo cannot sew your boots ; 
the heels risp and the seams rive.' — ' If I cannot sew,' retorted 
Tinlinn, discharging a shaft which nailed the captain's thigh to the 
■addle, ' if I cannot sew I can y«rh ' " (Scott, Note to Lay of Ut* 
Last Minstrel, tv. f). 

* The late Professor Skeat suggests with much probability 
{Trans. Phil, Soc. 1911-14, p. 51) that this is the origin of the 
cricket " yotker." 

D,g,t,.?<i I,, Google 



" He brought me some chops aod vegetables, and took the covers 
ofi in such a bouncing maotieT that I was afraid I mnst have given 
him some offence. But he greatly relieved my mind by putting a 
chair for me at the table, and saying very afiably : ' Now, six-foot I 
come on ' " {David Copptrfietd). 

The most puzzling class of surnames consists of those 
which appear to be taken from some adjunct of the 
personaUty, whether physical, moral, or external, 
tacked on to the baptismal name without further 
qualification. I mean such names as Head, Shanks, 
Belt, ManteU, apparently descriptive of appearance 
and costume, or those which are the names of objects 
{Baskett, Staff), commodities {Mustard, Wheat), articles 
of diet {Cake, Beer), plants and flowers (Garlick, Lilly), 
and all manner of minute portions of creation down to 
Barleycorn and Hempseed. When such names occur 
as compounds {Broadhead, Crookshanks, Broadbelt, 
Longstoff, Goodbeer, LillywhUe, etc.) they may almost 
always be accepted as genuine sobriquets, which can 
easily be paralleled from the other European languages 
or from historic names dating back to the earliest 
times, such as Sweyn Forkbeard, Rolf Bluetooth, 
William Longsword, etc. But, when they occur with- 



out qualification/ they are often rightly suspected of 
being merely imitative spellings of, or accidental 
coincidences with, names u4iich are really of baptismal, 
local, or occupative origin. Thus Armes is from the 
personal name Orme (cf. Armshaw for Ormshaw), Eye 
is simply " island," and Gaiter is AF. gaitier, a watch- 
man, guard. So also. Hamper is a maker of hanaps, 
or goblets [John le Hanaper, City D.], Tankard is 
a personal name Thancweard, whence also Tancred, 
Tubb is one of the innumerable derivations of Theobald, 
Barren is the personal name Berald, OG. Berwald, bear 
mighty, Billett is a reduction of AS. Bilheard, spear 
strong, whence also Billiard, Pott is an apbetic form of 
Philpot, i.e. MtUe PhiUp, etc. 

Writers on surnames have usually dealt with these 
names in two ways. One method is simply to give a 
hst of such names without comment or history, the 
other is to explain conjecturally, without evidence, any 
name of this class as a perversion of something else. 
The truth is, as usual, a compromise between the two. 
It can be shown, by documentary evidence and by a 
comparison with the surname system of France and 
Germany,' that the majority of these names are what 
they appear to be, though many of the more common 
have been reinforced from other sources. For instance, 
the common name Head is sometimes undoubtedly a 
nickname [William de Horsham called le Heved, City 

I Such names, when genniiie, undonbtedly indicate something 
conspicuous OT abnormal in the feature selected. Such a name as 
Foot would have been conferred on a man afflicted with a dnb 

* There are also many Latin e;camples, e.g. Caligula, small bnsldn, 
Caracalla, Gallic cloak, Sdpio, staff, Sc^ula, shoulder-blade. Struma, 
hump, etc. 

D,g,t,.?<i I,, Google 


B.], with which cf. Walter Caboche {Mahnesbury 
Abbey Reg.) — 

" Caboche bien lymbrit, a. well-gaxnigbed bead-peece, well-t&cklcd 
braine-pan, a stayed, or discreet pate " (Cotg.). 

But it is also local [Thomas del Heved, Hund. J?.], 
the word being used either in the sense of top end (cf. 
Muirhead, Woodhead, etc.) or possibly as a shop-sign. 
We find also as common surnames Ger. Haupt, Kopf, 
and Fr, Tile, the latter being often the origin of our 
Tail, Tate, though this is also found as an Anglo-Saxon 
personal name, from ON. teilr, merry. 

In dealing with these names a little common sense 
and familiarity with Ufe are required. We know 
that the popular tendency has always been to make 
the unfamiliar significant. But, if we have been to 
school, we know that there is no limit to the possi- 
bihties of nickname manufacture ; and, if we are 
philosophers, we know that human nature never 
changes. In some comic paper lately I came across 
the following gracious piece of dialogue — 

" Who was that bloke as I see yer witb last nigbt ) " 
" Wot ? 'Im with the face 1 " 
" No ; the other one." 

If we go back to the thirteenth century we find that 
Philip ove (with) la Teste {Pat. R.) and Emeric a la 
Teste [ib.) owed their names to a similar play of fancy. 
The great difiEiculty is that when such names are 
recorded in our Rolls in their English form the sobri- 
quet, as a rule, is simply added to the baptismal name 
without any connecting particle, e.g. Richard Thumbe 
{Pat. R.), John Tothe (ib.), so that we can never be 
absolutely sure whether we have not to do with an early 

D,g,t,.?<i I,, Google 


case of folk-etymology. In French records, and, 
though to a less extent, in Gennan, the use of preposi- 
tions makes the nickname origin clear. Thus Thomas 
Aladent and Pierre a la Dent (Pacbnio), with whom 
we may compare Haim as Denz {Roman de Rou) may 
be considered to certify oiir Tooth and Dent > [Quidam 
Capellanus Willelmus Dens nomine, Royal Let. 
Hen. III.'] as genuine nicknames, while Peyne mit der 
Vust (Heintze, 1366), whence Ger, Faust, would incline 
us to accept the nickname or^in of Fist, whence also 
Feast, even if it were not absolutely confirmed l^ 
Johaimes cum Pugno (Pipe R.) and Simon Poynge 
(JVotf. Bor. Rec.). Cf. PoincarS {p. 288) and Robert 
Poinfer, i.e. poing de fer {City E.). 

If we examine man from top to toe, first anatomically 
and then with an eye to his costume, we shall find that 
there is hardly a detail of either inventory which has 
not produced a surname, many perhaps now obsolete or 
corrupted beyond recognition, but the great majority 
still in use and easily recognised. It will be noticed 
that English and Anglo-French words occur indifferently 
in names of this class, and that among the latter are 
many terms which the language has since rejected. 
Names of the physical class also reveal the same 
habits of observation and gift for describing conspicu- 
ous features which are to be noticed in rustic names of 
birds, plants, etc. Education has changed all that, 
and we cannot imagine a modem peasant giving any 
one the nickname Larkheel (p. 142) or christening a 
flower the " larkspur." 

Taking first the larger divisions of the human geo- 
graphy, we find Head, Body, and Limb, of which the 
* Cf. Durdtn, Fr. Durtd*nt [John Denrdent, F(m R.]. 

D,g,„.«n„ Google 


first has been already dealt with. Compovmds of Head 
are Broadhead, Cockhead or Coxhead, Fairhead [Adam 
Beaufront, Close R.], Greathed, Lambshead [^nes 
Lambesheved, Hund. R.], Leithead (Uttle), Redhead. 
Ramshead, Whitehead, Weatherhead, Wethered (sheep's 
head), all of them genuine nicknames. More often 
-head is reduced to -ett,' as in Blackett, Brockett [John 
Brokesheved,' Close R.}, Brownett, Bovett (AF, bof, Fr, 
bauf), Butlett [WiUiam Bolesheved, Pat. R.], Cockett. 
Dovet [William Dowfhed, F. of Y. 1354], DuckeU, 
Gosseft [John Goosheved, Lib. Vit.}, Hawkett [John 
Hawksheved, F. of Y.], HogseU. DoggeU [Roger 
Doggisheved, Yorks Fines, temp. John], Redit, 
ThickeU, Stricken (stirk-head, Front-de-Boeuf), Perrett 
[Robert Pereheved, Hund. J?.], and possibly BrasneU, 
from the " brazen head " used as a sign. With 
Roughead, Ruffhead, Rowed [William Ruhheved, 
Pat. R.] may be compared the Old French epic hero 
Guillaume Tfite-d'Etoupes, tow-head, and the more 
modem Struwelpeter. With these go Redknap [cf. 
Robert Bealknappe, Glouc. Cart.}, Hartnupp, and 
Blacktop, Silvertop. Hwe may be also mentioned 
PeUy [Hugh le Pel^, Fine R.]~ 

" FtU, pUd, hairlease, banld ** (Cotg.). 
In some cases -head is substituted for the obsolete 
local -hide (of land), e.g. Halfhead,* Fifehead, Fifett 
(see p. 2), while Redhead, Whitehead have absorbed 

* This rednctioD to -ett also takes place when the -head ia local, 
e.g. Aihett {oak), Brtdgell, Dilckett. CraseU. Gravelt, Puplatt (poplar), 
Watnll (water), etc. For Smithett see p. 7S. 

■ Brock, a badger. 

* Halfhidt also exists ; cf. Hal/acrt. It is interesting to notice 
tbv substitution of -h*ad or -fitld for the obsolete •kitl* in the 

D,g,t,.?<i I,, Google 


compounds in -hood ' [William Redehod, Pat. R.. 
Agnes Wythod, Hund. R.}. With these cl Robert 
Blachod {Close R.), John Fairhode (City D.). 

The simple Body is not a nickname, but a personal 
name, found also in French and Flemish, and da^ived 
from the OG, Bodo, which may be short for one of the 
many names in Bod-, command, or even for Baldwin. 
In compounds, -body has rather the sense of person, 
as in nobody, busibody, etc. Weil-established examples 
are Freebody, Goodbody, Handsomebody, Lightbody 
(probably ME. liU, httle), Prettybody, Truebody. In 
Peabody, Paybody, Peberdy, Pepferday, Pipperday, 
the first element may be the obsolete pea, pay, peacock 
(p. 194). The formation does not seem very natural, 
but cf. Reginald Pefot {Pipe R.) and Robert Levedi- 
bodi, i.e. lady body [IpM., Notts). Many obsolete 
compounds of -body occur in the Rolls. Jdlicorse, an 
existing surname, may represent Gentilcorps, or per- 
haps JoUcorps, and Bewkers is Fr. Beaucors [Jehan 
Biaucors, Pachnio]. In the Pat. R. occurs the name 
of John Ordegorge Gentilcors, i.e. John filthy throat 
handsome body, perhaps a man of good presence and 
foul vocabulary, but the double nickname is ^uite 

Limb is for Lamb, either a nickname or short for 
place-namM Fffeheod. Fifield. There are several such places in 
England, all earlier known aa Five-hide — 

" It is an interesting and curious iact that we owe to the five- 
hide unit such place-names as Fivehead, Somerset ; Fifehead, 
Dorset ; Fifield, Oxon ; Fifield and Fyfield, Wilts ; Fyfield, 
Hants ; and Fyfield, Essex — all of them in Domesday ' Fifhide ' 
or ' Fifehide ' — as well as Fyfield, Berks, which occurs in Domesday 
as ' Fivehide ' " (Round, Fiudal England, p. 69). 

> We have the opposite change in Robert Shevenehod [Hund. R.] 
and Adam Hadcrul, curly head (City C). 

D,g,t,.?<i I,, Google 


Lambert, the latter of which has sometimes become 
Limbert ' [William Lembe or Lymbe, Lane. Inq. 
1310-33], Lem records the intermediate stage. Of 
the same origin are Lomb, Lumb, so that this name 
has run through the five vowels. Joynt is an Irish 
Huguenot name, Fr. Lejoint, from the OF. joint, 
graceful, slim, etc. 

Skull, 5c«M,isa Norse personal name [Ralph! Scule, 
Close R.]. It means fox or the evil one. Face is 
aphetic for Boniface [Face le Femm, Pipe R.] and 
Pale is for Patrick. I have found no trace among 
modem surnames of Alexander Rodipat {Pat. R.) 
or Adam Rudipol {Fine R.). The simple Poll is for 
Paul, OF. Pol ; cf. Pollett. Poison. From noil, used 
both for head and nape of the neck, we have Hartnoll, 
common in Devon — 

" If (Mn hadde be hard nollid, wondur if be badde be giltles " 
(Wire. BccltsiasHeta, xvi. 11). 

Forehead, Forrett is a true nickname [Roger Forheved, 
Close R.] and " brow " may appear in the compound 
Whybrow [Whitebrow the plasterer, F. of V.]. The 
simple Btoic is local, at the" brow " of the hill [Richard 
atte Bro, Pat. R:\, though I find also Richard Surcil 

* This thinning of the vowel in sninaines is a phenomenon which 
has never, I believe, been dealt with by any phonetician, but there 
is DO doubt of the tendency. An early examjde is Philip Biibisnn 
(Hund. R.) for Brabiuon, the man from Brabant. It is seen in the 
names SktlUross for Shallcross, Flinders for Flanders, Willacy for 
Wallasey, SkipsUr lor Shapster, Pettinger for Pottinger, Plimmer iot 
Plummer, Birtell for Burrell , Chiplin for Chaplin, and hundreds more. 
It has, of coarse, parallels in vulgar speech, the best-known example 
being the change from master to mistar. Cf. also Jim for Jamet, 
wishit for waisteoat, and Mr. Mantalini's demnition. I am inclined 
to think that String feUow, formerly Strengfellow, contains the 
northern Strang, strongs 

D,g,t,.?<i I,, Google 


(Fine R.)^ Oxbrow, in spite of the Swedish Oxenstiem, 
is probably from Oxborough (Norf.), Spreadbroui from 
Sprotborough (Yorks), Albrow from Alburgh, Albury, 
Aldeburgh, etc., and Blackbrow from Blakeborough 
(Lane), though it would be a very natural nickname. 
Hair is imitative for the nickname Hare [Phihp le 
Hare, Pat. it.] and Hairlock is for Harlock, a variant of 
Horlock (hoar), often spelt Horlick. Other compounds 
of -lock are Blacklock, Blakelock, WhiUock, Blaylock, 
Blellock, from the obsolete blae, blay,^ an adjective 
probably meaning ash coloured, Proudlock [Thomas 
Purdelok, Northumb. Ass. R. 1256-79], Silverlock, 
Gowanlock [Robert Guldelok, Pat. R.] ; but the sufhx 
in these names may sometimes be -lake, which often 
becomes -lock, as in Fishlock. The commonest of these 
compounds, Whitlock. has three well-attested origins 
— (i) white lode, {2) white lake [Williame atte Whyte- 
lak, Kirby's Quest, 1327], (3) the personal name 
Witlac, which occurs in DB. [Whitlac de Longo Vado, 
Firte R.]. Whitelark is an imitative spelling of one of 
these. We have compounds of -hair itself in Fairer, 
Farrar ' [John Fayerher, Pat. R.], and in Harliss, the 
hairless, while Polyblank is of coiirse Ft. poil blanc, 
white hair. To return to -lock, we have the puzzling 
Lovelock, which the NED. does not find as a common 
noun till 1592. This is not an insuperable objection, 
as I have frequently found words used as surnames 
three or four centuries earlier than their first dictionary 
record ; but it would perhaps be safer to regard John 
Lovelok {Pleas) and Walter Loveloker {Hund. R.) 
as belonging to the ME. loveHch, lovely, affectionate, 

> Btay, Bite, is also & surname, probably from complenon. 

■ In the nickname of Harold Harfagec ttie elements axe reveraed. 



of which the variant lovelok occurs in Piers Plowman. 
In fact, the name, which is fairly common in some 
parts of England, may have an alternative origin from 
ME. lovelaik, dalliance [John Lovelayk, Fine R.] ; 
cf. Laker {p. 122). Tress is short for Tristram. Red- 
mayne is local, of Redmain (Lane), a place which is 
the usual origin of Redman, though this is no doubt 
also a nickname. Carll and Crisp, Cripps both mean 
curly in Middle English, but Curley is also a bird nick- 
name, the curlew [Richard Curlue, ipM.], found more 
rarely as Kirlew. Absence of hair has given the native 
Bald, generally reduced to Ball, and the augmenta- 
tive Ballard. From Old French come Qhaffe, CHave, 
Shave, Shafe, Shove, Shovel, Cavell, Caffyn, Coffin,^ and 
sometimes even Cave. Two examples must suffice 
[Bartholomew le Chauf, Pat. R.. John Cauvel, Pat. R.]. 
With these cf. Favell. tawny [Hugh Falvel, Pipe R., 
Thomas Fauvel, Fine J?.], and FlaveU, yellow-haired. 
A pretty name, which may refer to the hair or the 
complexion, is Nutbroum [John Notebroun, Close i?.], 
with which cf. John Perbroun, i.e. pear brown (»&.). 

Nothing in one's appearance attracts the critical 
attention so readily as the nose, but, thoi^h there are 
many references in the Pipe R. to Moss cum Naso and 
his wife Duzelina, I do not know a single modern 
surname ' derived from this featiire, imless the legend- 
ary origin of the local Cmtrtenay [Hugh de Coiirteney, 

* This is the tnditioiial etymology of Coffin, but 1 am not tnn 
that this name, variaot Go0in, whidi is found in Devon from the 
earliest times, is not rather connected with Cornish CowA and 
Welsh Gough, red. 

' ft is possible that some of our names in -ness, e.g. Hogntss, 
Thickntsst, are physical rather than local. The simile Nmm (p. 245), 
Ktuese may alio refer to this feature. 

D,g,t,.?<i I,, Google 


Hund. R.] has a tributary sowce of truth [William 
Curtnies, Pat. R.]- Peter le Noseless (Pat. R.), Agnes 
Kattesnese {Hund. R.], Adam cum Naso {Leic. Bor. 
Rec.), and Roger Withenese (16.) show that this feature 
did not escape the notice of our ancestors. Cammisk, 
found as le Chammus (Notts, 1272), means flat-nosed. 
Ft. camus, but a number of names which appear to 
belong h^e, e.g. Cammis, Camis, Keemish, etc., may 
equally well be local, of Cambois (Northumb.). Beake, 
Bick are not nose-names, as they occur in Middle 
English with the definite article [William le Beke, 
Hund. R., Richard le Byke, Close R.], but I cannot 
explain them. Mariota Gosebeck {Hund. R.) is a very 
evident nickname. Cheek, Cheke, is possibly a nick- 
name, but I have no evidence except a ME. Chericheke ; 
of., howevo", Fr. Bajoue, baggy cheek. 

Eye in isolation is local (p. 125) and Eyett is its dim. 
But the compounds of the physical -eye are numerous 
and have not hitherto been recognized as such, e.g. 
Blachie [Roger Niger Oculus, Cal. Gen.], Blowey, 
Brightey [John Claroil, Close R.], Brownie, Calvey, 
Dovey, Whitey, Birdseye, Goosey, Starey (ME. star, 
starUng), Hawkey, Harkey ' [Geoffrey Hawkseye, 
Lond. Wills, 1330], Liitley [cf. Andreas dicius Parvus 
Oculus, Pachnio], Silvery, Goldie, Goldney [Richard 
Geldeneye, Fine R.], Sheepy, Smalley, Wildey. Cf. 
with these WiUiam Sweteye {Hund. R.) and the 
medieval French names Brun-Eul, ^lancus Oculus, 
Oculus Auri, quoted by Pachnio. Gennan siunames 
in -auge are also numerous. An alternative origm. 
from -ey, island, is possible for some of the above. 
Cf. Rowney, at the " rowan island " [Walter atte 
■ Cf. Harkins for HawMiu and Harhfr for Haaher. 

D,g,„.«n„ Google 


Roueneye, Hund. R.]. Roffey, at the " rough island " 
[Amfrid de la Rogheye, ib.]. 

Bouch, Buche, Budge, are Anglo-French names, 
" mouth " [Michael od (with) la Buche, Pat. R.}. For 
the form Budge cf. budge-at-court, Fr. bouche i cour, 
free victuals. This surname may sometimes have 
had an occupative origin, for William del Bouch, lay- 
brother of Fumess Abbey {Pat. R.), was evidently 
employed in the provisioning part of the establish- 
ment. The Enghsh Mouth is also a modem surname, 
and Merrymouth is not uncommon in the Rolls [Adam 
Mirimouth, Pat. R.]. It is interesting to find Henry 
Millemuth {Norihumb. Ass. R. 1256-79} three cen- 
turies earlier than the first dictionary record of " mealy 
mouthed," Muzzleis, I think, an imitative alteration 
of the nickname Muslell, Mustol, from OF. musteile, 
mustoile, a weasel [Hugh Mustel, Close R., Custance 
Mustel, Hund. R.]. I doubt whether Chinn is gener- 
ally a nickname,though I have known it so used by 
modem schoolboys. In Simon Chyne (Ramsey Cart.) 
we have perhaps the shortened form of Chinulf [John 
Chinulf, Wore. Priory Reg.], AS. Coenwulf, bold wolf. 
Or Chinn may be from chien, a common nickname 
[John le Chen, Chart. R.], which would readily assume 
the imitative form, apart from the regular tendency 
of e to become » before «, as in ink, ME. enke, or the 
local surname Ind, for " end." 

Tongue is, so far as my evidence goes, local, from a 
" tongue" of land [Benedict del Tunge, Pat. R.], or 
from one of the places specifically named Tonge, Tong. 
To the same source belongs Tongs. Gum is a variant 
of Gomme, ME. gume, a man [Geoffrey le Gom, Coram 
Rege R. 1297], as in bridegome, now perv^ted to hridc- 



groom. Wkifear and Whittear are variants of Whittier, 
an occapative name, " white tawer," i.e. a kind of 
leather-dresser [Walter le Whytetawere, Pat. R.], 
whence also perhaps Whitehair. Boniface is of course 
a font-name, Bonifecius, though its use as the land- 
lord's name in Farquhar's Beaux' Stratagem, and its 
natural fitness of sound, have combined to give it a 
suggestion of rubicund joviality. 

Gargate, Gargett, is from OF. gargate, throat, gvHet 
[Hugh Gargate, Pipe R.]. a name earned in the same 
way as that of the mythical Grandgousier and no 
doubt present to the mind of the creator of Gargantua. 
Neck seems to be a true nickname [Isabel Necke, 
Fine R.] and is found in compounds, e.g. the historical 
Edith Swanneck, the less-known Agnes Cousdecine, 
coUde-cygne {Hund. R.), and Simon Chortneke (ib.). 
Robert Tunekes {Leic. Bor. Rec.) perhaps had what is 
now called a double chin. The existence of ME. 
Swanswire suggests that Swire {see p. 80) may also 
be a physical nickname. Here also may sometimes 
belong Halse, from ME. halse, neck [John Langhals, 
Close R.] and also Haddrell, Hatherall [William Haterel, 
Pat. R.I, from ME. haUrel, the nape of the neck {also, 
the crown of the head), of Old French origin, but 
differently explained by Cotgrave — 

" HaOereau, the throat piece, or fore-part of the neck (belike from 
the Walloones, by whom a mans throat, or neck, is Urns tearmed)." 
This is a common word in Middle EngUsh (see Mr. 
Mayhew's note in the Prompt. Parv.). It may be 
noted that the name, with many variants, seems to 
belong especially to Gloucestershire, while in the 
adjacent Monmouth we find Hatterell Hill, perhaps 
50 named from its shape. 

D,g,t,.?<i I,, Google 


The fairly common Beard [William cum Barba or 
od la Barbe, City D.], also spelt Beart, is curiously 
short of existing compounds, though it has no doubt 
contributed to Wkitbread [Philip Wytberd, Pleas, 
Peter Whitbred or Whytberd, Coram Rege R. 1297]. 
Blackbeard and Fairbeard exist, though rare, and in 
Blackbird, Silverinrd, the original sufhx is also prob- 
ably -beard [cf. William Barbedor, Pat. R.]. Thomas 
Dustiberd {Pat. R.) and Ralph Jolifberd {F. of Y.) are 
not now represented, nor, unfortunately,- Ralph Barbe 
de Averil or Barba Aprilis, who was chaplain to Hi^h 
Earl of Chester in the twelfth century. We may 
perhaps assume that he resembled Chaucer's franklin — 

" Whit was his berd as is a dayeseye " (A. 332). 
The insignificance of the beard in our modern sur- 
names is in curious contrast with the place it occupies 
in history. The reader will at once think of the Lango- 
bards, Bluebeard, Charlemagne " 4 la barbe fleurie," 
Sweyn Forkbeard, Barbarossa, Graf Eberhard der 
Rauschbart, Blackbeard the pirate, etc. The German 
compounds of -bart are still numerous and fantastic. 
A possible English example is Massingberd [Richard 
Massyngberd, Close R., Line, 1329]. Lower says — 

" A very old Lincolosbire family, dating from temp. Henry III. 
. . , the final syllable deaily having reference ta the appendage of 
the masculine c^in. The meaning of the other portion of the name 
is not so obvious, as no word resembling massing is found in early 
English or Anglo-Saxon. In some Teutonic dialects, however, that 
OT a simitar form means " brasa," and hence Massingbtrd may 
signify Brazenbeard, with reference to the personal peculiarity. 
Inf. EeT. F. C. Massingberd, M.A." 

This is quite possibly a correct guess. There i3 an 
ON. messing, brass, still used in German, and found 

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in Anglo-Saxon as meesling, mteslen, while Lincolnshire 
is of course a chief habitat of Norse words. 

Whisker is merely an imitative spelling of the personal 
name Wiscard [Wischard Leidet, Pipe R.]. repre- 
sented by Fr. Gttiscflrti and Scottish Wiskart,^ but OF. 
gernon,* moustache, whiskers, has given us Garnon, 
Garnham [Adam as Gernons, Pifie R., William Bought, 
called Gernon, City D., William Blancgernun, Pat. i?.]. 
Harold's scouts took the shaven Normans for priests 
until the king enlightened them — 

" ' N'oDt mie barbes ne guernons' 
Co diat Herant, ' com noa avons ' " 

(Jlomafi dt Rou. 7133). 

In G«««a«wehave the Old French ioiragrenon. ON. 
bartkr,' beard, has also contributed to Barrett, and the 
same feature is incorporated in Skegg, though both 
reached England as personal names rather than nick- 
names. Sweyn Forkbeard is recorded in the AS. 
Chronicle as Svein Tjuguskegg. 

The rest of the human form divine will give us less 
trouble, as nicknames fasten most readily on visible 
partsand facial characteristics. Shoulders isan existing, 
though uncommon, surname [Hugh Schulder, Coram 
RegeR. 1297]. ME. wambe, belly (cf. Scott's Wamba), 
a common name in the Middle Ages [Matthew a le 
Wambe, Leic. Bar. R«c.], still survives in Whitwam or 

■ John Wiseheut, Bishop of Glasgow (Pot. R.) is asx obvioua 

* This is of cognate origin withSwedish^H.branch.fork, common 
in nam«a. The connection between this word and a Viking beard 
will be apparent to the reader who remembers Sweyn Forlcbeard 
»nd .the bold, bad whiskers of Admiral von Tirpitc. 

* This word is found only in compounds. The Viking Bartbr 
ia called Baiet in Old French records. 

D,g,t,.?<i I,, Google 


Whitwham ' ; and Wkdlebelly is a well-known Norfolk 
surname. Of. Walter Alipanch (Hund. R.) and Sancho 
Panza. Back is probably not anatomical, though 
Petrus ad Dorsum is found in Old French, as it has 
three other well-authenticated origins : (i) local [John 
atte Back, Bardsley, r327], (2) baptismal [Backa 
solus, Lib. Vil.], an Old French name of Germanic 
origin, whence also Bacon; (3) ME. bakke, bat (p. 24). 
It is, however, strange that we find no compounds of 
-back, corresponding to such medieval names as Cattes- 
bak and Longueeschine or OF, Maigredos. Thomback 
is no doubt from the fish. 

Side exists as a surname, but is local [William del 
Syde, F. of Y.], the word being used either of the 
edge of a wood, the side of a hill, or the bank of a 
river, in all of which senses it is common in compound 
surnames, e.g. Akenside (oak), Burnside, Greensides. 
In Halfside the first element perhaps means half-way. 
Tinside is of course for Tyne-side, as Tinneti is 
for Tynehead [Richard del Tyndiheved, Lane. Inq. 
1310-33]. Shipsides is probably from a pasture 
(sheep). But undoubted nicknames are Heaviside, 
Ironside, and Whiteside [Robert Whytside, Fine R.}, 
the last being also local [Richard de Whiteside, 
Close R.]. In my Romance of Names (p. 126) I 
have suggested that Handyside, Hendyside, may 
represent ME. hende side, gracious custom, but the 
variant Handasyde suggests a possible nickname of 
attitude, "hand at side," for a man fond of standing 
with arms akimbo ; of. Guillelmus Escu -k- Col 

* But peih^s local, AS. AtiHiffim, comer; cf. Alexander del 
Qwhom (fl^. Ktllaau's Stg), where the initial Q- is north-country 
for W-, as in Qttarlon for Wharton, Quigl'y iot Wigley, etc 



(Pachnio). The fonnation ol Strongitharm is some- 
what similar. SilversUe is local, from a spot in the 
Lake Country [John de Sylversyd, Preston Guild R. 
1397, Bardsley]. Hardrib seems to be a nickname, as 
also Broadribb, Brodribb, the latter no doubt sometimes 
corrupted, as Bardsley suggests, from Bawdrip {Som.). 
Rump is a common name in Norfolk, and there are 
plenty of early examples from East Anglia [Robert 
Rumpe, Ramsey Cart., Roger Rompe, Pat. R., SufE., 
Casse Rumpe, Hund. R., Camb.]. It is probably 
short for Rumbold or some other personal name 
in Rum-, noble, Heintze derives the corresponding 
German Rumpf in the same way. But Fessey seems 
to represent Fr. fessu, explained by Cotgrave as 
" great buttockt." Richard le Fessu was butler to 
Edward II. {Pat. R.), and the change of form is 
normal ; cf. the vulgar pronunciation of nephew, 
value — 

" la short, I finnly dn bdi«ve 

In Humbug generally, 
Fer it's a thing thet I perceive 

To hev a solid vally " 

(Russell Lowell, Th* Pious EdUor't Cr**Si. 

Hand, Hands, may be explained as rimed on Rand, 
Rands (Randolph), as Hob is on Robert and Hick on 
Richard, but nickname origin is also certain [Robert 
Asmdins, Close R., Ralph cum Manibus, ib.]. White- 
hand exists, and Balmain means fair hand [John Bele- 
meyns, Pat. R.]. To the same origin must be some- 
times ascribed Afa»'«, Mfly«e. Ci.Fist(p.t2y). Quater- 
main, Quarierman, is also a nickname [HerbCTt Quatre- 
mains. Fine R.] ; cf. William Quaterpe {Pat. R.). The 
arm appears only in compounds [Armstrong, Strongi- 

D,g,t,.?<i I,, Google 


tharml, but we have, through French, Firebrace, Fair- 
brass, Farbrace [Stephen Ferebraz, City A .], and Bradfer 
[Matthew Brazdefer, Ramsey Cart.'\. This last has 
also given Bradford, just as Petiifer has sometimes 
become Pettiford. Is Stallibrass [WiUiam Stalipres, 
Fife i?.] a hybrid imitation of these with sied as its 
first component? Suchhybridsoccur, e.g.themedieval 
name Maynstrang, a compromise between " hand 
strong " and " main forte.'* 

The common surname Legg is both baptismal and 
local [Nicholas 1 Legge, Fine R., Pagan de la L^. 
Kirby's Quest, 1327], In the first case it is short for 
Ledger, Legard [Leggard de Aula, Hund. R.\, AS. 
Leodgser or Leodgeard ; in the second it is an archaic 
spelling of Leigh, Lea, a meadow. Here also belong 
Barleggs, barley meadows, and Whitelegg [Richard de 
Whiteleg, Lane. Ass. R. 1176-1285], though Henry 
Whitshonk {Lane. Court R. 1323-4) suggests an 
alternative origin for the second. It is possible that 
there may have been a later formation from the " leg " 
used as a }iosier's sign, but for this I have found no 
evidence. Leg, being a Norse word, may occur in the 
compound Sprackling, corruptly Spratling [Gervase f. 
Sprakeling, Feet of Fines}, which Bjorkman identifies 
with the Old Norse nickname Sprakaleggr, of the 
creaking legs ; cf. Ger. Knackfuss. In Middle English 
the native shank seems to have been preferred in de- 
scriptive epithets [Walter Schanke, Pipe R.], hence 
Shanks, Crookskanks or Cruickshank, Sheepshanks, and 
the less common Etiershank, from dial, aider, etter, a 
tliin rod used in fence making — 

" Edder and stake 
Strong hedge to mtka " (Tuasor). 

Dig*.™ r., Google 


We also find compounds of jambe, e.g . Foljambe, FuU- 
james [Tbomas Foiejambe, Hund fl.], while the still 
conunoner Bellejambe [Adam Belejambe, Pat. R.I 
has been transformed into Belgian. Knee may refer 
to some gec^raphical feature, like Ger. Knie, which 
Heintze derives from the same word used of a nook in 
a wood, but it may also come from Knaith (Line), 
spelt Kneye in the Fine R. ; cf. Smee for Smeeih (p, 77), 
Kneebone, being a Cornish name, is best left alone. 
Shinn, Shine appears to be a personal name, occurring 
chiefly on the Welsh border, and hence probably Keltic. 
It may even be a thinned fonn (p. 130, m.) of Shone,' 
Welsh for John. For Foot cf, Gregory cum Pede 
{Leic. Bor. Rec.) and Jean Aupie, Andreas ad Pedem 
(Pachnio). This has several compounds, Barfoot or 
Bur/oot, Broad/oot, Lightfoot [Lyghtefote Nuncius, in 
the Towneley Play of Casar Augustus\, Longfoot, 
Proudfoot, Whitefoot (cf. Blampied, Blampey), Crowfoot, 
Grayfoot {gray, a badger), Pauncefote, Puddifoot. The 
last, also found as Puddephatt, Puttifoot, etc., is well 
attested as a nickname in Middle English, and belongs 
to a dial, adjective meaning thick or stumpy. Cf. 
Richard Pudito {Hund. R.), John Podipol (ih.), John 
Podihog {Lane. Court R. 1323-4) — 

" He bad clnb feat, aod ... his nickname Poddy came from 
this pecoliarity of his walk " (H. Armitage, Sortehylus). 

Puddifant, Puttifent means " chubby child " (see 
p. 247), \mless it is merely a corruption of Buttivant 
(p. 256, «.). The obsolete, or apparently obsolete, com- 
pounds of -/oo2 are very numerous (see p. 144), With 
PetUfer, \.^. pied defer, cf. JohnSteUot(CtVy C), Ralph 
Irenfot {Pat. R.), and with Pettigrew, pied de grue, cf. 
> With tbia id. Cconiah CKoum [Joba Qume, CIctt R.. ConiwaU]. 

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Ger. Kranefuss. /fee/s generally belongs to AS. healk, a 
local term of doubtful meaning (see p. 62). But I have 
found Larkebele as a medieval name and also John 
dictus Talun (Archbp. Giffard's Reg. 1266-79). I" 
the latter example talon may have its later meaning 
of claw rather than heel, but it is much older than any 
instance of talon, claw, in the NED. Anyhow, it is 
possibly the origin of Tallents. Toe, Toes, are local 
(?■ 50), but Prictoe isapparently a nickname from some 
physical peculiarity. 

Amoftg internal organs we have Heart, Lung, Kidney, 
Giblett. The first, generally for the animal nickname 
Hart, may sometimes be genuine ; cf. Richard Quoer 
(Hund. R.) and Fr. Coeur ; but Lung is a variant of 
£.o«g [Geoffrey le Lui^, Hutid, R.], Kidney is an 
Irish name, and Giblett is a dim. of Gilbert. With 
Goodhart, Goodheart we may compare Bunker [William 
Boncuor, Fine R., Robert Finquoyr, Hund. R.]. 
Hartfru has a suggestion of the Restoration dramatists, 
but is probably AS. Heardfrith. Bowell is a variant 
of PoweU, Welsh ab Howel [Strael Aboel, Fine R., 
Glouc], and Bowles is local, of Bouelles (Seine-Inf.) 
[Hugh de Boeles, Fine R.]. Brain, found chiefly on 
the Welsh border, is a Keltic name ; cf. Macbrain. 
Blood is a Welsh patronymic, ab Lloyd, which became 
Blood, Bloyd, BUtd just as the simplex gave Flood, 
Floyd, Flud. The compounds Wildblood, Young- 
blood are temperamental rather than physical. They 
are perhaps really compounds of blood in its figurative 
sense of ofEsprir^, person ' — 

" This Abel was a blissid bhd " (Cursor Mtmdi, 1033). 

' Cf . the similar use of Ger. Blul — " Eiti junges Blut, a very yoatb " 
(Lndwig). Jungblut ia a German snmame. 

D,9,t,.?<i I,, Google 


Cf. the more modem " young blood," " wild young 
blood," used of a buck or gay spark. 

Bone is usually for Fr, le bon, but both Bones and 
Baines ' may be taken literally [Simon Baynes, Fine 
R., Muriel Bones, Chart. R.]. Compounds are Long- 
bones, Langbain,' Cockbain, Smallbones, Rawbone, the 
obsolete Sorebones, and the existing HoUehon, HoUobone, 
hollow bone,' corresponding exactly to Ger. Holbein 
[Arnoldus dictus Holbein, 13th century, Heintze], Col- 
larbone is an imitative spelling of Colbourne, AUbones is 
from Alban, and Ratkbone is, I think, local, from Rad- 
bourne (Derb.), It is a Cheshire name. Lower gives 
Skin as a surname. I have not met with it, but Purple 
may mean " clear skin," OF. pure pel [Roger Purpel, 
Pat. R!\. Earskin is of course for the local Erskine. 
Tear is for the Gaehc MacTear, son of the carpenter. 

Here are a few more, apparently obsolete, nick- 
names of this class. Although many of them are 
French in form, they all occur in England in the twelfth 
and thirteenth centuries. Probably some of them still 
exist : Barheved {one origin of Barrett), Brokinheved, 
Flaxennebed, Hevyheved, Hundesheved, Kenidheyd 
(kennet, a small hound), Sleghtheved, Wysheved, 
Todheved {tod, a fox), Visdelu (wolf's face), Visdechat, 
Clenebodi, Hendibodi, OyMebuf {ceil de bceuf), Grasen- 
leol (gras en I'ceil), Fatteneye, Mauregard or Maure- 

I Bain ia usually Scottish, equivalent to Setm, fair, but it ia 
nlao a nickname from ME. bain, ready ; cf. Robert Unbayn, i.e. 
the onready {F. of Y.). 

* Here, and in some other componnds, bain perhi^ meaoa es- 
pecially leg; d. Adam Coltbayn {Sorthumb. Ass. R. 1356-79). 
In the TomntUy Mysteries " langbain " is nsed for a sluggard. 

■ HoUomait is a variant of HoUiman, usually " holy man " 
[WUllwn Haliman, Pat. R.]. 



ward, Scutelmuth, Swetemouth, Widmuth, Dogmow, 
Belebuche, Quatrebuches, Treynez (three noses), 
Sharpberd, Stykberd, Tauntefer {dent de fer), Aubum- 
hor, Yalowehair, Blanchpeil {poil), Rugepeil, Beaupel, 
Curpel {court), Blakneyk, Longecoo {cou), Longto, 
Irento, Clenhond, Lefthand, Blanchemains.Malemayns, 
Tortemayns, Mainwrench (twisted ?), Beaubras, For- 
braz, Bukfot, Bulfot, Coufot, Doggefot, Gildenefot, 
Gosefot, Harefol, Hundesfot, Kaifot {kye, cow), Playfot 
(splay ?), Sikelfot, Sorefot. Fothot, Pedechen {pied de 
chien), Pedelever (litore), Pettegris {grice, a pig), Pe 
de Argent, Hautepe, Brounbayn, Crokebayn, Bnme- 
coste (now Bronkkurst ?), Querdebeof {cceur), Comde- 
beof, Cormalejm {cceur malin), Curmegen {caur 
michara?), Catteskyn, Sancmedl6, Slytwombe, Rich- 
wombe (cf. Fr. Richepanse), Pesewombe,* Calvestayl, 
Wytebrech, Smalbehynd, Fayrarmful. 

I Panst A pais is an invective epithet applied to the English in a 
French patriotic song of the fifteenth centtuy attributed to Oliver 

" Ne ciatgnez point k les batre, 
Ces godons (goddams), panchei d pots : 
Car ung de nous en vault quatre, 
Au moJDS en vanlt-il bien troys." 

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" ' %-,' said Mr. Tnpman, bis face sufiosed with a crinumi glow, 
' this is an insnlt.' ' Sir,' replied Mr. Pickwick in the same tone, 
* it ia not half the insnlt to yon that your appearance in my presence 
in a gteen velvet jactot with a two-inch tail wonld be to me ' " 

Having examined man anatomically, we will now make 
a detailed exploration of his costume in peace and war. 
When a small boy assumes his first topper, he knows 
he must steel his heart against the salutation " Ullo, 
'at," with which members of the outspoken classes will 
greet him, and a provincial tragedian, impersonating 
a picturesque brigand, has been encouraged from the 
gallery with "Go it, boots!" The Middle Ages 
were equally attentive to the conspicuous in costume 
and there is scarcely an article of attire > or an adjunct 
of equipment which has not given a surname, either 
in isolation, Hatt, Hood, or accompanied by an adjec- 
tive, Curthose, Hardstaff. It need hardly be said that 
many names of this type have an alternative shop-sign 
origin [Thomas del Hat, Hund. R.]. The Tabard 
will occur at once to everyone, and Crowne is another 
obvious case. As an example of the way in which 
■ Space does not allow of desctibing the gannents mentioned 
and their varied meanings in ME. Those interested should consult 
the NED. or Fairholf s CodwiM in England. 

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names have been taken from garments we may take 
the extreme case of Coverlid. It would seem incredible 
that anyone should be nicknamed from a counterpane 
or quilt, if we had not as evidence Matilda Cooptoria 
(Hund. R.)— 

" Hoc coDpertorinm, a covtrlyi" {Voe.). 

From the head-gear we get Hatl, Capp [Alward 
Capp, Pipe R.'\, Hood, Capron (Ft. chaperon), and the 
obsolete Capoce [Nicholas Capoce, Pal. R.}— 

" Capvehon, a eapueht ; a. monk's cowle or bood " (Co^.). 

The Middle English compounds of Hood seem to have 
been absorbed by those of Head (p. 129). Cowl, Cowell, 
is usually a Manx name (see p. 319, «. 1), but may some- 
times belong here. Toye is a dial, word for a close- 
fitting cap [Warin Toy, Hund. R.]. It now belongs to 
the north and is used several times by Scott. Feather 
may be an alteration of Father, once much commoner 
as a surname than now ; cf. Pennyfeather for Penne- 
father,^ a miser [Justinian Panyfader, Archbp. Peck- 
ham's Let. 1279-92]. But John Fether (Bp. Kellawe's 
■R^g- 1334) points to literal interpretation. Bonnett 
is generally of French origin, a derivative of bon 
(see p. 289). Among the many sources of Barrett must 
probably be reckoned OF. barrette, a biretta, so 
common in the expression " parler k la barrette" — 

" BanetU, a cap, or bonnet." 

" ParUt a sa barretu, to expostulate with him face to face ; to 
Bpeake home, and to his teeth, unto him " (Cotg.). 

* Tbia haa alao become PanjUftT, PsH/ar*. Cf. the rustic " gran- 
ttt " for grandfather. The earliest NED. record for " penny- 
father " is 1319. 

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This word, which has given a French surname, may be 
responsible for Walter dictus Baret (Archbp. Giffard's 
Reg. 1266-79), but this may be the OF. and ME. 
barat, guile, contention, etc., whence also Barter — 
" Baratowrt, pungoax {sic), rixosns " [Prompt. Parv.). 

To costume also occasionally belongs Chappell, OF. 
chapel (chapeau). The hatter is generally " le chap- 
lier " in the Rolls, whence Shapler.' With the Sussex 
name Quaife, from a Norman form of coif [Andrew 
Coyfe, Pat. K.], cf. Lucy la Queyfer, i.e. the coif-maker 
{ib.). Kercher, Kurcher, Kerckey, are from kerchief in 
its original sense, couvre-chef — 

" With this kerchtn I knre tbi face " (Comntry Mytteritt). 

Neck-wear seems to be recorded in Collar, Ruff, 
Scarf, and Partlett, but none of these are genuine. 
Collar is an imitative spelling of Collier, a charcoal- 
burner. The nifi came after the surname period ' and 
Ruff is simply a phonetic spelling of Rough ; cf. Tuff 
for Tough [Nicholas le Toghe, Hund. R.]. Ruff ell. 
Ruffles, I take to be local, at the " rough heal " ; see 
p. 61, and cf. Roughley, Roughsedge. Scarf is an Old 
Norse word, still used in the Orkneys for the cor- 
morant or shag, and made into a personal name in 

* It is stnuage that the name ie not commoner. Hati*r is eqwUly 
nre. SA- for Fr. CA- shows comparatively modem adoption. I 
take it that Shrapnel is a metatheaia of the Fr. CkarboHtui. Char- 
bonntau, " little coal," found in DB. as Carbonel. The inter- 
mediate Robert Sharpanel occurs in Coektrsand Cart, 

* Hence the explanation I have given of Quitter in my Romimc* 
of Namei (p. t-ji) is wrong. It is simply the ftttUtr, i.e. killer 
[Matthew le QQeller, ArM>p. Gray't Reg. 1225-34]. Also K$litr 
[Simon le Keller, F. of V.]. 

" Crackers, facers, and cbyldeme quellen " {Cocke LortlU). 

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England [Hugh Scarf, piscator, ' F. of Y., Henry Scharf, 
Hund. R., Line.]. A kind of ruff worn in Tudor times 
vrtis called a partlet, perhaps from the name of Dame 
Partlet the hen in the Romance of Renard, but the 
surname must go back to the latter. 

Coate has got hopelessly mixed up with cote, coH, a 
dwelling, but we may assume that so common a 
word must have contributed to the ubiquitous 
Coates, while the existence of the Middle EngUsh 
nickname Tumecotel points to a dim. of the word 
as one origin of Cottle, Cuttle. Medlicott for " med- 
ley coat," i.e. motley, seems to be certified by 
Peter Miparty (Fine R.), Fr. mi-parti corresponding 
exactly to " motley " ; but Bodycoat is an imitative 
spelling of Bodicote (Oxf.) Altogether this garment 
is rather disappointing, though there are probably 
some names in -cote, -cott, to which it has contri- 
buted. Lower gives Gaicote, a name I have not met 
with. MatUell is as old as the Conquest [Tustin 
Mantel, DB^. Freemantle is a place in Hants where 
Hem-y II. built a great castle; It is constantly referred 
to in the Pipe R. as Frigidum ManteUum, though I 
do not know the origin of the name. But the existence 
of the opposite chaud-tnanteau [Alice Caumantel, 
IpM.] suggests that Freemantle, formerly Freitmantel, 
may also be a nickname. Pilch is etymologically a 
" pelisse," or fur cloak — 

" Pylek, pellldam, pellicU " {Prompt. Ptuv.). 

Tipp^ is a dim of the ^vourite Theobald (p. 40), or 
' An appropriate nickpamft for a flsberman. Here is a more 
modem case. " At 5, Commerce St., Budde, on the i8tli inst., 
William Cowie, ' Codlin.' fiaherman, aged 79 years " {BaMfftkin 
AdvtriiMr, Aug. 19, 1913]. 

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may come straight from Fr.Thibaut. With thehistoric 
Curtmantle cf. William Curtepy {Pat. R.), who wore a 
short ^«i-jacket — 

" Fnl throdbare waa hia overeste courupy " (Chanc A. 290). 

OF. gonelle, a dim. of gouin, is one origin of Gunnell. 
Geoffrey Grisegonelle was a Count of Anjou. William 
SEiDzgmiele {Pipe R.) belongs to an interesting type of 
name which, though not confined to the costimie group, 
may be conveniently mentioned here. Existing names 
of this class are Bookless, Careless, corrupted to Carloss 
[cf. Robwt Soroweles. Land. Wills, 1319], Faultless 
[John SaunfaiUe, City D.], Hoodless, Landl^s, Lawless, 
Loveless, Peerless or Pearless, Lockless (cf. HarUss), 
Reckless or Reatchlous, all of which are obvious and to 
be taken Uterally. They can be authenticated from 
the Rolls and by foreign parallels, e.g, Fr. Sansterre 
(Landless or Lackland), Ger. Ohnesorg (Careless), etc. 
Waftless, sometimes perverted to Wanlace, Wanlass, 
Wandloss, is ME. wanles, hopeless, luckless.' Fairless 
is explained by Lower as a contraction of " fatherless " 
[William Faderles, Rievaulx Cart.], but perhaps comes 
rather from ME. fere, companion, equal, commonly 
coupled with peer in the expression " without feer or 
peer." It might even be for " fearless." Artless is an 
alteration of ^r*/ess (p. 215), Rugless is tor Ruggles, AS. 
Hrocwulf, rook wolf [William Roculf, Pat. R.], Nickless 
may be for Nicholas, or for "neckless" [Simon 
Nekeles, Hund. J?.], and Sharpless is for the local 
Sharpies (Lane), Makeless, the matchless, does not 
seem to have survived [Gilbert Makeleys, Leic. Bar. 

> Cf. Wanghope. from ME wankope, despair, but, like all -hope 
names (p. 6]), with a possible local explanation. 

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Rec.], unless it is the origin of Maclise. Thewlis, 
Thewless ' in modem dial, means sluggish, easy-going — 

" He was a quiet, thawUss, pleasantljr conforming man " (Crot^ott). 
Cf. the obsolete John Blodles (Hund. R.). Peter le 
Noselese [Pat. R.), William Tothelesse (Lane. Court R. 
1323-4), Thomas Berdless (Leic. Bar. Rec); see also 
Harliss (p. 131). To the same group belong Santer 
[John Sansterre, Hund. R.] and possibly sometimes 
Sansom ; cf. Fr. Sanselme, OF. sans-healme, helmetless. 
To return to garments, we have Cloake [Ahcia Clok, 
Yorks Knights' Fees, 1303], Jack, Jackett, and Douhldt. 
Jack and Jackett are of course usually baptismal, the 
ultimate origin being the same in any case. With 
Doubleti cf. Alexander Purpoynt (Stow, 1373) — 

" Pimrpoynl, a doublet " (Cotg.). 

Jestico looks like a perversion of Fr. j'ustaucorps, cor- 
rupted forms of which were common in Scotland — 

" It's a Bight fer sair een to see a gold-laced jtisHcor in the Ha' 
gaidea " {Rob Roy, ch. vi.). 

Wimplevias a surname as late as the eighteenth century, 
so probably still exists, and " le Wimpler " is a very 
common entry in the Rolls. Cafe and Cofe are both 
sometimes from garments ; cf. Guillaume a la Chape 
(Pachnio) and Henry Scapelory, i.e. scapulary [Anmil. 
Monast.) — 

" Chappe. a churchmans eopt ; also a judges hood " (Cotg.)— 

but I fear that Waistcoat and Weskelt must be regarded 

as corruptions of the local Westcott. Taber is for tabard 

(John Tabard, Lane. Court R. 1323-4], and of course 

• The simple Th»w is probatdy ME. thtovi, slave, bondman. 



has been confused with Tabor (p. 175). It was not 
necessarily a herald's dress, for it was worn by Chaucer's 
Plowman — 

" In a labard be rood upon a mere " (A. J41). 

Similarly Surplice is derived from the name of a gar- 
ment not originally limited to ecclesiastical use. We 
are told that Absalom the clerk wore a kirtle of light 
watchet — 

" And theni|xm he hadde a gay utrplys " (Chanc. A. 3333). 

Slavin [Robert Sclavyn, Fine R.] is from the name of a 
kind of cloak often mentioned in Middle English — 

"Hlstlawjwwaaof theoldicliappe" IRiehari tie Btdtltss, ui. 236}, 

1 1 is supposed to have been a Slavonian garment and 
is explained by Cotgrave (s.v. esclavine) as a seaman's 
gown. Overall is local, the first element being ME. 
over, river bank, while the second may be " hall " or 
" heal" (p. 61). The sleeve seems to have sm^ived 
only in GUdersleeoe [Roger Gyldenesteve, Hund. R^ ; 
cf. William Grenescleve {Lane. Ass. R. 1176-1285) 
and Roger sine Manica {Feet of Fines). We do not 
seem to have any name derived from the glove, except 
the dim. Gauntlttt, though Pachnio has Robert aus 
Ganz and others. MiUen seems to be a genuine nick- 
name [Roger Mitajm, Pai. R.]. 

BeU has a compomid Broadbelt [John Bradbelt, Pat. 
R^, chiefly fomid in the same county (Chesh.) as Brace- 
girdle. The first element of the latter is dubious, 
breeks or breast ? — 

" Go and hava to thoe a lynyn brtgirdit " (Wye. Jtr. xiii. t). 
" A ■posMBse Bchal foigete hir brttt giriU " {ib, il, 33). 

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It gave the name of a trade [William Brigerdler, City 
B.]. With the above names cf. Adam Whitbelt (Pat. 
R.) and Henry Fairgirdle {Leic. Bor. Rec). The 
obsolete name Tutegurdel suggests a very full habit of 
body. Buckle is generally local [Alexander de Boukhill, 
Fine R^, and Hornbuckle is perhaps, as suggested by 
Bardsley, a corruption of Arbucftle, which, in its turn, 
is for the local Harbottle (Northumb.). In Yorkshire 
this is also found as HardbaiUe. Hose ' (cf. Raoul aus 
Heuses, Pachnio) has intachangedwith Howse[NichoIas 
de la Hose, Lane. Ass. R. 1176-1285], and the latter 
has generally prevailed. Thus Shorthouse ' is com- 
moner than the original Shorthose [John Shorthose, 
Lane. Ass. R. 1176-1285], Whitehouse has absorbed not 
only Whitehose [Galiot Wythose, Pat. R.], but also 
Whitehause, i.e. white-neck, which occurs in F. of Y., 
and Whitehorse, perhaps an innkeeper's name [Robai 
Whithors, Pat. R.]. The fairly common ME. Curthose 
[Robert Curthose, Hund. R.] is now almost lost in 
Curtis* generally from le curteis, the courteous. The 
intomediate form appears as Curthoys. Gaiter, found 
also as Gater, Gayter, Gaytor, Geator, is either OF. 
gaiteor, a watchman, or an archaic and dialect form of 
Goater [Michael le Geytere, Hund. J?.]. Probably 
both origins are represented — 

" Cnstodsa qoi vocantur GatigeUrs " [NoU. Bor. Rac. I379). 
" Whether I saU ete fleTsse of buUes, oi I sail diynke Uode of 
(«ytot " (Hampole's Psalter, xlix. 14). 

1 This word tuu Averywide range of meaaiags in Middle English, 
gaiter, stocking, greaves, breeches, etc. See NED. 

* Hence also Shorttrs, Shortus ; cf . Churcitrs, SmUktri. etc. (p. 96). 

* For this change cf. MtUis and Other corruptions of -houst 

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Stockings is local, at the stumps or forest clearing 
[Edmund del Stocking, Hund. R., John atte Stocken, 
Cust. Battle Abbey. 1283-1312]. Boot, like Fr. Bout, 
is a dim. of some Teutonic name in Bod-, command, 
and Button, Fr. Bouton, is a derivative. In spite of 
Caligula, I doubt whether Boot is ever a costume name. 
The apparently parallel cases of Startup and Buskin 
can be explained difEerently. A startup was a rough 
country boot or high-low (see NED. and Nares) — 

" Payre of Harpypp^s, honsaettes " (Palsg.) ; 

but the word is formed in the same way as the sur- 
name, from " start up " [William Stlrtup, Archly. 
Gray's Reg. 1225-54]. We now say upstart, but cf, — 

" That young startup hath all the glory of my overthrow " 
[Much Ado, i. 3). 

Buskin is merely a metathesis of buckskin,^ which may 
have been applied to various garments [Richard de 
Gravde called Bokskyn, City D., Peter Buckskyn, 
JFine R., Walter Buskyn, ib., Martin Peildecerf, Pat. R.]. 
It may even have been a nickname from the quality 
of the human cuticle. There is, however, nothing to 
prevent Messrs. Startup and Buskin from having been 
nicknamed from their style of footgear ; cf. Robert 
H^hscho {F. of y.). Slipperis occupative, the sword- 
sharpener ; see NED., s.v. swordslyper. Clapshoe is a 
variant of the local Clapshaw, apparently the haw, or 
perhaps shaw, of Clapp, AS. Clapa. 

> This Is th« origin of the common nonn buskin. The NED. 
quotes (c. 1490). " Uy Lord paid to his cordwmner (shoemaker) 
for a payr bueskyns xviiid." The continental words anggeated 
by the NED. tot oai buskin (fint recud, 1503) have no o 
with the English word. 

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There is a large group of colour nicknames which 
may also be referred to costume. Even Black, White, 
Grey, Brown, may occasionally belong here, but though 
I have come across thousands of medieval Greens, 
they have all been local, "attegrene," " delagrene," 
Still, ci Fr. Levert and Ger. Griin. BiankeU, Bleaiitt or 
Biueti, Blunkett, PlunkeU,' Russett, ScarleU. are aU used, 
in Middle English, not only of coloiirs, but of certain 
materials usually made in those colours ; in £act scarlet 
as a material is older than the same word apphed to 
a colour. Bissell, Bissett are formed similarly from 
F. bis, dingy, and VioleU [Violetus solus. Pipe R.] 
must surely belong to costume. With these names, 
which are abundantly exemplified in the Rolls and 
exist also in French, go BurreU, Borrell, homespun, and 
hence, figuratively, simple, imeducated, and Ray, a 
striped cloth often mentioned in Middle English — 

" When men with boneat ray conld bolde them seU content " 
(BaicUy, Ship o/ Fools. 8). 

Lambswoot also appears to describe costume, and 
Woolward, Woollard must sometimes represent ME. 
wuUeward, clothed in wool — 


Adjuncts of the costume are Staff, Clubb, Burdon, a 
pilgrim's staff, and Kidgell, Kiggel, Kttchell, KeicheU, 
ME. kycgel,* a cudgel [Walter Kigel, Chart. R., Matilda 
Kiggd, Hund. R.]. These are all well recorded and 

> Also local, from some place in Brittany [Al&u de Plokeset, 
Plugenet, Plogenet, etc., Chart. R.]. Hence also Ptucktutt. 
! Kidgtl. cudgel, ia still in dial, use (EDD.) 

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are supported as nicknames by Giles Machue (Pat. R.), 
a Norman form of Fr. massue, a club. With Staff cf. 
Tipstaff,' given by Lower as a surname, from " tipped 
staff," and the more familiar compounds Blackstaff, 
Hardstaff [cf. Adam Toghstaf, Pat. R.], Longstaff. 
Baston [Thomas Bastun, Pai. R.] is of similar origin — 

" Boston, a stafi, club, 01 cowlstafi. Btit in our statutes it siEni- 
fi«8 one of the Warden of the Fleets servants or officers, who attends 
the kings Conrt with a red staff, f(H talcing such toward as are com- 
mitted by the Conrt " (Bkituit). 

Trounson is for tnmcheon [Robert Trunchun, Hund. 
R.I, but Blackrod, Whiterod, Greenrod, Grinrod, Bushrod, 
are local, the second element being royd, a northern 
word for a clearing [Adam de Blackrod, Lane. Ass. R. 
1176-1285], and Wand is probably an alteration of the 
nickname Want, meaning mole. 

In the case of names of this type, we must also 
consider the possibility of a grotesque physical re- 
semblance being suggested. One has heard of a tall 
lady being described asa " maypole." Leschallas, the 
vine-prop, is a common French surname, and Vinestock 
is found in England. Gadd comes from dial, gad, a 
long tapering stick, used figuratively of a lanky person 
[Joseph le Gad, Pat. i?,]. In one of Maupassant's 
stories there is a bony forester called Nicholas Pichon 
dit L'£chasse, with whom we may compare Robert 
Stilt {Ramsey Cart.) — 

" Eschasai, stilts, or scatches to go on " (Cotg.). 
This seems to be the natural explanation of the German 
name Tischbein (table-1^). Clubb was used for a 

I Tiptaft, TiptofI 19 local, from some place la Normandy formerly 
called Tlbetot, a Scandinavian name in -fofl. It also survives as 

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rustic bumpkin [Geoffrey Clubbe, Leic. Bor. Rec], 
while " bumpkin " itself is possibly from the Dutch for 
a tree-stump. Block, Blogg,^ is no doubt to be ex- 
plained in the same way [Benedict Blok, Exch. R.] — 

" Ye are suche a caUe, snche an asse, such a bhehe " 

{Ralph RoyOtr-Doyster, iii. 3). 

With this group of names goes Whipp, a nickname 
for a carter [Allan Wj'ppe, Hitnd. R., Roger Wyppe, 
Archbp. Romeyn's Reg. 1286-96] ; cf. William ^^^lippe- 
stele, i.e. whiphandle {Pat. R.). Purse. Pouch, PockeU, 
Satchell are also to be taken literally, and Bernard 
Pouch, collector of customs • at Sandwich in the early 
fourteenth century {Fine R.), suggests to us how such 
names may have been acquired ; cf. Wilham BagUte, 
i.e. Uttlebag (Pat. R.). But Wallett, so far as my evi- 
dence goes, is an alteration of valet, a servant [Robert le 
Vallet or le Wallet, Close ff .]. It is also local, for Wall- 
head (see p. 128) . Porteous in Middle EngHsh means a 
breviary, but as the name (also Porleas, Portas, etc.) is 
essentially Scottish, it may come from the special use 
of the same word in Scottish law — 

" Porfeous . . . signifies ane catalogue, coatenand the Dsmes of 
the persanes indited to the justiceair, ({iiliilk is given and delivered 
be the justice clerke to the crowner " (Skene). 

Budgett, Bowgelt, probably belongs to AS. Burgheard, 
usually Buchard in Middle Enghsh ; hence also 
Buckett. Trussell is doubtful, although Trousseau, a 
pack, is a common French surname. Troussel is 
frequently foimd in the Rolls, but it may be identical 

■ Cf. Btagg for Black, Jagg for Jack, Slagg for Stack. 

■ Cf. John de la Barte, collector of customs at Chichester, temp, 
Ed. I. (Fix. Rolls). 

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with the bird nickname Throssell. Thrussell. Bundle 
is probably local, of Bunhill,' and Pack is one of the 
many forms of the great Easter name Pascal [John 
f. Pake, Hund. R.]. 

Coming to purely ornamental adjuncts we have 
Ring [Robert Ring, Hund. R.] and Goldring [Richard 
Goldring, Yorks Knights' Fees, 1303]. Ribbans, a Nor- 
folk name, is no doubt the Flemish Rubens, which is 
a Frisian derivative of Rupert, Robert. Here also we 
may put the precious metals. Gold, Silver, Argent. Gold 
is usually a shortened form of one of the Anglo-Saxon 
names in Gold (p. 45) ; but it is also a nickname [John 
dictus Gold, Archbp. Peckham's Let. 1279-92, Thomas 
withe Gold, Pat. R.]. With the second example I 
should connect Wiegold ; cf. Wyherd • (with the beard ?). 
Purgold occurs in BlomeBeld's History of Norfolk as 
Puregold. Golden, Goulden, usually for the patronymic 
Golding, is also decorative [Henry le Guldene, Pat. R.]. 
Both this name and Fr, Dor6 were perhaps due to the 
colour of the hair. Silver may in some cases be reduced 
from the occupative " silverer " [William Sylvereour, 
F. of Y. 1416], but it is of quite common occurrence 
as an epithet, and ArgerU is a well-established name in 
both English and French, Jewell, foimd also as Joel, 
Joule, Joll, Jull, is a personal name of Old French 
origin [Judhel de Totenais, DB.]. It is found earUer 
as Judikel, and I iancy it springs from a metathesis 
of ON. Joketel, whence also Jekyll, Jickles, Giggle,* 

■ Cf. Brindle (Lane), formerly " bnni-biU." 

■ The commoD AS. Wigbeorht would explain this more safely ; 
but Searle hai do name corresponding to Witgold. 

* Hmce the place-name Giggleswick. The usual view is that 
Jndicael is Keltic. Perhaps two originals are present to the above 
group of namea. 

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and many other variants. The common surname 
Diamond is no doubt as a rule altered from Daymond, 
Daymeni, AS. Dsegmund, day protection, but Dia- 
manda wife of John Coroner (Lond. Wills, 1348-9) 
shows that it was used as a fanciful font-name, Ger- 
man has of course many jewel surnames, but they are 
usually Jewish and of modem adoption. Our Ruby, 
Rubey is local, of Roubaix [Hubert de Ruby, Cal. 
Gen.^ — 

" Le marehaTit de Ruby ne pouvoit vendre sa m&rchandise audit 
pays de Flandres" {Deposition of Bernard de Viptollei, temp. 
Heoiy VII.). 

Pearl appears to be a nickname from the gem, but 
I have found no example sufficiently old to be conclu- 
sive. Beryl, Bernll, occurs in the Rolls [Walter 
Beryl, Fine i?.], but is probably an imitative form of 
the name Berald (p. 34), and Jasper is also baptismal, 
Fr. Gaspard,' the name of one of the three Wise Men 
from the East ; it has also given Gasper. Finally, 
Rainbow, usually an imitative spelling of OF. Reim- 
baud, corresponding to AS. Regenbeald, may also have 
been a nickname for a man who loved bright colours, 
for we have the parallel case of the Minnesinger 
R^enbogen, still a German surname. 

Having considered man in his civil attire, let us now 
examine him when armed for battle. Armour is for 
the occupative "armourer," and has preserved the 
article in Larmor, Larmour [Manekyn Larmurer, 
City E.]. Harness is baptismal [Robert f. Hemis, 
Hund. R.], from an aspirated form of the Domesday 
Emegis, Emeis, an Anglo-Saxon name in Earn-, eagle, 
' It is a Persian name, meaning " treasoTer." 



probably Eamgisl, eagle hostage. But the existence 
of Fr. Beauharnais and Ger. Harnisch points also to a 
nickname, which is confirmed by William Duble Har- 
neys, saddler {City A.). Helm may be short for one 
of the Anglo-Saxon names in Helm-, such as Helmaer, 
helmet famous, whence Helmers, and is also local 
(see p. 63) ; but Basnett is from the basin-shaped helmet 
which was the usual head defence of the medieval 
soldier — 

" Attd a brasnn basynel ou his heed " (Wye. i Sam. xvii. 5). 

Cf . the German names Kesselhut and Ketelhod, the latter 
being the Low German form {kettle hat). William 
Salet {Exch. Cal) took his name from the type of 
helmet ' which superseded the bascinet. Capiin, 
Chaplin, sometimes represent OF. and ME. cafeline, a 
mailed hood [cf , James Cape de Mayle, Pat. J?.]. Haber- 
sAoH is from "habergeon " {2 CAfon. xxvi. 14), adiminu- 
tive of hauberk [Simon Hauberk, Pat. J?.]. This name 
is further corrupted to Hahberjan, Habherjam, and 
Habbijams. The corresponding Ger. Panzer ' is a 
fairly common name. This group was once much 
larger, but as the names for defensive armour became 
obsolete, the corresponding surnames died out or 
became corrupted beyond detection. William Wara- 
bds (Fine R.) and Roger Gaumbeis {ipM.) took thdr 
names from the gambeson, or wadded doublet, wcnm 
under the armour, perhaps the origin of Gamson. 
William Curbuill (Percy Cart.) wore armour of c«t>- 

■ On the origin of taitt, satade, a helmet, see ttij RoManet of 
Words, p. 199- 
* Hence the g*paiu»rtt Faint or " mailed first." 

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bouiUi, boiled leather, once highly esteemed for this 
purpose — 

" Hise jambeux were of quytboiUy " (Chanc. B. 2063). 

This may survive in Corbally and GarbaUy. There are 
plenty of local Actons without invoking the medieval 
acton or auqueton (Fr. koqueton) which was also wwn 
under the armour, but the garment was important 
enough to give its name to a trade [Simon le Actonex, 
Pat. R.\ Both Shield [Roger Shelde, Pat. R.I and 
Buckler are sometimes to be included here ; but the 
latter is, of course, generally occupative ' [George 
le Bukeler, Pat. J?.]. Skew may represent OF. escu 
[John Escud, Pat. R.j, as in Fortescue and Fr. Durescu. 
Cf. with these names Walter Talevaz (Salisbury 

" Talevas, a, large, massive, and qld-fasioned targuet, having, in 
the bottome of it a pike, whereby, when need was, it was stack into 
the ground " (Cotg.)- 

Greaves has probably no connection with armour. It 
has three other well-established origins, viz. grieve, 
a land steward, ME. grtsf, a quarry, excavation, and 
ME. greve, a grove. 

Among offensive weapons we have Sword, Sard 
[Syrich Swerd, Pat. R., William del Espeye, tb.}, 
spear, Spear^oint,* Dagger, Lance ; the last is mc^e 
usually diort for Lancelot, but Longuelance, Lance- 
levee are common medieval names ; cf. also Fr. 
Lalance. Rapier is a variant of Paper, the northern 

> In this class of names espedaJly the reader must be reminded 
that many of them conld be from shop-signs — 

" JeUan Joly at sygne of the bohtkr " {Cocke LortlU), 

■ la this rather a perversion of the local Pitrrtpoint, Pierpont ? 



form of the occupative Roper, and Brand, though it 
means sword, is a personal name (see p. 38). Ap- 
pjireat compounds of -lance, such as Htdance, Roy- 
lance, Sandelance, are merely accidental spellings of 
HuUins, dim. of Hugh, Rylands, Sandilands, both local ; 
cf. fence for " pennies," Simmance for Simmons, Pearce 
for Piers, etc. Pike may occasionally belong here, and 
Hallpike is perhaps for " half-pike" (but see p. 51). 
With Knife cf. J^ian Coutiau (Pachnio). Halbard, 
Halbert may be a weapon name, but the reader will 
remember Halbert Glendinning. As Dart is essentially 
a Devon name, it probably comes from the river > 
Dart. Brownbill, a common Cheshire name, is doubt- 
ful. There are no early records, and the oldest occur- 
rence of brownbill in ttie NED. is 1589. Of Brown- 
sword also I find no earlier example than John 
Brownswerd, 1561 (Bardsley), Randell Brownsworthe, 
1583 (ib. ), so that it is impossible to say whether the 
name is local or represents the weapon. Still, as 
brown, in the sense of " burnished," is a regular 

' of Names (p. 114) I h&ve put forwaid the view 
r BDmamea axe rare aad doubtful. They axe, however, 
} than I thought, e.g. Henry atte Sture {Pal. R., 
Sufiolk), Richard atte Stoure (Coram Rtge R., Essen], the river 
Stonr dividii^; these two counties. Cf . also Caider, Tweed, Solway, 
Wharf, a Yorkshire name, Giipin, a stream in Westmorland, 
whence also the imitative GiUpen. So also Chum, from a 
headstream of the Thames, whence also Chumsida, ChtwKidt, 
Chimsidt, with which cf. Caidenidt, Deebanhs, Creadybridgt. SaUi- 
b»iths may belong to Solway, but perhaps rather to AS. sealh, willow ; 
d. Ewbanhs (yew), Firbants, etc. AUenwaters and GittingwaUr 
are both existii^ surnames, the first reminiscent of a famous song, 
the second [vobably from Gilling Beck (Yorks). Dickens may 
have invented Tim Linhinwaitr's name, but " linking water," 
from the Scottish tittk, to trip along nimbly, is quite a possiUe 

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epithet of the sword in Middle English, I am inclined 
to think that the origin of the name is to be found in 
the "bonny brown sword" of ballad poetiy; cf. 
Richard Whitswerd (Close R.). 

Another name which may belong to this class is 
Glave, Cleaves, the latter very common in East 
Angha. The word gleave, still used in dialect of a 
fish-spear, is the same as glaive, which in Middle 
English means both sword and ^>ear and in Old 
French almost always the latter. In Middle Engh^ 
the word has also the fecial meaning of a spear set 
up as the goal of a race and awarded as a prize to the 
winner, the raigin, I suppose, of the name Winspear ' — 

" C«ftes thd reimen all, but oon of hem takitit the gityvt " 
(Wyclif, Semums). 
" Clayfa wynner, btaoeta" {Catk. Angl.). 

It seems very possible that a nickname could come 
from this practice, references to which are numerous 
in Middle English bterature. Cf. Prizeman and the 
origin I have suggested for Popjoy (p. 20i). In the 
same way Arrow may come from the ^Iver arrow 
awarded to the successful archer [Ralph Arwe, City Z>.] ; 
ci the obsolete Sharparrow. " Mangnall's Questions " 
are not very suggestive of medieval romance, but 
Robert Mangonell {Fine R.) imdoubtedly took his 
name from the warlike engine with which he was an 
eitptrt. That Spurr was a furrier's agn is evident 
from the fact that Richard le Spmere (City B.) is 
also called Richard Sporon (OF. esporon, a ^ur) ; cf. 
Thomas Esperun or Sporun {Pat. R.), whose name now 

* Cf . also Wimpttr. Wituper, vrhkh may be the same, or may refer 
to winning one's Bpuia. 

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exists as Sfearon, Sferring, Spurren. Cockspur was 
a London name as late as the dghteenth century, and 
no doubt still exists somewhere. 

Of the same type as the names mentioned in this 
chapter are the foUowing which appear to be obsolete 
— Whitebelt, Curtwallet, Broimsack, Hlchecurt (court), 
Ruggebag, Wydhos, Witheskirtes. Curtemanch, Grene- 
hode, Irenpurs, Penipurs, Smalpurs, Halebourse, Red- 
cal, Shortecal (see Caller, p. 119), Losgert, Blank- 
hernas, Straytstirop, Langbone, Longespeye, Curt- 
brand, Descosu {Fr. dicousu, ragged), Smal^urd, a 
Est which could be added to almost indefinitely. 

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" Oh I quand ce jour-li je parus dans la cour du coUdge pendant 
la r£cr^tion, quel accueil I 

' Pain de sncre 1 pain de sncre t ' s'iCTiSreDt 4 la fois tons 
m«s camarades " (Anatoi-e France). 

Besides the numerous nicknames derived from a 
characteristic of physique or dress discussed in chap- 
ters vi. and vii., we have a large number of surnames 
which appear to be taken from tools and implements, 
household objects of all kinds, articles of food and 
drink, and even coins and numbers. Many of these 
are due to the imitative instinct, but the majority are 
perhaps what they appear to be, and their use as sur- 
names is due to the object in question having got to 
be regarded in some way as an inseparable adjunct of 
some individual. In Nelson's time the carpenter was 
called Chips and the purser Dips, while in JeUicoe's 
time the torpedo-lieutenant is known as Torps. When 
Smollett wanted names for three sea-dogs. Trunnion, 
Hatchway, and Pipes presented themselves natiu-ally. 
We can imagine in the same way that the names 
Meteyard, Meatyard, Ellwand, Elrod were confored 
upon early drapers who usually had such an imple- 
ment in hand, ot even put it, in the case of their 



apprentices, to irr^ular but effective uses. Or the 
ancestor of the Ellwands may have been long and thin. 
Baskett ' is generally derived from an ancestor who 
r^ularly carried, or had charge of, a basket. We 
have also the surname Maund, from the archaic and 
disdect maund, a large basket, and it may be assumed 
that Gilbert del Maunde, serjeant of the almonry of 
St. Swithin, Winchester (Pat. R.), had charge of the 
alms-basket ; cf. Emolph del Bracyn (Fr. brassin, a 
brewing vat), pientioned among the officials of a 
hospital in the Chart R. Some men were no doubt 
named after the commodities they dealt in. Every- 
one remembers that Dobbin's school-name was Figs, 
a dehcate allusion to his father's grocery, and I have 
known schoolboys with the sobriquets Bricks and 
Balsam, the reference being in each case to the source 
of the family opulence. Hence such a name as 
Hardware, with which cf. Robert Smalware {Pipe R.). 
The following examples havea strong trade suggestion 
about them — 

Alexander Fresharing, fishmonger 

Henry Craspeys (porpoise), fishmonger 

Pyke the fishmonger .... 

John Tupp, carniftx . . , " . . (16.) 

Nicholas Wastal, cook .... {City C.) 

WiUiam Dublc Hameys, saddler . . . (City A.) 

Why people should be named Nail or Horsnail, 
Horsnell is hard to say, but the fact remains that 
these names exist and that they mean literally what 
they appear to mean [Ralph Nayl, Hund. R., WiUiam 
Horsnail, Close /?.]. The corresponding Nagel and 

). bas, low ; cf. 

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Hufnagel ' are well established in Germany, and French 
even has Ferdasne {fer d'dne). Equally unaccount- 
able is Trivett, Trevitt [Ralph Trevot, Pat. R.l which 
is, however, guaranteed by Ger. Dreyfus and Augustine 
Tripoude [Archbp. Wickwane's Reg. 1279-84], for trivet 
and tripod are ultimately identical. No doubt some 
names of this type were sign-names. In the early 
Rolls this can be pl^nly seen [Hayn atte Cok, City E., 
Adam de la Rose, City B.\ and, even at a later date, 
when the prepoation has been dropped, the connection 
is often pretty obvious. Such entries as John Aguillun, 
i.e. goad (F. of Y.), John Whitehors, tavemer {ib.), 
seem to p<nnt to a ^op-sign as clearly as Wbitebrow 
the plasterer {ib.) to the outward and visible sign of 
a calling. One has read of an American dentist who 
suspended a gigantic gilded tooth before his premises, 
and, as every tradesman had a sign in medieval 
England, we may suppose that the name Needle, 

" For thee fit weapons were 
Thy nttld and spindle, not a sword and spear " 

(FaiiiaJi, Tatso, xx, 93) — 

was acquired by a tailor whose emblem was a needle 
of exaggerated dimensions — 
" Moses, merchant tailor, at the nudU " {Pasquin's NighUap), 

Baltance is clearly of sign origin, for Ralph Belancer, 
i.e. scale-maker, who, according to Stow, was sheiifi 
of London in 1316, is called in ihe French Chronicle of 

* Heintn gives thirteen German surname compounds of -Hogel, 
one of which, Wacktrwigtl, is very familiar to students of German 

> This is abo for Nsil with excrescent -4, bat mmM is still dialect 
for n44dtt ; hence also NttUUr for Nudltr, 

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London Rauf la Balance. Crucifix is no doubt also a 
sign-name, and in Limmage, for I'image, the article 
survives. See also Spurr (p. 162). But such clear cases 
are not numerous, and it is impossible to say whether 
John Hunypot {Pat. R.) owed his name to the sign of bis 
shop, to rotundity of person, to a mellifluous style of 
oratory, or was named ironically from a particularly 
vitriolic vocabulary. Equally mysterious is the origin 
of John Sadelbowe {Hund. R.), Roger Hasrape ' {Pat. 
R.). Robert Butrekyde ' {Hund. R.). and hundreds of 
other such names, with which we may compare such 
German * names as Birkenrut (birch rod), Wtndelband 
(swaddling clothes), etc. 

In this chapter I give a certain number of charac- 
teristic names of this class, pointing out as far as 
possible those that are genuine nicknames and those 
which most readily admit of an alternative explana- 
tion, and leaving it to the reader to decide how such 
odd names were or^nally acquired. 

Among names which are those of tools and imple- 
ments we have Auger, Axe, Chisell, Coulter, File, 
FunneU, Gimblett, Hammer, Hatckett, Last, Lathe, 

' Perhaps from an elementary atylo of dress. The costume of 
Dancer, the famous miser, consisted for the most part" olhay-banda, 
which were swathed roand his feet for boots and round his body for 
a coat." 

> A butter-cask. The word is first recorded by the NED. thre« 
ceuturieB later (1367)1 

* The comparisoa with grotesque German names must not, how- 
ever, be pushed too far, as a large number of these are only about a 
ceutnry old, having been forcibly conferred on such Jews as were 
not responsive to the pecuniary suggestions of those entrusted with 
the task of diffusing suniominai Koltur. Examines of snch names 
are Dinunfass (inlcstand), QuadraittriH {square atone), MascM- 
w««<2r>iAl_ (machine wire), etc. 

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Mallet, Mattock, Plow, Rake. Shackle, ShuUle. Wim- 
ble, Windlass. There are plenty more, but these 
will suffice as examples. Ai^er, also Augur, is a 
personal name identical with Fr. Augier, from OG. 
Adalgar, and hence a doublet of Alger, Elgar. Axe I 
may be a metathesis of Ask, an archaic form of Ash ; 
cf. the vulgar pronunciation of the verb " ask " ; but i 
it may very well go with Dagger, Sword, etc. (p. i6o) ; f^ 
cf. Robert Axe (Hund. R.). Ebrard Bradex, i.e. F 
broad axe {Pipe R.), and Fr. Hachette. Our Hatcheltt.'i 
probably has two origins. It is a normal reduction 1 : 
of Hatchard (p. 33, «.}, but its connection with thet 
implement is supported by Robert Coignee(CA<jrt.if .) — [ 

" Coignie, an hatchet, or axe " (Cotg.). 
With these cf. Tuiybell, from the name of a two-edget 

" Twybyl, asda, bisacnta, biceps" {Prompt. Pom.). 

" Twybk, an instrument for caipentara, bemago " (Palag.). 

Chisell is local, of Chisweli (Ess.), Coulter is occupativp 
and equivalent to Coltard, Coulthard,^ etc., the col* 
herd. File, which occurs regularly in Kent in the coni ' 
pany of Fill, has a bewildering number of possib* 
origins. It may be baptismal, for PhiUp or Feli^ 
[Adam f. Fille, Chesh. Chamb. Accts. 1301-60], (f 
come from ME. file,* fellow, still in use in the Artfg 
Dodger's time — B 

" At this point, the Dodger, with a show of being very pW, 
ticnlar with a view to proceedings to be had thereafter, desired r 
Jailer to communicate ' the names of them two fiUs as was on M 

haoch "* iOlivtr Twisi ch yi\ni.\. l 

I Said to exist also aa Coldtart. 

■ There is also a ME. fiU, wench ; cf. Fr. LafilU. 




Most probably of all it is simply Fidd or Fylde with 
the -d lost, as in Wiles from the local Wild [Robert de 
la Wile. Pipe R.] ; cf. the Lane. Files, for Fildes, also 
UpfiU for Upfield, Buiterfin. MorfiU, etc. 

Funnell, a Sussex name, is for Furnell, found in 
the same county, and this is the very common Fr. 
Fournel, a dim. of four, an oven, furnace. This 
somehow suggests Tunnell, which is the AS. Tunweald 
[Henry Tonild, Pat. R.]. Gimblett is a dim. of Guil- 
laume with metathesis of m and / ; in fact, it is a 
doublet of Wilmot, which shows the same metathesis 
in Wimlott, Wimblett. Hammer is the Scandinavian 
hammer of Thor, occurring very commonly in local and 
personal names. It is also found as Hamar. Captain 
Hammer commanded the Danish ship which brought 
to England the bodies of the murdered crew of the 
E 13. Last would seem to come from a shoemaker's 
sign, but, if this were the case, we should expect to 
^nd it generally diffused, whereas it is purely a Suffolk 
.ame. The only clue I have found is John Alast 
' Hund. R., Line), which may be for " at last." Lathe 
Middle EngUsh for a barn [William de la Leythe, 
\rchbp. Giffard's Reg. 1266-79]. Mallett is the regular 
I xiuction of Maillard, a French personal name from 
- J. Madalhart, but is probably also a dim. of Mai, 
. Mary; cf. Pallett. Matlock is generally an 
tiitative form of Welsh Madoc, but may in some 
ases be from the tool. With Reginald Mattodc 
'<ram Rege R. 1297) cf. John Pykoyse {Pat. R.)— 

■■ '> " PiequoU, a pickax " (Cotg.). 

■hfork is a corruption of the local Pitchford (Salop). 

D,g,„.«n„ Google 


Plow was a common inn and shop sign [Roger de 
la Plow, Pat. R.I— 

" Master Nicke, the silkmaji at the Plow " {Pasguiti's Nightcap). 

Hence perhaps also Plews, Plues. Rake is more 
probably local, from a dialect word for a rough path, 
pasture [Geoffrey del Rakes, Lane. Inq. 1310-33]. It 
is more often fomid as Raikes, whence also Reeks, 
Rex. Of. the compound HolUndrake, Hollingrake, 
from dialect hoUin, holly. Shackle is a personal name 
[Robert Schakel, Coram Rege R. 1297] which appears 
in some place-names, e.g. Shackleford, Schackleton ; 
but it was perhaps originally a Norse nickname, from 
ON. skokuU, w^gon pole, etc. Shuttle is probably 
also a personal name [Simon Shitel, Pat. R.], from 
AS. Sceotweald, as in Shuttleworth (but see p. 183), 
Wimble is for Wimbolt, AS. Winebeald, and Windlass, 
Windless should probably be added to the -less names 
on p. 149, for it seems to represent AS. wineleas, 
friendless; cf. Henry Frendles {Lane. Ass. R. 1176- 
1285). It might, of course, be a phrase-name, " win 
lass" (seep. 263). 

The atamples dealt with above mostly illustrate 
the fact that in names of this type we must always 
look out for imitative corruption, but in most of 
them the alternative hteral meaning is not excluded. 
When a name is at all common it usually has 
more than one origin. For instance, Winch, which 
might have been put with the above, is derived 
from Winch (Norl), from the " winch " of a well 
or floodgate [Richard Attewynche, Pat. R.], and also 
from ME. wenche, a young woman, which dropped 
out of the surname Ust as the word degenerated in 



meaning [Philip le Wenche, FtMC R., WiUiam le 
Wenche, Pat. R.]. Cf. Maid, Maiden. 

A small group of surnames connected with sea- 
faring and the waterside belong rather to occupative 
names. Such are Barge, Bark, Boat, Catch or Ketch, 
Galley, Hoy, Shipp, Wherry. These are all genuine, 
though 5A»^/» is also for "sheep"; and several of them 
are found among the Freemen of 'York much earher 
than the corresponding entries in the NED. Catch 
is the earlier form of Ketch [Henry de la Keche, CUy £,]. 
Cf. such names as Cart and Wain. It is quite possible 
that CarrtUt, Carrett, Carritt, Carrott, all found in 
Lincolnshire, represent AF, carele [Nicholas de la 
Carete, Pat. R.] for Fr. charrette, charoUe. At the 
risk of wearisome repetition, one must keep emphasizing 
the fact that the creation of surnames is due to un- 
changing human nature.and that their investigation re- 
quires common sense. There is nothing more natural 
than that a man should be nicknamed from the object 
most closely associated with his daily activity. Just 
asG«gtfr.Ga»g«f is from the office of "ganger" [William 
le Gaugeour, ganger of wines in England, Ireland and 
Wales, Fine R.\, so Gage was a nickname for an official 
of the same class ^Nicholas Gauge, troner ' of wools 
in L)mn, Fine fi.]. 

To consider all the cases in which people have been 
named from the commodities they dealt in would take 
up too much space, so a few illustrative examples must 
suffice. There can be no doubt that surnames were 

t Th« official in chuge of the fnnt. or weighing machine. He was 
also called a Poystr, PoyxM. Sir William Gage, of Suffolk, to whom 
we owe the greengage, bad not wandered far from the honw ot thi> 
poaaibk ancestor. 

D,g,t,.?<i I,, Google 


acquired in this way, for we even find the inclusive 
Chaffer [Henry Chaffar, Pat. R.}— 
" The chaffare, var. marefiaundte, of the Jentiles " {Wye. Is. 

and Marchandy, Marchandise both exist in French, I 
have found Clothes in Somerset, the home of the 
surname Clothier, in its older sense of cloth-worker. 
So also Cords and Ropes [Geoffrey Rope, Pat. R., 
Richard Cordel, li,] are probably of trade origin, 
though they may have been nicknames for that 
busy medieval official, the hangman. Cordwent is 
simply " cordwain," ' i.e. Cordovan leather [Lambert 
Cordewen, Hvnd. Jt.], With the ^mous Hogsfiesk we 
can compare Robert Pigesfles {City A.) and Johannes 
dictus Venesun (Arckbp. Romeyn's Reg. 1286-96). 
The latter name, of which I have found several medieval 
examples, is no doubt absorbed by Vinson, Vincent. 

This brings us naturally to the large number of 
names connected with foods and drinks, most of 
which can be accepted as genuine, though it is a moot 
point how far they are due respectively to the fame of 
the purveyor or the predilections of the consumer. 
The odd and homely character of many names of this 
class is exemplified by Casetnbrood, the name of a 
famous Dutch admiral, which has a parallel in Geoffrey 

> In a aomswhat ambitioua bool^ on surnames published a few 
years ago we find the astounding statement that " Lord Teynham, 
being a Roptr, must have drawn his family from one who was a 
' cord-wainer,' pacing hourly backwards and dealing out the hemp 
that was being spun and twisted, a monotonous toil from dawn to 
■unset, unenlightened by a glimpse of the future in which a descend- 
ant would wear the six pearls and have as crest a lion rampant 
bearing a ducal crown." Macaulay's schoolboy could have told 
is <Mily equalled by 

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Cheseandbrede (Yorks Knights' Fees, 1303). Besides 
well-known existing compounds of -bread we find in 
Middle English such names as John BarUbred {Pipe R.), 
Adam Cokinbred ' {Leic. Bor. Rec.), Cicely Cromebred 
{Ramsey Carl.), John Drybred (Hund. R), John 
Netpayn (Pat. R.). and William Hahbred (Exch. R.), 
the lattCT still existing as Hallowbread, HoUowbread. 
The French compounds of Pain- are equallynumerous — 

" M. PainUvi, Minister of Instruction and Inventions, retuned 
to Vaxia to-day from England " (DaUy TtUgtaph, Feb. 25, 1916). 

Cf. Isabella Levanbrede {Yorks, 1379). To bread 
belongs also Bulieet [Agnes Buletel, Hund. R.], con- 
nected with OF, buleter (bluter), to bolt, sift — 

" BulUl is the refuse of the meal, after it is dressed by the baiter " 

Crust is short for Christian as Trust is for Tristram, 
and Crumb is local,' of Groom [Adam de Cnunb, 
Chart. R.]. Cake, Langcake, Longcake are all existing 
surnames; Matilda Havercake, i.e. oat-cake, occurs 
in the Hund. R. and Robert Wytecake in Archbp. 
Wickwane's Reg. (1279-84) ; cf. John Foace, of Rouen 
{Pat. R.)— 

" FoBasst, a bonne, or cake, hastily baited " (Cotg.). 
Pancoucke, a famous French pubhsher of the eighteenth 
century, is simply the Dutch for pancake {pankoek), and 
our Pancutt is possibly an alteration of the same name. 
But Honeybun, Hunnybun are variants of the local 
Honeyboume. Another imitative name is Suet, for 
Seward, AS. Sasweard [John Suard, Fine R., John 
Suet, «6.1. 

* For Mckt bread ; see NED. 

* It may be alio a variant of Crumtp, a nickname '"■awtng owoksd. 



But, leaving aside such obvious names as Pudding, 
Pottage, we will consider a few d^ived from obsolete 
words. Brewitt, Browett is OF. and ME. brouet, broth, 
pottage, the ultimate origin of the Scottish brose [John 
Brouet, Pat. R.]. Fermidge, Firmage, Furmidge is 
AF. furmage {frontage), cheese, Haggas, now limited 
to Scotland, was a common word in Middle English — 

" Haihis, pnddyngi, tatelum " (Prompt. Parv.), 
" Hofgtu & podyog. calietu ie nunUon " (Falsg.). 

With these cf. John Blaksalt {Pat. R.). Henry Peper- 
wyte {CUy C), John BlancbuUi, i.e. white broth 
{Chart. R). Walter Jussel {Glottc. Cart.)— 

" JussiHum, qoidam cibus factas ex ovis et lacte, onglice Jtuutl " 

SharloUc, which we now connect with apples, may 
be ME. charlet — 

" ChofUtU, dysclimete, pepo " (Prompt. Ptmi.). 

CoUop seems a very odd name, but the oldest example 
I have found [Thomas Colhoppe, Feet of FiHes\ is 
identical with the earliest recorded form of the common 
noun coUop. Drink names are less numerous. We 
have Milk [William Mylk, F. of Y.], Beer (generally 
local, see p. 53), Goodale, Goodbeer, Coolbear, etc., 
and, in earUer times, William Surmelch {Pipe R.), 
Robert Rougevyn {Pat. R.), and a host of similar 
names. We even seem to have general terms for food 
and drink in Vivers or Veevers, VitUes,^ and Beveridge. 
The first I cannot prove — 

" VivTK, victnaili, acates " (Co^.). 

* Thii wuue, found in Devon, is more probfttdy an imitativs 
oortttption of VidtU, from ViUli«, also a Devon amnanu 



though it seems a natural nickname for a provision 
dealer or innkeeper — 

" Amoni^ others, one Mother Mampudding (as they termed her) 
for many yean kept this house, or a great part thereof, for victn- 
ailing " (Stow) — 

but Beveridge is amply attested [William Beverage, 
ipM., Walter Beverage, Hund. R.]. We may con- 
clude this somewhat prosaic group of surnames with 
those of two contrasted medieval entertainers, WiUiam 
Coldbord {Lane. Ass. R. 1176-1285) and Agnes Bone- 
table ' (Pipe R.). 

Among mu^cal instruments we find Bugle, Drum, 
Flute, Fidel or Fydell, Harp, Lute, Organ, Pipe, 
Timbrell, Tabor, and Trump. Not all of these are 
what they seem, though the fact that Marmaduke 
Clarionett was hving in York in I55() inclines us to 
consider their claims favourabty. ME. bugle, besides 
bdng short for " bugle-horn," meant wild ox — 

" 0« and aheep, and she geet, hert, capret. bugU " (Wye. 
Dwt. Jtlv. 5). 

It was also the name of a plant, often confused with 
the bugloss — 

" Bnglosa, bugU " {Voc.) — 

and, as the latter has given a surname, Buglass. our 
Bugle may go with the plant-names (ch. ix.). There 
is also a hamlet called Bugle in Cornwall. In the 
absence of early forms it is impossible to decide. But 
Bugler, first recorded by the NED. for 1840, can 

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hardly have been a Hornblower. As the name belongs 
exclusively to Dorset, I guess that it comes from 
Bugley in that county, Mandlin is an alteration of 
Maudlin, i.e. Magdalen; cf. Manclark (p. 234). Drum 
and Drummer are probably both local, the formeT 
being a common Scotch and Irish place-name, mean- 
ing " ridge," while the latter can ea^ly have been 
corrupted from one of the innumerable spots beginning 
with the same syllable. Both drum and drummer are 
Tudor words in the NED., and I have found no early 
samples of their surname use. In Middle English 
the instrument was called " taber " [Richard le 
laborer, Pat. R.], whence the occupative Tabrar, 
Taberer, Tabborah, while Taber. Tabor may be 
shortened from this — 

■' Tabtrts and tombUrs " {PUrs Plown. A. ij. 79) — 

or be simply the name of the instrument used as a 
nickname for. the mu^cian ' [Suein Tabor, Pipe i?.]. 
Tabrett is also found and Tambourin is a French name. 
The existence as surnames of Fidler or Vidler, 
Flutter, Harper, Luter, Piper, Trumfer, all of which 
are well documented, is in favour of accepting 
Fidel, Flute, Harp, Lute, Pipe, Trump at their face 
value, but some of them have an alternative cnigin. 
Fidel is sometimes Fr. fidile, faithful. Flute is 
rather an imitative form of Flewitt, AS. Flodweald 
[Fluold solus. Lib. Vit.X and Harp is a ^gn-name 
[Florencia atte Harpe, Bardsley, 1327]. Organ is a 
personal name [Oi^an Pipard, Testa de Nev.]. It 
has also become Orgies, by a natural corruption 

' Cf . Fr. IrompelU, tminpeter, and oar own " first violin." 


which occurs also in the case of the common noun 
of the same form — 

" OrgUs, tymbres. al maner gleo " {NED., 14th cent.). 

Pipe is generally local, for a pipe or water-conduit 
[Thomas atte Pipe, of Bristol, Pat. ff.] ; ct.' Conduct. 
Cundick. Timbrell ' may be for Tuntbrell, a name given 
to the official in charge of the tumbrel, " an instrument 
of punishment, the nature and operation of which 
in early times is uncert^n ; from sixteenth century 
usually identified with cucking-stool" (NED.). We 
may suppose that John Tumberel, collector of customs 
at Haverfordwest (Fine R.), worked this machine in 
his spare time. Probably Root is sometimes from 
the rote, the most famous of all medieval instruments 
[Simon Rote, Hund. R.], and WUiam Sawtrey, the 
first Lollard martyr, took his name from the psaltery. 
In Enghsh, as in other languages, we find a certain 
number of surnames derived from coins, e.g. Farthing, 
Halfpenny, Penny, Shilling, also Skilling (John Eskel- 
ling, Pat. R.^ Twopenny, Tippenny,' Besant, Ducat,* 
Duckett, or from sums of money. Pound is local, 
Guinea is an imitative speUing of the Irish Guiney, 
and Shekell is for Shackle (p. 170). SkiUingsworth is 
local, the " worth," or homestead, of a man named 
Shilling. Cf. ShiUingshaw, in which the second element 

' See p. 130, n. Still, Robert Tymperon (Bp. Kellawe's Rag.) 
suggests an early form of " tambourine," used by Ben JoDSon somo 
centuries later, and Ttmperon is still a Cumberland name. 

• Also Tkickpenny, Moneypinny [WiUUm Manypeni, Pat. H,]. 
Litnptntty is local, from Lympne (Kent). 

* Shakespeare spelt the coin dttchet, while ducat is a restored fonn. 
There is also a personal name Dvcheti, for Marmaduke, and another 
origin is " duck head " It is impossible to separate them. 

D,g,„.«n„ Google 


may be shav, a wood, or kaw, an enclosure. The 
following medieval examples are instructive, though 
they do not tell us how the names were acquired — 

Rob«it Alfmarck, now Allmarh 


mark . 



Cbiistiana Dendeners ; cf . Twopnny 


John Denmara 

{City A,) 

Richard Dismars, now Dismon {cf. 

Sissmore for " si^inars ") 


Roffcr Dnzemars < * 

(F.M R.) 

[Hund. R.) 

Thomas Godespeny 

{Clost R.) 

{City B.) 

Thom&a Mardargent 

{Fine R.) 

John Nynpenyz . 

{Bp. KeUawt's Reg.) 

Osbert Oitdeniers (kuil denUrs 


Gerard Qnatremarc 

{Pal. R.) 

Thomas Quatresot - . 

{City C.) 

Henrjr Qninremars 

(Clost R.) 

Richard Threeshillings . 


Edmund Trentemars 

{City A.) 

Fnlk Twelpenea . 

{Hund. R.) 

Geoffrey Twentemarc 



Laurence Wytcpens 


With the last of these cf. the well-imown Dutch 
name Schimmeipeninck. One can only guess at the 
various ways in which certain sums became associated 
with certain individuals. We know that Uncle 
Pumblechook had an irritating way of alluding to 
Pip as " six penn'orth of ha'pence," and tiiat David 
Balfour was also temporarily nicknamed by Lady 
Allardyce — 

" ' O, so you're Saxfenct I ' she cried, with a very sneering 
manner. ' A braw gift, a bonny gentleman. And hae ye ony ither 
name and designation, or were ye bapteesed Saxptnu } ' " 


NUMBERS ^ 179 

The names in the above list seem to be nearly all 
extinct in England, though many of the same type 
are still found in France and Germany. But it seems 
likely that some of our number names are shcrtened 
from them. This can be seen in the case of Andrew 
Sixantwenti alias Vinte-sis-deners, i.e. twenty-ax 
pence {Leic. Bor. Rec.). Thus the name EiglOeen,^ 
well estabUshed at Reading, may be short for " agh- 
teen pence." Another possibility is that it refffe- 
sented the age of an ancestor ; cf. Robert Quinzanz 
{Chart. R.). Pachnio has many examples from mecUe- 
val Paris, e.g. Raoul iiij Deniers, Guillaume ix Deniers, 
Symon Quatuordecim, Jehan Quatre-Cenz, etc. In 
the last two examples the items may have been cows, 
sheep, etc. ; cf. Robertus Quatuor Boum, Geffroi as 
ij Moutons (Pachnio). And there is a medieval Latin 
poem on a peasant known as Unusbos, a kind of Little 

Among existing names of this form are Two, Four. 
Six, Twelve, Twelves, Eighteen, Forty, most of which 
are susceptible of another explanation. Two may be 
shcvt for Twoyearold {p. 250), but is more probably 
local, of Tew (Oxf.). Four has two clear origins, 
other than the numeral, viz. Fr. four, an oven [Hugh 
de la Four, Hutid. R,], and the archaic fower, a 
scavenger fjohn le Fower, Fine R.]. Six is for Siggs, 
short for one of the Anglo-Saxon names in Sige- 
[^dric Sigge, Pipe R.]. Twelve is perhaps ^ort for 
Twelftree or Twelvetrees, and Forty, Fordy is local 
[WiUiam de la Fortheye, Hund. R., Oxf,], apparently 
' the island by the ford. In the Hund. R. are several 
examples from Oxfordshire, which is still the home of 
• Cf. Ft. Dixntuf (Bottm). 

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the name. Million is probably the Fr. EtniUen, from 
£mile, Billion belongs to Bill {p. 38). It is found in 
Norfolk, sometimes also as Bullion. Milliard is an 
artificial spelhng of Millard [Robert le MiUeward, 
Hitnd. R.]. Unitt or Unite seems to be a Welsh name 
[Unieth the cutler, Glouc. Cart.\ possibly from Welsh 
uniaith, monoglot, of one language, a man who could 
not, hke most of the borderers, speak both Welsh and 
Enghsh. Among ordinals of EngUsh origin I have 
only come across Third, which may be short for 
Thirdboroitgh,^ the peace-officer of a tithing, originally 
the head man of a frank-pledge or frithborh, from 
which latter word it is probably corrupted. In fact, 
the more correct Freeborough exists as a surname. 
But in French we find Prin,* Prime, Premier, Second, 
Thiers, Tierce, whence our own Prin, Prynne, Pring, 
Print, Prime, Primmer [Roger le PremiCT, Pat. R.}, 
and Tyers, Terse [John Ters, Leic. Bor. Rec.']. The 
curious Lancashire name Twiceaday, Twisaday means 
" twice a day " [John Twysontheday, Pat. R., Cumb, 
1410], but remains mysterious. 

Essentially connected with the individual are oath- 
names and other characteristic phrases. Here again 
we have sadly degenerated, and few of this type are 
now among us. We have Pardoe, Pardy, etc., from 
pardieu, Mordue, Mordey, from mort-dieu, Dando or 
Daddow, for dent-Dieu • [William Dandewe, Archbp. 
Romayn's Reg. 1286-96! and the rather Chadbandian 

' With this cf. the synonymous name Haadborough — " I must go 
fetch the htadborough " {Taming of the Shrew, i. II). 

* Prin, prime are Old French forms from primus, still surviving 
in prinumps, prime-abord, etc. The existence of the name De la 
Pryme suggests an alternative origin for Prime. 

* Or possibly from OF. Daronedieu, Dominus Dens. 

D,g,t,.?<i I,, Google 


Godbehere, Goodbehere [Geoffrey Godbeherinne, CUy B.\ 
Some of the following still exist in a disguised form — 

William Adien ' . 

. {Writs of Pari.) 

Robert Benedicite 

. {Exch.S.) 

Walter Corsant(£i)r/'j saint) 

. [Huiut. R.) 

Richard Coursed iea ■ . 

. (Em*. R.) 

John Depardeu . 

. {Close R.) 

SimoD Deudamur 

. {Chart. R.) 

Deudeviie solus . 

. {Lib. Vit.) 

se) (P.mR.) 

HcDry Deuleseit 

. (Hund. R.) 

. {Fin^R.) 

BeuJesaut (DUu U sauve) Coc 

. {Pal.R.) 

Deulaie (Dieu faide) f . Elyaa 

. {ClouR.) 

Densdedit. sixth Archbishop 



R<^er De US-sal vet-Dominas ■ 

. {DB.) 

JohnDeutait . 

. {PM.R.) 

Richus Deugard or Denvusgard 

• iib.) 

John FadersouJe. 

. IChtik. Cfc»«6. Accis) 

. {F.a/Y.) 

Richard Godesname . 

. {CilyB.) 

William Godospays . 

. {PM.R.) 

Olive GoadWes . 

. [Pai.R.) 

JohnGodsalve . 

. {Exch. Cal.) 

Basilia Godsowele 

. {Hund. R.) 

WUliam Godthanke . 

■ lib.) 

WiUiam Gracias . 

. IBp. Ksllawc-s R>g.) 

Simon Halidom . 

■ {if.) 

WUliam Helbogod . 

. {Exch. R.) 

JohnHeylheyl . 

. {CilyB.) 

Ralph Modersoule 

. {Close R.) 

John Papedy Ipapt-Dieu) . 

. {Bp.K»liaw,'sR»g.) 


. {Pat.It.) 

William Placedeux {plaisi Dieu) 

. {Lane. Inq.) 


. (Hund.R.) 

' Cf. Farewell [Richard Fareirel, Hund. R.] 

■ For corps Dieu, bnt possibly a phrase-name (ch. xii.) for a 
man who had taken the advice given to Job by his wife. Cf. 
Adam Crusseking, i.e. curse-ldng (thirteenth century). 

'With this early representative of "three cheers for the 
ladies" cL G*r. Frauenlob, a Minnesinger and a citiiaer. 

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It will be noticed that most of these are of French 
formation. Pardy, Pardee, etc., are really distinct 
from Purdy, Purdue, etc., the first representing rather 
de par Dieu, i.e. de farte Dei, in God's name, as in 
modem French de par le roi, while Purdue is rath^ Fr. 
pour Dieu. Also the common Pardoe, Pardow has an 
alternative origin from OF. Pardou, for the personal 
name Pardolf. Deulaie (v.s.) may be the wigin of 
Dtdy. Deugard has given Dugard. For Godsave see 
p. 316. Godsowele is one origin of GodsaU, GoodseU, 
Gutsell, and Modersoule has become Mothersole, 
Motkersill. Parfey is now Purefoy. 

Finally, we find in Middle Enghsh a number of 
nicknames evidently derived from the word or phrase 
which a man overworked. Most of us could quote 
similar cases within our own experience. Examples 
are — 

liiilo Aacoye, OF. msois, rather . (Hund. R.) 
Robert Aotresy, OF. autresi, also . {Pat. R.) 
Hugh Comment .... (Hund. R.) 
Michael Honyece, Ho yes ? . . (IpM., Notis) 
Robert Jodibeo, ;'« dU bien . (Fim B.) 

William Jnrdemayn, to-morrow I . {Hund. R.) 
Hugji Oroendioyt, OF. onndroit, 

straightway . . . (13th cetitufy) 

Peter Ony .... {Pipe R.) 

David Paxaventore . . {Pai. R.) 

Richard Pemegarde, prtnds garde ' . {E*ck. R.) 
Pagan Purquey, pour^uoi . . (Hund. R.) 

John Recuchun, " I must slumber 

again " . . . . {Fine R.) 

These are practically all of French formation, and I can- 
not with certainty identify any of them with existing 
surnames. They are inserted here for the satisfaction 



of students, as an example of the fantastic manner 
in which surnames can be formed, and as a caution 
agfdnst explaining everything odd as a " corruption." 
In the Nottingham Borough Records occurs the name 
of Elias Overandover. He may have been a man 
fond of wearisome iteration in speech, or with a 
[>enchant for turning somersaults, or of antique con- 
sdentiousness in the performance of the common 
task — 

" Uy godsire's nuns, I toll yon. 
Was In-and-in Skittle, and a veavet he was, 
And it did fit his craft : for so his shittle 
Went in and in still, this way and then that way " 

(Ben JoDSon, TaU of a Tub, iv. 3). 

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" Bvt. Your name, honest gentieman t 
Ptas, Peoseblosaom. 

Bat. I pray you, commend me to Mistress Squash, yoiu mother, 
and to Master Peaacod, your father" 

{Midmmmw Night's Drtam). 

Vegetable surnames may have come into existence 
in various ways. Tree names are generally local, and 
there is probably no well-known English tree which 
has not contributed to the Ust. Most of these present 
no difficulty, but occasionally dialect forms have pre- 
vailed, e.g. Hamhlock for hemlock. We also find the 
obsolete Beam ' [Osbom AtebeSme, Hund. R.} and its 
compound Nutbeam [John atte Notebem, ib.]. Local 
also are such considerable growths as Broom, Reed, 
Gorse, Furze, Fern, etc., with their compounds such 
as Thickbroom [Richard de Thickbrome,' PUas.l, 
Fearnside [Nicholas del Femyside, Lane. Court R. 
1323^1, Redfern [WiUiam del Redfeme, ib.]. We 
may perhaps also suppose that two contiguous Johns 
whose huts were overgrown with ivy and jessamine 

> " Not fonnd later than Anglo-Saxon " (NED.). But the abo>ve 
example shows that the word survived mto the Middle Enj^liih 
period. We still have the compound hontbtam and others which 
are less common. 

* This was a manor near Lidifield. 

D,g,„.?<i I,, Google 


respectively may have been distingmshed by the 
names Ivy, Ivey, and Jessemey, Jessiman. 

The above are simple cases, but there are also a great 
many surnames taken from the vegetable world which 
can only be regarded as nicknames created by the 
mysteriousmedieval folk-lore of which we unfortunately 
know so httle. We still sometimes describe a person 
as a daisy, and, in our more subtle moments, even as a 
tuUp or a peach, while the quite modem nut, or more 
elaborate filbert, perhaps represents a recurrence of a 
king-dormant instinct inherited from far-off ancestors. 
Among surnames of this type we find the names of 
plants, flowers, fruits, vegetables, and also minute 
products and parts of vegetation. Here, as always, 
French and German pEirallels are abundantly numerous; 
while in Latin we find Cicero, Fabius, Lentulus, 
Piso, etc. 

Plant itself is generally local [John de iz Flaunt, 
of Rouen, Pat. R.], from OF. piante, enclosure, planta- 
tion, but its occurrence in the Rolls without de [Robert 
Piante, Hund. R.] suggests that it was also a nick- 
name, from ME. platd used in a variety of senses, 
sprig, cudgel, young offsprmg (see NED.). We find 
all the important cereals. Corn, Wheat, Barley, Oats, 
Rye. The first seems to be genuine, perhaps for a 
peasant whose com crops were particularly successful, 
or for one who lived among cornfields ; cf . Fr. DesbUds, 
OF. bled (bU). It has a compound Oldcorn, whence 
also AUcorn, with which cf. Johanna Goldcom {Col. 
Gen.) and Robert Oldbene (Hund. R.). Wheat is 
more often one of the very numerous variants of 
the occupative Wait, a watchman ; but cf. the 
common Fr. Froment. Barley is a local name and 



also a variant of Barlow, but Desorges is a French 

Oatts isgenerally the Old French nominative of Odo, 
Otto [Otes de Houlond, City F.], but cf. Fr. Alavoine. 
Rye is genially local, but the corresponding Seigle is 
a common French surname. In each of these, there- 
fore, a double origm is possible, while a local de- 
rivation is also not excluded. Maize is an imitative 
spelling of Mayes, from May, which has various 
origins (p. 248). Grain is usually a nickname, 
OF. grain, morose ' [Dominus Johannes dictns te 
Greyne, Nott. Bor. Rec.]. Drage, Dredge, Drudge are 
dialect names for a mixed crop, especially of rye and 
wheat. From its more usual name, mesUyon, comes 
Maslin, though this has also another origin, from a 
Middle Ei^lish personal name Mazelin, probably, like 
Fr. Massillon, from Thomas [Mazelin de Rissebi, 
Hund. R.]— 

" Mttaii, meSBling, or iiuuHn ; wheat and lye mingled, sowed, 
and oaed togetber " (Cotg.). 

MilleU is & dim. of MilesorMiUicent. Hardmeat m\%\ii 
be taken for a local " hard mead," the more so because 
Meat, Meates are for Mead, but William Hardmete 
{Hund. R.) shows it to be a nickname from the obso- 
lete hard-meat, used of com and hay, as food for 
cattle, contrasted with grass. No doubt Greengrass 
has a similar origin . Grist is for Grice, with excrescent -t ; 

* A v«i7 interestiDg chapter could be written on nicknames ffom 
Old Ffench adjectives which have survived in England. Examples 
aie Titr4*w, OF. Uwduu (iatdif), used also as a name for the snail, 
Veiey, VtUsty, Voysty, etc., OF. tnvotst, playful, AF. etti>tis4 [William 
la Enveyai, Hmtd. R.\, Misliin, F. m*sqtUn, paltiy, «tc 



cf. Moist for Moyes, i.e. Moses, and Tuiist for Twiss 
(p. 8a). Grice itself has two origins, Fr. gris, grey, 
and ME. grice, a pg. 

Among plants that have given surnames we notice 
that the odorous, pungent, and medicinal varieties 
predominate, probably because ihey lent themselves 
more readily to eRiblematic use. It is known that 
magical properties were ascribed to many of them. 
We have, among medicinal plants, Skirrett, Camamile, 
Tansey, Spurge, Staveacre, Bettany, Rue. The last 
two are doubtful. Bettany, found in Staffordshire 
along with Betteley, is probably from Betley in that 
county, and Rue, which runs parallel with Rew in Wilt- 
shire, may be AF. rew, street, Fr. rue. Still, both 
these plants have a good deal of folk-lore about them, 
e.g. according to Burton, the Emperor Augustus re- 
garded betony as efficacious for the expulsion of 
devils, while Shakespeare's allusions to rue, the herb 
of grace, are numerous. But, rathw than attempt an 
explanation of each name in detail, I will refer the 
reader to that very charming lecturer, Perdita {WirUer's 
Tale, IV. iv,). Siaveacre is for stavesacre, which, in 
spite of its Enghsh appearance, is almost pure Greek, 
It was an emetic and a remedy against vermin. With 
these go also Buglass {p. 175). and probably SidweU, 
Sitwell [Thomas Sitwele, Pat. R.], from sedwall, once 
regularly coupled with ginger and oth^ spices — 

" And he hymseli as sweets as is the roote 
Of lycoiys, or any uUwaU " 

(Chauc A. 3306). 

Here generally betongs Ambrose, common as a medi- 
eval surname, but rather rare as a font-name [William 

D,g,t,.?<i I,, Google 


Ambroys, Hund. R., Richard Ambrosie, ih.}. It was 
used of the wild sage — 

" Ambrose an berbe, acka champistri " (Palsg.). 
And it is very likely that Alexander ' or Saunders is 
often to be classed with it. This was a common 
name for the horse-parsley — • 

" Aiysauniert, herbe, maeedonia" (Prompt. Parv.). 
For an example of s««M(ircs, coupled with brazill{p. 189), 
see the epigraph to ch. xii. 
I observe that Herr v. Wermutk is (Nov. 1915) 
' Burgomaster of Berlin, and Wormwood is given as a 
surname by Camden, though I do not know if it now 
exists — 

" Wermuih, ein bitter kiaut, uiormwood " (Lndwig, Gtrm. Diet., 

Darnell, tares [William Demel, Glouc. Cart.], was con- 
sidered to produce intoxication ; cf. its French name, 
ivraie. With Weeds cf. Fr. Malherbe, Malesherbes, and 
Ger. Unkraut. Balsam is local [Robert de Balsam, 
Hund. R.], of Balsham (Camb.), and the Yorkshire 
Balm is a corruption of Balne in that county. 

More associated with the kitchen are Mustard, Gar- 
lick, Ginger, Pepper, Parsley, Marjoram, Fennell, 
Savory, the last of which is an imitative spelling of 
Savary, Saffrey, etc. [Savaricus Clericus, Pipe R., 

' Another source of this cammoa surname is no doubt to be 
found in the romances of Alexander and their dramatic adaptations 
(p. 316). Speaking generally, when a surname seems to represent 
a font-name in its unaltered form, it has a subsidiary origin, e.g. 
Arnold, Hatrold, Rowland are all sometimes local, from Arnold 
(Notts and Yorks), Harrold (Beds), and " roe-land " [Peter de 
Rolond, Pat. £.]. 

D,g,t,.?<i I,, Google 


Savari de Duntrop, Fine R.]. I have even found it 
spelt Savoury. Sometimes such names may have 
been adopted in place of cumbrous trade-names, such 
as Thomas le Mustarder (City B.), John Garleke- 
mongere (ipM.). So also Brazil, Brazell may be from 
the vegetable dye which gave its name to a South 
American country and a medieval trade [Robert Blund, 
brasiler, Ldc. Bor. Rec.]; cf. Adam Saffran (Pat. R.). 
Pepper may also be shortened from Pepperell, the 
latinized form, Piperellus (DB.), of Peverel, which does 
not, however, dissociate it from pepper. Pepperwell 
is a curious corruption of the above name. The OF. 
peyvre, peyvrier, very common in the Rolls [Paulin 
Peyvre, Chart. R., John le Peverer. Pat. R.], are now 
represented by Peever, Peffer. Fennell is undoubtedly 
from the plant, Fr. fenouil [William Feneyl, Pat. R.], 
though it has other possible origins. It was an 
emblem of flattery — 

" Woman's weeda, ftnnei I mean for flatterers " 

(Greene, Upstart CourtUr). 

Parsley might be a variant of Paslow (q.v.), but the 
corresponding Ger, Petersilje is found c. 1300. 

Flpwer-names, such as Jasmin, Lafleur, were often 
given to valets in French comedy, and later on we 
find them among soldiers, as in the case of Fanfan la 
Tulipe. Much further back we find the romantic 
story of Flore and Blancheflour and the German 
Domrfischen. The reader will naturally think of 
Chaucer's Prioress — 

"And sb« was deped madame Eglentyne" (Prol. 121). 

To begin with, we have F/oicCT- [ElyasFlur, Fine R.], 



Bloom [William Blome, Pat. R.). Blossom [Hugh 
Biosme, Hund. R.]— 

" The braunches ful of bicsmts softs " 

(Chauc. Legend of Good Women, T43). 
With these cf. Janies Beauflour {Close R.). Flower has 
an alternative origin from ME. fioer, arrow-smith 
[John le Floer, Hund. Jf.], The commonest of such 
names, Rose, has several origins. It is baptismal 
[Richard 1 Rose, Hund. R.], from a name which may 
come from the flower or from Rosamond (p. 34), a 
sign-name [Adam de la Rose, City B., Adam atte Rose, 
City D.], and is often imitative from the local Row 
or perhaps Wroe [William of the Rows, Northampt. 
Bor. Rec., Simon ithe Rose, Pal. R., Yorks.]. LilUy. 
Lilly is sometimes from the font-name Lilian, of 
doubtful origin [Geoffrey LiUon, Hund. R., Nicholas 
LiUie, ib.], and has specific local origins. It must 
also be a sign-name, though I have found no early 
example. The name LHygreen, which has occurred in 
the casualty lists, is probably Swedish Liliengren (see 
p. 195). With James Popy {Hund. R.), still found as 
Poppy, cf. Thomas CokHco {Pat. R.)~ 

"Cojujiteof.tlie wild poppie.come-rose, red come-rose" (Cotg.), 
Fr. Pavot and Ger. Mokn, Mohnkopf are also well- 
establisbed names. 

The latter, meaning " poppy head," suggests a short 
digression on the possibility of some names of this 
class having originated in a fanciful resemblance. I 
imagine that Mohnkopf ' may have been appUed to a 

> The seventeeatb-century Gerpian epigramiiiatist Logan uses it 
of an empty, sleepy head — 
" Capito hat Kopfs genug, wenig aber hat er Sinnen ; 

Wie eln MoknhopI tauter Schlaf , sonsten hat er nkhts duinnen." 

D,g,t,.?<i I,, Google 


bald-headed mEui, just as we find, convo^ly, the 
field poppy called in German dialect Gtatzen {Glatze, 
a bald pate). We know that pill-garlic, i.e. peeled 
garlic, was used in the same way in English — 

" Yow pyllyd garltkt hed 
Conde boccnpy there no rtede " 


So Onion, Onions, usually, as a Shropshire name, from 
the Welsh Anyon, Ennion, Eynon, etc. {anian, nature, 
genius), is also a nickname [Rogo* Oygnoun, Lond. 
WiUs, 1295]. Cf. Albert Chive {Pipe R.) and William 
Chibculle (ChaH. R.), the latter from ME. ckibol, an 
onion, still in dialect use — 

" Ciboule. a ehOoll, or hollow leek " (Cotg.). 

The first Sweetappte [John Swetapple, Fine R.] may 
have been a cultivator of particularly choice fenit, but 
his name reminds me strongly of a schoolboy of my 
acquaintance whose unconsciously sardonic expression 
earned for him the name Sour Plum. Mosscrop, an 
archaic name for the tufted club-rush, may have been 
s\iggested by the combination of a thin body and a 
shock head. 

To come back to flower-names, we have Daisy [Robert 
Dayeseye, Hund. R.], Primrose [Peter Premerole,' 
Pat. R.], Marigold, Pimpernell, ColumbineoT CoUingbine, 
while Dandelyon, still found in America,' was a Kentish 
name up to the middle of the fifteenth century. 
Thomas Eglentyn and Peter Parvenk (periwinkle) 

> This is the older ftoin, the modem -rot* being doe to follb 

* But, like ftU American names, to be r^puded with caution 
Seep. 9. 

D,g,t,.?<i I,, Google 


occur in the Pat. R. Each of these no doubt has a 
tale to tell. Violet is probably a coloiir nickname 
(p. 154). Lavender, usually occupative, the Launder, 
or " washmnan," may also occasionally be a nickname 
[John Lavender, taillur, Pat. R.]. GaUiver, GiUiver, 
are from ME. gilofre [Peter Gylofre, Leic. Bor. Rec.], 
now corrupted to gillyflower,^ a flower emblematic of 
frailty. I fancy that this is due to association with 
Queen Guinevere, from whose name we get Junifer, 
Juniper.* The MDB. contains the name Rosontree, but 
the locahty (Yorks) suggests a misprint for Rowntree 
(rowan tree, mountain ash). The first Woodbine was 
perhaps named from his chnging propensities, but 
we can hardly accept Tulip, the first mention of the 
flower by a Western European being about the middle 
of the sixteenth century [NED.). It is evidently an 
imitative spelling, but of what ? 

Fruit-names may also in some cases be local, e.g. 
Plumb may be for Plumtree, Pear for Peartree. But 
in Old French we often find them used with the definite 
article in such a way as to suggest a nickname, e.g. 
Raoul la Prime, Gautier la Poire (Pachnio), the latter 
individual perhaps having a head of the shape which 
earned the nickname Poire for the last legitimate king 
of France, and which suggested the medieval " pear 
head" (p. 128), now Perrett. These examples show 
that Pear, Pears is not always an imitative spelling 

' The following extract (1683) is a good example of "preposteroas" 
etymology — " The Julyflowtr as they are more properly called, 
though vulgarly GilHfiower and Gillo/it." This is like " June- 
eattng " for jenntling, 

■ Junipher was still conuaon as a font-name in Comvall in the 
seventeenth and eighteenth centniies (Bardsley). It is cnriou 
tbftt in diatoct the juniper la sometimea called the geni/er (EDD.), 

D,g,t,.?<i I,, Google 


of Fr. Pierre. So also in English we find William le 
Cheris ' {Leic. Bor. Rec.), who is perhaps the same 
person as William Chirecod (»6.), with whose name cf. 
Peascod (p. 196). But many apparent fruit-names are 
not genuine. Grapes may be from an inn-sign, but 
is more likely connected with GrePe (p. 61), Raisin is 
an imitative fonn of Rayson (p. 239), and Muscat is 
an imitative alteration of Muskett, a nickname from 
the sparrow-hawk — 

" Mottchtl, a musktt ; the tass«U * of a sparbawke " (Cofg.). 

The oldest form of damson is damascene, from Damascus. 
Hence the name Damson is probably the "dame's 
son " [Geoffrey Dammesune, Pipe R.]. Pippin is Fr. 
P^in, whence also the East Anglian Pepys [Richard 
Pepin or Pepis, Hund. R., Camb.], and, as a Somerset 
name, is altered from Pkippen, dim. of Philip, which 
is common in the same county. It may also be a 
fruit-name; cf. Costard (p. 194). Medlar is a nick- 
name [Wilham le Mesler,' Hund. R.]. Filbert is 
simply the French name Philibert [Dominus Fylbard, 
Hund. R.I, OG. Filuberht, very bright, whence the 
nut also probably takes its name,* Dewberry is local, 
of Dewsbury, spelt Deubire in 1202, but Mulberry, 

* The older forin of cherry. Ft. cerise. The -s has been lost 
- tiirongb being taken as the sign of the plural, as in pea from pease. 

It is possible, however, that le Cherts may be the Old French nom. 
of chiri, " the cherished." This -s does oot appeal much in Anglo- 
French, but there are other examples of it in the same record as 
the above. See Bern (p. 319). 

» Hence the surnames TassiU, Tarsell, Taycell. The older form 
of the word was tiercel. See Romance of Names, p. m. 

» For the intrusion of -d- in our meddle from OF. mesler {miler) 
cf. MadU (p. 250). IdU (p. 6*). 

* See Romance of Words, p. 33. 

D,g,t,.?<i I,, Google 


Mutbry appears to be genuine. Orange is doubtful, 
for, though Richard Orange {Archbp. Peckham's Lett. 
1279-92) points to a nickname, Orangia de Chercheyerd, 
who was hanged in 1307 {Cal. Gen.), suggests a fantastic 
personal name, which must apparently have been 
formed from that of the fruit. There is also the 
town of Orange (Vaucluse), but I have found no evi- 
dence to connect the name with it. The name Rasp- 
berry is found in East Anglia, and, although the NED. 
does not record the word till the seventeenth century, 
the name may be genuine, for French has both 
Framboise and Framboisier — 

" Framboise, a raspia, hiudberry, framboiseberry " (Cotg.), 

Mellon is Irish, I suppose for Malone, i.e. the tonsured 
servant of John. Costard is a very common Middle 
Enghsh nickname, perhaps for a round-headed man ; 
hence also Coster, Custer, Custard. 

A few kitchen-garden names have aheady been men- 
tioned, but the group is not large. Bean is usually 
Scottish, Gael, ban, white, whence Bain, but this will 
not account for the common Norfolk name Beanes, 
occurring as Bene in the Hund. R. The bean seems 
to have been a favourite crop in East Anglia, e,g, in 
the Ramsey Cartulary there is mention of plots called 
Benecroft, Benedale, Benemede, Benehill, Bene- 
furlange ; cf, Barton-in-Fabis (Notts), Barton-in-the- 
Beans (Leic). I see no reason to doubt that Eustace 
Sparaguz {Fine R.) took his name from the most 
delicate of vegetables. Pease is also genuine, but 
P«a,' Pee is for Peacock as Poe is for Pocock, From 

> Seep. 193, n, 1. 

D,g,t,.?<i I,, Google 


the same bird, AS. pawa, we have Paw, Pay, Pow. 
Poye — 

An apparently authentic nickname of the vegetable 
type is Nmp, Neep [Henry \etiep, Hund. R.], which 
is Middle English for " tiimip." It is seldom that 
so clear an instance is found in the Rolls. Cf. Ameline 
la Navete (Pachnio) — 

" NaottU, rapeseed ; also, as namau." 

" Navtau blane dt jardin, the ordinary rape, or turnep " (Cotg.). 

The most curious of the vegetable surnames are 
those which are formed from botanical details, and 
here again I can make little attempt to explain their 
occuirence. Similar names are common in other 
languages, and Swedish especially has a very large 
number in -^en, branch, -guist,' twig, -blad, leaf. 
Twigg has parallels in Fr. Rameau and Ger. Zweig, 
the latter also having compounds, e.g. Mittenzweig, 
with the twig, and Sauberzweig, clean twig, the name of 
an officer mentioned {Daily Telegraph, Nov. 2, 1915) 
in connection with the murder of Nurse Cavell, and 
evidently, if there is anything in heredity, originally 
ironic. Both Spray and Sprigg are used in dialect of 
a lean, lanky person ; cf. p. 155. In English we have 
also Branch [Benjamin Branche, Hund. ft.] occurring 
very commonly without de, though John de la 
Braimche {F. of Y. 1451) suggests local origin, or per- 

I In tbe casualty lists (Jan. 19, 1916) occurs the name AppUjuitt, 
evidently of Swedish origin. 

n,<jv.<!h, Google 


baps a sign. Branchfiower is an alteration ' of the nick- 
name Blanchfiower. Bough is local [John atte Bough, 
Pat. R.], in the sense of Bow, arch, with which it is 
really identical.' Budd is an Anglo-Saxon personal 
name, short for Botolf or some such dithemetic name, 
and Leaf is an imitative spelling of Leif, dear [John le 
Lef, Pat. R.] ; cf. Leveson, which, in the form Leofsunu 
(see Fr. Cherfils, p. 247), was already a personal name 
in Anglo-Saxon, With Ivyleaf cf. Ger. KleeblaU, clover 
leaf, and Rosenblatt, whence, or perhaps through one 
of the Scandinavian languages, our Rosehlade. Hoc- 
cleve is more probably a complete phmt-name, AS. 
hoclef, mallow, Sapp is a nickname [WiUiam le Sap, 
Hiind. fi.]. In dialect it means a simpleton, cf. sap- 
head, sapskull, but its history is unwritten. 

Then we have feintastic names like Goldstraw, Pepper- 
corn, Barleycorn, the last-named once common as grain 
d'orge [William Greindeorge, Hund. R.], now Grandage, 
Graddige. Graindorge is stil! a common French surname. 
With Peascod [Henry Pesecod, Pat. R.], PescoU, Pease- 
good, Peskett, Bisgood (?). cf. Benskin (bean-skin) 
and Maddy Benestol {Hund. R.) whose name con- 
tains dial, stale, a stalk. But Podd, also Poad, Poat, 
is a nickname from ME. pode, a toad [John le Pod, 
Hund. R.\ I doubt whether Seed (see p. 73) belongs 
here, but Hempseed isan uncomphmentary nickname — 
" Do, do, thon rogae ; do, thou htmputd " {t Henry IV. H. i,) ; 

' It could be explained as dissimllatioii, but there is a general 
tendency for I and r to interchange. See the forms of Berenger 
(p. 33}, Branchtit is no doubt foi Blanchttt, a colour name, and Mr. 
Pett Ridge's less refined characters occasionally used " brasted " 
as an intensive epithet, 

■ It is only in English that this word, meaning something bent, 
has acquired a meaning connected with trees. 

D,g,„.«n„ Google 


tfaoi^h the only time I have come across it was in 
connection with a gallant exploit in the War, Cf, Ger. 
Hanfstmgel, hemp-stalk. Oux Hempenstall is merely 
one of the many variants of Heptonstall (Yorks). 
In Lillicrap, Lillycrop we seem to have the archaic 
crop, " head " of a plant, or tree, bunch of foliage, 
etc. ; cf. Mosscrop and Ger, Mohnkopf. Gower uses it 
in his version of the famous scene in which Tarquin 
strikes off the heads of the tallest plants — 

" AnoD he tok in hoodo a yeide 
And in the gardin as thai gon. 
The lilte eroppts on and on, 
Wher that tbei vrereo sprongen oate, 
He smot of, aa thei stode abonte " 

(Cotif. AmttiU. vii. 4676). 

With the poetical Flowerdew, whence Flowerday, cf, 
Robert Honiedewe (Salisb. Chart.) and Ger. Morgenthau, 
morning dew. Maydew is for Matthew, and preserves 
the intermediate form between the original and Mayhem, 
Mayo, OF. Mahieu. Merridew, Merriday, Merredy 
are the Welsh Meredith [Mereduz de Beauveir, CUy D.]. 
They are further corrupted in Lancashire into Mella- 
dew, Mellaheu, Mellalue. 

In my Romance of Words {p. 196) I have mentioned 
Ferguson's conjecture as to the curious name Ivimey, 
Ivermee, Evamy, Efemey,^ etc. I am afraid the pic 
turesque derivation there suggested will not hold 
water. In City A . I find Peter Yvenes or Yvemeys, 
a Spanish immigrant. I do not know the origin of 
his name, but he looks like the true ancestor of the 

I The two last may represent Enphemia. 

D,g,t,.?<i I,, Google 



" n y avoit lore nne dame, qui, pendant les jenx, avoit joai 
Contcitnu, et qui poor cela en ent le nom tout le temps de sa vie " 
(BiaoALDE DB Vervillb, L» Moytn de parvenir). 

It has always been recognized by students of surname 
lore that our Prophets, Priests, and Kings generally 
owe their names to ancestors who had enacted such 
parts in medieval pageant ' ; but this source of modem 
surnames is much more considerable than has usually 
been supposed. Grown people are almost as fond of 
" dresang up " as children, and in recent years we 
have seen a revival of the type of pastime once so 
dear to our ancestors and still popular on the con- 
tinent. Some twenty years ago the author was 
present at the elaborate display by which the Swiss 
celebrated the seventh centenary of their Republic. 
On that occasion it looked as though the whole able- 

' The pag»tmt waa originally the scaffolding on which the playera 
ttood or acted. In the case of the shorter plays and smaller tableanx 
it was movable. In fact the cars of Lord Mayor's Show are its 
descendants — " Every company had his pagient, which pagianta 
weare a high scafolde with two rowines, a higher and a lower, npon 
four wheeles. In the lower they appateled themselves, and in the 
hi^r rowme they played, beinge all open on the tope, that all 
behoulders might heaie and see them " (From a cootempomry 
description of one of the last Chester performances). 



bodied population were parading in historic garb for 
the edification of the phyacally unfit and the chil- 
dren of the country. In medieval England no im- 
portant feast of the Church, no event in the hfe of the 
monarch, or, in the provinces, of the local magnate, 
no visit of a foreign dignitary, was allowed to pass 
without the accompaniment of something like a Lord 
Mayor's Show — 

" One other sbow, in the year 1377. made by the dtizens for dis- 
port of the young prince, Richaid, son to the Black Prince, in the 
feast of Chiistmas, in this manner : — On the Sunday before Candle- 
mas, in the night, one hundred and thirty citizens, disguised, and 
well horsed, in a mnmmery, with sound of trumpets, sackbuts, 
cornets, sbalmes, and other minstieta. and innumerable torch lights 
of wax, rode from Newgate, through Cheape, over the bridge, through 
Southwarke, and so to Kennington, beside Lambhith, where the 
young prince remained with his mother, and the Duke of Lancaster 
hia uncle. ... In the first rank did ride forty-eight in the likeness 
and habit of esquires, two and two together, clothed in red coats and 
gowns of say or sandal, with comely visors on their faces ; after them 
came riding forty-eight knights in the same livery of colour and staS : 
then followed one richly arrayed like an emperor ; and after him 
some distance, one stately attired like a pope, whom followed 
twenty-four cardinals, and after them eight or ten with black visors, 
not amiable, as if they had been legates from some foreign prince " 

There are possibly to-day people named Squire, 
Knight, Emperor ' or Cayzer, Pope, CardinaU, Leggatt, 
whose ancestors figured in this particular procesaon. 
Two names of this class may be specially mentioned, 
the first. Count [Peter le Counte, Fine R.]. because of 
its rarity, the second, Marquis, because, though so 
common in the north, it seems unrecorded except as a 
female font-name [Marchisa f. Warner, Yorks Fines, 

I StiU a surname in the nineteenth centnry, though 1 have not 
come across a living example. 

D,g,t,.?<i I,, Google 


temp. John]. It is rather odd to find the German 
equivalent recorded for the same county [WiUiam 
Margrajrve, F. of Y.]. Lavicount is an example of the 
grammatical methods of Anglo-French. 

Such a proces^on as that described above was a 
very mild affair compared with - some of the more 
scenic pageants which were enacted on great occa- 
dons — 

" At certain distan^s, in places appKiiitted for the puipose, the 
pageants were erected, which were temporary buildings representing 
castles, palaces, gardens, rocks or forests, as the occasion required, 
where nymphs, fauns, satyrs, gods, goddesses, angela and devils 
appeared in company with giants, savages, dragons, saints, knighta, 
buffoons, and dwarfs, surrounded by minstrels and choristers ; the 
heathen mythology, the legends of chivalry and Christian divinity 
were ridiculously jumbled together without meaning " (Strutt). 

Then we have the popular games and representations 
associated with church festivals, the boy " Bishop," 
the " Pope " of Fools, the " Lord " of Misrule, the 
" Abbot " of Unreason, the bull-baitings, archery con- 
tests, joustings, running at the quintan, the May 
games with their Robin Hood pageants, the roi^h 
horseplay of the Hockday sports, of which the chief 
feature, the binding of men by women and vice-versa, 
perhaps survives in the names Tieman and Btndlass, 
Birtdloss. It is quite possible that Peacock, Pocock, 
and Popjoy, Pobjoy, Pobgee, Popejoy may have been 
in some cases nicknames conferred on successful 
athletes — 

" In the year of Christ 1253, the 38th of Henry III., the yonth- 
fol citizens, for an exercise of their activity, set forth a game to run 
at the quinten ; and whoever did best should have a ptaeock which 
they bad prepared as a prize " [Stow), 

D,g,„.?<i I,, Google 


Shooting at the popinjay, a wooden figure ol a parrot 
set up as a mark, is often mentioned, not only hy 
English writers, but also by Rabelais. Of course these 
two names may also come from signs, or they may 
be nicknames due to some characteristic of the original 
bearer • ; but the iollowing is suggestive — 

" Paptgay, a parrot, or popingay ; also. & woodden panot (set up 
OD the top of a steeple, high tree, or pole) whereat there ia, in many 
parts o( France, a generail shooting once every yeare; and an 
exemptjon for all that yeare, from la lailU, obtained by him that 
strikes downe the right wing thereof, {who is therefore tearmed L« 
Cktualitr ;) and by liiin that strikes downe the left wing, (who is 
tearmed Lt Baron ;) and by him that strikes down the whole 
poptngay (who for that dexteritie or good hap hath also the title of 
Roy du Papegay.) all the yeare following " (Cotg.). 

Most important of all, perhaps, from the surname 
point of view, is the medieval drama, with its long 
and detailed representations of the most important 
episodes from the Old and New Testaments and from 
the Uves of the Saints. In these performances the 

' The origin of bird nicknames would repay study. In some cases 
no doubt they were due to some externa) feature, but moat of them 
are probably connected with the qualities, invariably bad, which 
folklore symbolised in certain birds. The Peacock personified vanity, 
the Woodcock, according to popular superstition, had no brains, the 
Capon and Daw were both fools, the Bttiiard was a type of ignorance, 
and so on. Most interesting of all is the woodpecker, whose many 
dialect names {Speight, Speck, Pick, Rainbird, etc.) nearly alt exist 
as surnames. Now the woodpecker, a retiring and inconspicuous 
bird, has none of the prominent characteristics which make Jay, 
UigUingaU, Crane, Goose, etc., such natural nicknames. His place 
in the surname list is due to an unconsciously persisting myth which 
is perhaps older than Genesis and Olympus. See Rendel Harris, 
Tha Place of ikt Woodpecker in Religion {Contemporary Review, 
Feb. 1916). On the general characteristics which medieval folk- 
lore ascribed to various birds we get some light in Chaucer's Parlia- 
ment of Fowls and Skelton's Pkilip Sparrow. 

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number of actors was often enormous, and the spec- 
tacle was prolonged for days or even weeks — 

" The miracle plays in Chaucer's days were exhibited dvring the 
Mason of Lent, and sometimes a sequel of scripture histories vas 
carried on for several days. In the reign of Richard II. the parish 
clerks of London put forth a play at Skinner's Wella, near Smith- 
field, which continued three days. In the succeeding reign anotbO' 
play vas acted at the same place and lasted eight days ; this drama 
be^n with the creation of the world and contained the greater part 
of the Old and New Testament. . . . Beelzebub seems to have been 
the principal comic actor, assisted by his merry troop of under- 
devils. . . , When the mysteries ceased to be played, the subjects 
for the drama were not taken from historical facts, but consisted of 
moral reasonings in praise of virtue and condemnation of vice, on 
which account they were called moralities. The dialogue wa» 
carried on by allegorical characters such as good doctrine, charity, 
faith, prudence, discretion, death, and the hke, and their discourses 
were of a serious cast ; but the province of malting the spectators 
meny descended from the devil in the mystery to the vice or iniquity 
of the morality, who usually personified some bad quality incident 
to human nature, as pride and lust " (Strutt). 

Now most of us have within our experience cases 
of nicknames conferred in connection with private 
theatricals and fancy-dress balls, and it is ea^ to 
believe that, at a period when the surname was not 
a fixed quantity, distinction in some piece of acting 
or buffoonery may have often earned for the per- 
former a sobriquet which stuck. I do not mean to 
say that all the names I am about to enumerate 
belong with certainty, or exclusively, to this class, but 
I think that in the case of most of them there is a 
strong presumption for such an origin. To go thor- 
oughly into the question would involve a close study 
of the medieval drama,' and a much more intimate 

> See E. K. Chambers, Tk» Medieval Slagt (Oxf. 1903)- Some 
characteristic plays and extracts will be found in Pollard's English 
MiraeU Piayi, 6th ed. (Oxf. 1914). 

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knowledge of the history of p^eantry, than can be 
gleaned from the popular account of Strutt. The 
reader who cares to look through the long hsts of 
dramatis persona in the Chester, Coventry, Towneley, 
and York plays, will see that there is hardly a name 
in this chapter which cannot be illustrated, or at 
least paralleled, from those collections. 

The whole question also has a psychological aspect. 
The rise of all^ory and the flouri^ng of the drama 
are connected with the awakening consciousness of 
the people as a whole. It was a somewhat dull, prosaic 
awakening, showing itself in a reahstic, bludgeon- 
wielding type of satire and a homely morahty, and, 
from the surname point of view, in a striving after a 
' name that meant something to its bearer. We see 
something of this spirit in the nomenclature adopted 
by Jack Straw and bis followers. The following pro- 
clamation is contemporary with John Ball — 

" John Scbepe, soine time St. Blary's priest ol York, and now of 
Cokbesta, giMteth well John Nameleas and John the Miller and 
John the Carter, and biddeth them that they beware ol guile in 
borongh, and stand together in God' B name, and biddeth PicTB Plow- 
man goto hiswork.andchastise well Hob the Robber (Robert Hales, 
the Treasurer] and all his fellows, and no mo, and look that ye abape 
you to one head and no mo." 

And as late as the reign of Henry VII. rdlTelUous 
peasants revived these old names which symbolized 
their condition in hfe and their aspirations — 

" Taking Robyn of Riddesdale, Jack Straw, Thomolyn at Lath > 
and Maister Mendall for their capteyns " (Letter of Henry Vtl.). 

To the same attitude of mind belong many of 
the phrase -names dealt with in ch. xii., and th«r 

• ME, latlie, a bam. 

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descent can be traced through the Elizabethans and 
the Restoration dramatists via Smollett and Fieldii^ 
to the modern novelists. For even Dickens, sumptu- 
ous as is his collection of genuine surnames, occasion- 
ally descends to such stuff as Veneering and Verisopht — 

" A curious essay might be written on the reasons why such 
namesasSirJohnBrute. Sir Tunbelly Clumsy, Sir Peter Teaile. Sir 
Anthony Absolute, Sir Lucius O'Trigger, I^rd Foppington, Lord 
Rake, Colonel Bully, Lovewell, Heaitfree, Gripe. Shark, and the 
rest were regarded asa matter of course in the 'comedy of manneis.' 
. . . The fashion of label-names, il we may call them SO, came down 
from the Elizabethans, who, again, borrowed it from the medieval 
moralities " (William Archer, Play-Making). 

The surnames which may with more or less cer- 
tainty be connected with medieval spectacles fall 
into several groups. Many Old Testament names 
such as Adam and Eve, Abel, David, Solomon or Salmon, 
Sampson, Jonas,' etc., no doubt sometimes belong here. 
Geoffrey Golias ' or Gullias {Hund. R.) has a modem 
representative in Gullyes and GtUly [William Golye, 
H«nd. R.]. The form Golie is used by Wyclif. From 
ME. Goliard, a satiric poet or jester, popularly con- 
nected with Golias, we have GuUard [John Goliard, 
Close R., John le Golert, Derby Cart. 1353], of which 
GuUett is the regular reduction. I have seldom found 
SoIomA as a medieval font-name, while ^^^lliam 
dictus Salamon {Land. Wills, 1287) is a clear case 

• Was the original Whalebtlly a piece of realistic mechanism in a 
Jonah pageant 1 One has heard of the pantomime actor who earned 
his bread as the left hind-leg of an elephant — 

" In this same interlude, it doth befall 
That I, one Snout by name, present a wall " 

(MidsumHer Nights Dream, V. i), 

* The Middle English iona of Goliath, found also in Shakespeare. 



of a nickname. Pharaoh.^ Pharro is explained by 
Bardsley as a corruption of Farrow. It is more likely 
that the latter is corrupted from Pharaoh, a very 
spectaciilar personage; but the Scotch surname J%o/om«y 
evidently belongs to Bartholomew ; cf . Fr. Tholomii, 
A particularly interesting name is A bsolom, not uncom- 
mon as a modem surname and with a number of dis- 
guised variants. We know from Chaucer that this 
was a nickname fw a man with a fine head of hair — 

" Now waa ther of that chirche a parissh clerk. 
The which that was y-cleped Abioton ; 
Crul was his heer and as the gold it shoon, 
And strouted as a fume, laige and brode " 

tChaac. A. 33"). 

This became, by a common metatheds, Aspelon 
[Adam Absolon or Apsolon or A^elon, City B.\ 
whence Asfenlon, Asplin. The local-looking Asp- 
land is the same name with furious -d (John 
Apspeiond, City £.] and Ashpiant is an imitative 

A doubtful case is Pottifhar, explained by Bardsley 
as an imitative corruption of Pettifer (p. 141). It may 
be from an Old Testament play, for although Potipluur 
himself plays no part in history, we can hsurdly 
imagine that the medieval drama would omit to put 
Ids wife u[>on the scraie, and for the audience ^e would 
be Mrs. Potiphar. Cf. James Dalileye {Close R.), 
who presumably played Delilah in another highfy 
dramatic BibUcal sc^ie. 

But many names wluch might appear to belong to 
this class are dec^tive. Shadrake is an alteration of 
the bird nickname Sheldrake, Ogg is not the King of 

■ Pbanui Kiicke was bnried at Repton, Dec i, 1603. 

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Bashan, but AS. 0(^a or Ogga, shortened from some 
such name as Ocgweald, AS. oga, terror, Leah is a 
form of the local Lea, and Rachell comes via Fr. Rachilde 
from OG. Raghild. for which see Regin and Hild 
in ch. ii. Some Welsh surnames, such as Jeremiah, 
Matthias, Mordecai, belong to the later name-ixeatlon 
with which the modem Welsh have replaced their 
Aps. Perhaps in some cases such names were substi- 
tuted for Wdsh names of somewhat similar sound, just 
as Ja-emiah was adopted in Ireland for Diarmid. This 
would seem to be the explanation of Enoch, which is 
spelt Egenoc in the Gloucester Cartulary. The Suffolk 
name Balaam is an alteration of the local Baylham, 
from a village in that county, but Robert Balaam 
{Pat. R.. Cornwall) suggests also a nickname. Jermy 
is not from Jeremy, but from Jermyn,' with which it 
runs paralld in Norfolk. Noah was an important 
character in the old drama and the popular fc^m of 
the nanJk was i^oy, whence iVoygs, Noyce. The Chester 
play of Noah's Flood ends with the lines — 

" My blefisinge, Noye, I geve thee heare. 
To thee, Noye, my servuit deare; 
For VBOgance shall no more appeare, 
And now lare well, my dailinge deare 1 " 

Saul. Sawle, generally fra- Fr. SaUe, Lasalle, is another 
posable case. This Is necessarily guess-work, but it 
is noticeable that the Bibhcal names which occur 
commonly as> surnames are invariably connected with 
those e[U£odes in Old Testament history which were 

> This is Fr. Germain, from Germanos, used aa a personal name^ 
but Gilbixt le German [Pat. R.) and Jermany, Jarmany point also 
to k>cal origin. 

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constantly dramatized for edification. I have seen 
somewhere, but failed to make a note of, a vagfuely 
spelt ME. Nebuchadnezzar, 

From the New Testament we have Herod [Seman 
H^odes, Pat. R.] and Pillait ' [Alan Pilate, P/cos], 
The character of Herod as a stage braggart was 
iamiliar to Shakespeare — 

" I would have Bucfa a fellow whipped for o'esdoing Termagant ; 
it ont-herods Herod " (Hamltt, iii. z). 

With this cf. Jordan Travagan {Lib. R.), for Terva- 
gant, the earher form of Termagant, The following 
excerpt from the sums paid in 1490 to the Coventry 
smiths who acted the Passion reads oddly — 

" Imprimia to God, ijs ; item to Cayphas, iija iiiid ; item to 
Heroude, iijs iiiid ; item to Pilatt it wyfie, ijs ; item to the devyll 
and to Judas, xviijd ; item to Petur and Maiclius, xvjd ; item to 
Pitatte, iiijd." 

Several rather uncommon names of office, e.g. 
Governor and Commander [WiUiam le Comandur, 
Hund. R.], seem to be associated especially with the 
Passion Play, The most interesting is Poyner, i.e. 
" p^ner," or tormentor [John le Poynur, Hund. R.], 
which still survives, while Turmentur, of which I 
have found several medieval examples, has naturally 
dropped out of use. Officer, still a Nottingham sur- 
name, may be rather corrupted from the maker of 
" orphrey," or gold embroidery [John le Orfresour, 
Pat. R.I, though " officer," in the sense of servant, 

> The very popular r61e of Pontius Pilate, one of the stock villaina 
of medieval drama, may account for the large number of derivatives 
ol Pontius in France, Pons, Fonsard, Poimon, etc., whence our 
names in Punch-, Pinch-. 

D,g,t,.?<i I,, Google 

2o8 PAGEA^rr names 

especially of the crown, is a. common word in Middle 
English ; cf. FitchcU (p. no). Latkron,' corrupted 
into Leathern, Letkeren, is an early form of Fr. larron, 
thief, penitent or otherwise. In Fr. Leleru we have 
the old nominative of the same word. Cf. Adam 
Maufetour, i.e. malefactor {IpM.). It is curious 
to find Christ as an existing surname, but it is no 
doubt from the font-name Christian. With Virgirt 
and the latinized ' Virgoe, Vergo goes Mildmay (p. 246), 
for " mild " was the traditional epithet of the Holy 
Vir^ — 

" Av« Maiia I maiden mild " (Lady oj the Lakt, iii. 19). 

Goad is no doubt for God, which has also become 
Good ; cf. Goadbles {p. 181). Godson, though it 
obviously has other origins, is also to be taken liter- 
ally [Henry FizDeu, Chart. R.}. The naivetd of the 
old drama is amazing. In the play of Cain arid Abel, 
Cain, when admonished by the Almighty, addresses 
him scornfully as " Hob over the wall." 

Among the supers are Posile or Posthill, Martyr, and 

> This is philologically interesting ; cf. DaintM (p. 213}. LaAtron 
is still in dial, use as a term of contempt. The EDD. derivos it 
bom Ft. laideron, ugly person, bnt this is a comparatively modem 

■ The stage directions and, in the earliest examples, the dialogue, 
were in Latin. This will account for Pontifex, which may bo either 
for Pope or for one of the high priests in tlie Passion play [Gilbert 
Ponntife, Pal. R.]. Another purely Latin name is Couslos, but 
eustos was once in general use as an EngUsh word, e.g. Bemers, in 
the preface to his translation ol Froissart. says that histOTy has 
time as " her eustos and kepar." Prettier, Prelor, Praler may be 
lor " prxtor " or for " prater." With the latter origin may be 
compared such names as Wkitfler [Elias le Wistler, Glouc. Cart.) 
or the obsolete Geoffrey le Whiner (Pal. JR.), Richard le Titteler, 
whi^Mrer, tatlec (Hund. R.), John Sternitonr, saeecer (ib.). 

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Saint, Sant. Saunt, while Devill ' [Osbert Diabolus, 
Pat. R.] has naturally survived less strongly than 
Angell [Edward le Angel,' Fine R.]. There was more 
than one type of stage angel, hence the more definite 
Henry Angel-Dei (Hnnd. R.), and Fr. Bonnange. 
Seraphim still exists as a surname [Peter S^apin, 
Pat. R-l Pilgrim, with its odd variants Peagrim, 
Piggrem, Paragreen,* etc., may also belong here, also 
Armitt (hermit), with which we may compare not only 
Fr. Lertnitte, hut also Rectus. In all probability some 
of the favourite saints, such as Christopher and George, 
contributed to the surname list via the popular drama. 
The fact that the latter, a very rare medieval font- 
name, is so common a surname in its unaltered form, 
is an argument fc^ nickname cnigin. Both were also 
favourite inn-agns.* 

With George goes naturally Dragon [William le 
Dragon, Hund. if.]. The name is found in French 
and the other Romance languages, and in the Close 
R. we find mention of a Spaniard with the pleasing 
name Demon Dr^on. Grifin, usually a Welsh name 
related to Grif&th, is also sometimes a nickname [John 

> I read to-day (Nov. ao, 1915) that HerrTCTifelii. appropriately 
enough, German press agent in B&le. Here may belong sometimea 
DAU. Dibblt. The Prynce of Dybles is on important chancter in 
the play of Mary Magdalent. 

* It IB likely that Messenger, Massinger are also sometimes of 
dramatic origin, forthere is a nunnut in most medieval plays, and hit 
part is important. 

* These may equally well come from Peregrine, which is etymo 
logically the same word. 

* " Fiom thence towards London Bridge, on the same side, be 
many fair inns, for recepit of travellers, by these signs, the Spnrre, 
Christopher, Ball, Qneene's Head, Tabaide, George, Hart, Kinge's 
Head, etc." (Stow>. 

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Griffon, Fine R.]. In the OF. Mysiire de la Passion 
it is the nickname of a comic character whom Satan 
instructs in the use of dice. Although Paradise, Heaven, 
and Hell were realistically staged in the old drama, 
these surnames have another origin. Paradise is local, 
a pleasure-garden, especially that of a convent — 

" There ie (at Hampton Court) a parterre which they call Para- 
dist " (Evelyn, Diary). 

Heaven, a Bristol name, is generally for the Wel^ 
Evan, and HeU ' is simply a variant of Hill [William 
de la Helle, Chart. R.\ 

Surnames derived from ecclesiastical titles are 
generally too obvious to require explanation." Bishop 
occurs as early as DB., but his superior does not seem 
to have survived, though arcevesque is common enough 
in the Rolls and Hue Archevesque was a Norman 
poet of the thirteenth century. Bishoprick is an 
abstract nickname to be compared with O^e — 

" His bishoprich, maig. office at charge,* let another take " 
(A.V. Acts, i. 20). 

With the still existing Archdeacon, Arcedeckne, cf. 
Roger le Archprest {Pleas.), who possibly enacted 
Annas or Caiaphas in the Passion Play. Rarer names 
of this type are Novice, Novis, Reverand, Curate 
[Henry Curete, Lane. Court R. 1323-4], Minchin. The 
latter is ME. minchen, a ntm, a derivative of monk, 
regularly used, for instance, in the Cartulary of God- 

< Hellcat is a. curious perversion of Halktlt (p. 6i). 

* It is curions to find William Hugh, pape, and Reginald le 
Erceveaqe charged together with murder at Exeter (Pa*, ft.). 

* Is this the origin of the name Charge, or is this for Jatge 7 Pre- 
bend is also a surname, bat can Preftrment be genuine ? 

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stow NunnCTy. It is supposed to be the origin of 
Mincing Lane — 

" A third lane ont of Tower Street ... is called Minehton Lant, 
■o called oi tenements there sometiine pertaining to the Minchun* 
or nuns ol St. Helen's in Bishop^ate Stieet " {Stow). 

Labat, Labhett is a Htiguenot name, representing Pro- 
vencal ahat, abbot, with the definite article. AnkreU, 
anchorite, still exists by the side of the simple Anker, 
Anchor, Annercaw — 

" An anchor's cheer in prison be ray scope " 

{HamUt. iii. 3). 

To church office belongs also Reglar, Rigler, a member 
of a rehgious house, often contrasted with " secular " 
[Nicholas le Secular, IpM.} — 

" Of seculer folke he can make reguler, and agayne of regvltr 
•oculer" (NED. 1528). 

" Secular " does not seem to have survived, but the 
synonymous Temporall, Temprall, is still a surname, 
while Regelous is a corruption of " religious " in its 
old sense of monk. Stroulger, Stronger, Strudger is 
perhaps a popular form of " astrologer," a mckname 
often applied in Middle Engfish to the cock. 

A rather fascinating group of surnames is associated 
with the struggle between Christianity and Mahomet 
as represented in medieval romance. I have not 
found Christian or Pagan except as personal names, 
but the popular form Curson — 

" As I am a eursen man " 

(Marlowe, Faustus, iv. 6)— 

was often a nickname ' [Simon le Curson, Pat. R., 
' Curion has also another origin. 

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Walter le Hethen, »6.]. We cannot imagine that the 
latter was a professed heathen, for such views were 
not popular in the Middle Ages. He had no doubt 
played the part of a " paynim " in some dramatic 
performance. The same applies to John le Renejrie, 
the renegade {Nott. Court R. 1310). Similarly the 
common medieval names Hate-Christ and Shun- 
Christ [Hugh Hatecrist, Pipe R., William Shunecrist, 
Exck. R.] were probably borne by men who had 
enacted the r61e of an awful example in a morality. 
Ci. Thomas Corescros, curse-cross (Hund. R). 

The l^itimate heathen are, however, well repre- 
sented. The chief character on their side was 
naturally the Soldan ol the Saracens, whence our 
Soxtrden,' Soden, Saltan. With Robert le Sowdene 
{Hund. R) ci. John Saladin (»6.)— 

" He that playetb the towdayn» is p«rcaM a sowter. Yet if one 
■hoald , . . calle him by his owne name . . . one of Us tormen- 
tors > might bap to breake hia (one's) head " (Sir Thomas More). 

Here belong also such names as Turk, Tartar, Arabin, 
Larby, OF. I'Arabi [Ponce Araby, City A.], Moor, 
Morris, and Sarson, for we cannot suppose that John 
Saracenus, prebendary of Bridgnorth {Pat. R.), was 
a real live Saracen — 

" I Bcy, ye solem Sarson, alle blake in your ble" 

(Skelton, Pmhk againU Gameselu, i. 36). 

Blackmore, generally local, is also for " blackamoor " 
[Beatrix Blakamour, Mem. of Lond.]. Memmett, 
Memmolt, Meymott, and probably Mammon, Mawman, 
represent the ME. Maumet, Maument, i.e. Mahomet 
[Ralph Maumet, Fine i!.], whom our ancestors repre- 
' Also a local name, from sow and dtan ; c£ Sugden. 

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DEMONS ■ 213 

sented as a god or idol. He is regularly coupled with 
Tervagant {p. 207), CI also Peter Amiraill [Doe, 
III.) and Richard Babiloyne [Coram Rege R. 1297), 
whose names may still survive in some um-ecognizable 
fonn. Admiral, an extension of emir, was originally 
used of a Saracen chieftain,' and Lamiral is still a 
common French surname. The " Amiral of Babi- 
loj'ne " is often mentioned in old romance. 

Champion, Campion may have fought on either side, 
but the stock Christian protagonists were the douztpers, 
or twelve peers, sometimes confused with Charlemagne's 
Paladins. In Ei^lish a new smgular was formed and 
became a common nickname [Simon Duzeper, Close 
J?., William Duzeper, Hund. R.], which survives as 
Dashper and Disper. Epithets often applied to the 
Saj^cens were OF. malfi and malfeU, representing a 
barbarous Latin male-fatus and male-fatutus * [Simon 
le Malf£, Pipe R.. William Maufee, Pat. i?.]. Hence 
our Morfey, Morphy, Morphea/, the spelling of the 
latter having been influenced by the obsolete morphew, 
a leprous eruption. Malfi was also apphed specifically 
to the devil, which brings us to surnames derived 
from supematiu^l beings. Poke, Pook [William le 
Puk, Kirby's Ques(\, and Puckle [WiUiam le Pokel, 
ipM.I are from our old friend Puck, an imp, used in 
Piers Plowman of Satan — 

"Fro the pouhei ponndfalde no Duynprise ma^ oaa fecch«*" 

{Piers Plowm. C. xix. 380). 
" Th« hell waine, the fier diake, the puckU, Tom Tbombe, Hobb 

1 See my Romanct of Wordt, p. 46. 

* Cf. the origin of Mallory, OF. maUuri, Lat. maU-augttratut 
[AnketU Malor6, Pat. R., Crispian Malurt, Hund. A.]. 
■ This line cootains three mniames — Pook, PtHfoli, Mainprict, 



gobbtin . . . and •acta other bugs " {Scott, Discovery of WUckcrtttt. 

Both names have another origin, for puke, pook vras 
a wooUen cloth of a special colour {cf. Burnett, Ray, etc., 
p. 154), and Puckle is also local [Robert de Pukehole, 
Cttst. Battle Abbey]. This brings us, even geogra- 
phically, rather near " Pook's Hill." With Ghosi ' 
[Fabian le Gost, Ramsey Cart.] cf. Spiretl, Spirit, the 
French name Ltfs^n/ and the twelfth-century chronicler 
Jourdain Fantosme. Warlock, Werlock, Worlock,* a 
Middle English name for the devil, and later for a 
wizard, is from AS. ineerloga, a traitor, more literally 
an early exponent of the " saap of paper " theory. 
The suffix is cognate with Ger. lUgen, to lie.' An 
essential figure in every pageant was the wodewose, 
AS. wuduwasa, faun, satyr, known in later times 
as the Woodhouse, Wodekouse.* The intermediate 
form was wodwysse (temp. Ed, III.). Hence the names 
Woodiwiss, Widdimss, and perhaps Whitemsk — 
" Wodewose, silvaans, aatirns" (Prompt. Pan.). 

> James Gbost, bedstead maker, j, Little Chailotte St., Black- 
riars Rd. (Land. Dir. 1843). 

' But waTloi:k is alga a dial, name for mustard, 80 ttiat Nicholas 
Warloc {Hund. R.) may belong to the same group as GarlicM, Pepper, 
etc. (p. 188). 

'■ Mustard, or viarloke, or senwyn, herbe, sitiapis " {Prompt. Para.), 

WarlotB appears to be a true nickiiame. la the TotimeUy Mys' 
teries Pharaoh refers to Moses as " yond aiarlow with his wand." 

* In Truttock, an abstract nickname, from ME. triulac, Adelity, 
we have the same suffix as in " wedlock." 

' It gave its name to " an ancient East Anglian family. Barons 
Wodehouse and Earls of Kimberley, the supporters of whose shield 
of arms are too wodewoses " (H. D. Ellis, Proceedings of the Suffolk 
Institute of Archaology and Natural History, xiv. 3). 

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Probably some names derive directly from the 
Kobin Hood pageant — 

" BishopLatimerrelates that, going to preach at a certain chinch, 
he found it locked, b«cauEe the inhabitants were all attending 
Robin Hood — so he ' was iaine to give place to Robin Hoode's 
men' " (Strutt). 

On this see also Note 10 to Scott's Abbot. The char- 
acter of Friar Tuck would account for some of our 
Fryers, Freres, etc., and no doubt LiUlejohn sometimes 
beloi^s to this group, Merriman may have been 
apphed to a che^ful person, but it was also the regular 
epithet for the followers of a knight or outlaw,* 
especially in the phrase " Robin Hood and his Merry 
Men." it has also been altered to MerrimetU.' In 
the same way we may pa'haps assume that Wiseman, 
besides its literal meaning, may have been one of the 
" wise men " of the East in the Candlemas pageant. 
Greenleaf was, according to Low^, also a character 
in the Robin Hood celebrations, and he quotes, from 
Fabian's Chronicle, mention of " a felow wych had 
renued many of Robyn Hodes pagentes, which named 
bymselfe Grenelef " (1502). Robert of the Lefgrene 
{Pat. R.) has some savour of the outlaw in his name. 
Jlfyterd is perhaps for may-lord, " a young man chosen 
to preside over the festivities of May-Day " (NED.), 
but Melody, which looks Uke may-lady, is for Melody, 
an Irish name. 

A few great names from antiquity may have figured 

in the pageants. One clear example seems to be 

Hercules, also found as Herkless, Arculus, Arkless, who, 

in the character of a swaggering buUy, was quite 

< Outlaw ia Btill a Norfolk surname [Richard Utla««, Hund. B.\ 

* StiU osod in SoSolk of a comicBl penon (EDD.) 

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familiar to the Middle Ages. Both Chaucer and 
Shakespeare deprive him of the aspirate — 

"My chief humour is for a tyrant: I could play EccIm rarely" 
{Midsummtr Night's Dream, i. 3). 

Another name of somewhat similar character is 
Brettoner, BruUner, a libel on the men of Brittany — 

" A Brutiitm', a braggere, a-bostede him also " (Pitts Plowm. A, 7, 

Cf. William le Tirant {Fine R.), and such names as 
Alexander and Casar which may obviously be some- 
times of dramatic origin. Cufiit, Cupiss, common in 
Derbyshire, may quite well be from Cupid [William 
Cupide, Leic. Bor. Rec. 1199]. But classical surnames, 
with a few exceptions, are not what they seem, e.g. 
Hector is local, " high tor " {p. 81), Cato is also local, 
at the " hoe " or " how " frequented by wild cats 
[Robert de Catho, Firte i?.], and KiUo, which looks 
like its offspring, is a Cornish name, ultimately a dim. 
of the Welsh Griffith. Phoenix appears to bo a nick- 
name. The word was common in Middle Enghsh in 
the sense of a paragon, and Finnis may sometimes 
represent its popular form /enice, OF. /enis — 
"Hie phenix, a phenes" {Voc.). 

Finally, we come to the rather large group of sur- 
names taken from abstract qualities. To the Puritans 
we owe such baptismal names, generally female, as 
Faith, Hope, Charity, but this fashion came too late 
for surname purposes. The same tendency can be ob- 
served much further back in the history of names. We 
have such Gredc names as Sophia, wisdom, Irene, 
peace, and many of the Teutonic names, which rq)re- 



sent our oldest stratum, are formed from abstract 
ideas, e.g. the shortened Hugh is simply AS. hyge, 
mind. It is equally natural that medieval English- 
men should have nicknamed people by the names of 
the virtues and vices which they seemed to pa:sonify, 
and, as the epigraph of this chapter seems to show, 
there can be little doubt that such names were often 
acquired by those who had played abstract parts in 
the moralities. 

No doubt some of the existing surnames of this 
type are imitative corruptions, e.g, Choyce is for the 
font-name Joyce [William Choys, Pat. R.], Victory is 
probably an alteration of Vickery, an early form of 
Vicar, Honour is local, from the same word used of a 
special kind of fief (see p. 63). Element is for EUiman, 
which, in its turn, may represent the " man " of 
EUis, or F. AUemand, which has generally become 
AUman; Emblem is an imitative spelling of Emblin 
(Emmeline); Memory or Membery is local for Mow- 
bray, from Montbrai (Manche), the origin also of 
Momerie, Mummery; Argument is probably from 
Aigremont, a common French place-name ; Drought and 
Jro/AareAS. fAry/A, might, an element in many Anglo- 
Saxon names; Courage is a hamlet in Berks, but 
still Courage is a French surname ; Foresight is the local 
Forsyth ; Zeal is a parish in Devon ; Trust is short for 
Trustrum, i.e. Tristram, and so on. Other examples 
of such imitative forms will be found scattered about 
in other chapters, but in none of the above, and 
similar, cases is the Uteral meaning absolutely barred. 

But, allowing for this incessant striving after a 
significant form, there remain a consid^able number 
of abstract surnames which can be taken at their 



face value. Both Virtue and Vice are well-established 
suinames. Of the three cardinal virtues. Faith, Hope, 
Charily, Hope is generally local (see p. 8i), and 
Charity has also a double origin. It is usually ab- 
stract (John Caritas, Leic. Bor. Rec, John Charity, 
Pai. R.], but Brother Miles of La Charity of the Priory 
of St. Andrew's, Northampton {Pat. if.), points to 
chariii in its Old French sense of hospice, refuge. 
Verity is a true abstract, found also in the popular 
forms Vardy, Varty. It is a conunon name in the 
West Riding. With Pride [Richard Pride, Fine R.], 
naturally a feivourite figwe in edifying drama, we 
may compare OrgiU, Fr. orgueil [Gerard Orgoyl, 
City D.]. Gentry formerly meant both high rank 
and good breeding. Chaucer says of the lion — 

" Of his getiUrye 
Hym deynetb nat to wreke him on a flye" 

{Legend of Good Womm, 394)- 

See also Hamlet, ii. 2. Kindness has parallels in Fr. 
Bonti [cf. Nicholas Bonty, Close R.'\ and our Goodship, 
but, bang a Border name, it may be rather Mackinnis, 
with the common loss of the prefix. With Wonder 
cf, MarveU [Geoffrey Merveyle, Pat. if.]. Speed and 
Goodspeed are genuine [Stephen Sped, Fine R., 
Ralph Godiq)ed, Hund. R.J. Hazard > is perhaps 
usually baptismal, AS. ^scheard, whence also Has- 
sard, Hassett, but the existence of Chance, Luck, 
Ventur * [William Aventiu", Hund. R.'\ shows that it 

I For incorrect aspirate in Anglo-Saxon names, see p. 33, w. I, 
Here we havs also the influence of the abstract tenn. 

■ Vtnttrs, Ventress, Ventris are for " venturous," with just the 
same phoaetic change as in the -houst names {p. g6). Cf. Fr. 
Laoenttirt and Lmtiaureux. 

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VICES 219 

may also be a nickname. Bad lack was responsible 
for the name of John Amesas {Hund. R.), who habitually 
made the lowest throw in dicing — 

" I had rather be in this choice than throw ames-aet tot my life " 
{AlTsWill.ii. 3). 

Craft is generally a variant of the local Croft, but the 
abstract Kraft is a German surname. Forfeitt had 
formerly the sense of wrong-doing [cf . Thomas Trespas, 
Hund. R.]- Profit is of course for the nickname Prophet 
{p. 198). Glew, Glue is an archaic form of glee [Agnes 
Glewe. Hund. J?.)— 

*■ Glu, or menstralsy, musiea, armonia " {Prompt. Parv.). 
Vices and virtues are equally well represented. 
Trickery, a Devon name, has a parallel in Engayne, 
OF. engan, trickery, a very common name in the 
Kolls, startitig with Richard Ingania (DB.). It seems 
to have become Engekam, now nearly absorbed by the 
local Ingham. With Greed [WiUiam Grede, Pipe R.} 
cf. Greedy [Helya le Gredie, Leic. Bar. Rec.\ Tred~ 
gett, or Trudgeit, is ME. treget, ji^glery, dec«t [cf. 
Simon le Tregetor, Hund. R.y— 

" By my trtgtt, I gadre and tbreste 
The gret tresonr into my cheste " 

{Romauni of the Riue, 1815). 

Fitton [Richard Fiton, Fine J!.] is a common Middle 
Engh^ word for lying, deceit. Its origin is disputed, 
but the NED. r^ards derivation from fiction as 
inadmisdble — 

" Fytten, mensonge, menterie" (Pabg.). 

Boa^ had in Middle English the sense of boasting, 
vainglory [Robert dictus Bost, Archbp. Peckham's Let.]. 



Cf. Galfridus Gloriosus ' (Pipe R.) and John le Boster 
{Pat. R.). Bessemer, Bismire is ME. bismer, mockory 
[William Bessemere. Hand. R.]. Ryott ' [PhiBp Ryot, 
Close R.'\ once meant debauchery, riotous living, and 
I should guess that Surkett, Serkitt, Circuiit is related 
to OF. and ME. surquidie, arrogance — 

" Presumpcioun ... is called surquidit" (Chauc. I. 403). 
More pleasant qualities are embodied in the names 
Worship [Thomas Worthshipp, Close J?.], Thrift, cor- 
rupted to ■ Frift, Sillence, Patience, Pennance, Pru^ 
dence [Henry Prudence, Feet of Fines\, Goodhead, i.e. 
goodness, Comfort [William Cumfort, Hund. if.], with 
which cf. SoUas [Ralph Soiaz, Northumb. Ass. if.], 
Manship, Manchip, corresponding generally in Middle 
Enghsh to Lat. virtus, Friendship, Quainiance [John 
Cointance, Lib. R.], and Brotherhood — 

"And ech ol hem gan ootber for tassiue 
Of brelherhede whil that hir lyl may dure " 

(Chauc. B. 1131). 

This last name may be also local, of the same type as 
Monkhouse, Nunnery, etc. Holness might be a con- 
traction of Holderness (Yorks), but it is purely a 
Kentish name ajid no doubt for " holiness." * Welfare 
is certified by Ger. Woklfart. Cf. Farewell, Farieell, 
' An epithet quaintly applied to the Kaiser by that eminent 
humanist Ferdinand of Bulgaria. 

■ Retiel is a font-name, very common in Old French and Middl« 
EngUsh, possibly derived from Lat. rtbillvs. But the fact that the 
name is so common in Yorkshire points to an alternative origin from 
Rievaulz [Ivo de Rievalle, Lib. Vil.]. Cf. RevU (p. S2). 

■ Holyhead is doubtful. In Middle English it means " holiness," 
but I have found the name, also as HoUyhtad, in the neighbour* 
hood of the Mollin- surnames, so it may be equivalent to Hollings- 
htad, i.e. at the " holly head." 

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and the parallel Ger. Lebwohl. With Service, Sarvis, 
and Fairservice cf. Thomas Wrangeservis {Writs of 
Pari.). Lawty, Lewiy, Luty is " lealty," OF. leaitU 
[Thomas Leaute, Pat. if.]- The French troops in 
Morocco are at present {Nov. 1915) conmianded by 
General Lyautey, and the more anglicized form Loalday 
is an existing English surname — 

" Thenne swar a. bocher, ' By my UauH I 
Shalt thou DM mor the Kyng of Fraunce se.' " 

(Song on the Battle oj Courtrai, temp. Ed. I.). 

The corresponding native name is Holdship, AS. 
holdscipe, loj^alty. With Counsell [John Counseil, 
City Z>.] we may compare Read, Reed, among the many 
origins of which must be included ME, rede, counsel — 

" Rud, counsell, eaneilivm " [F^ompt. Pan.). 
Hence Goodread, Goodred, Goodered [Richard Goderede, 
F, of. Y. 1465], and Meiklereid. In Middle Enghsh 
we find the less complimentary Robert Sraahed (Pipe 
R.). Philip Lytylred {John of Count's Reg. 1372-6), 
and WiUiam Thynnewyt {Lane. Court. R. 1325). 

Instance meant in Middle Enghsh eager suppUca- 
tion. Peace usually belongs to this group [William 
Pays, Fine R.. Nicholas Pax,' Hund. R.], and Small- 

> In one of the Chester plays " Death is personified, and a play 
on the Salutation ia prefaced by a long prolt^ne in heaven, in whicli 
the speakerB are (besides Deus Patei and Deus FiUns) Veritas, Mis- 
ericordia, Justitia, and Pax " (Pollard, English Miracle Plays). Here 
yrt have not only a plausible origin of the names Verily. Mercy or 
Maicy, Jusliee, Peace, but also an indication of the fact that Death is 
not always local, of Ath (Belginm). The name is qnite common in 
Essex, where it is occasionally altered to Dearth. With Robert 
Death {Oust. BaOle Abbey) cf. the common French surname Lamort, 
also found in England as Mart, and the famous Russo-Gennan 
TodUbtH, death-hfe. MortUman also suggests a dramatic personifi- 
cation of the uncertainty of human life. 

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peace, SmaUpeice, very common in Surrey, is its 
opposite. Hawisia Crist a pes (NoU. Bor. Rec.) was 
so named from her habitual ejaculation, which was 
probably not unconnected with the fact that her 
husband was Henry Lytilprud, i.e. " Kttle worth," 
whence our Liilleproud.^ It contains the older form 
of the common ME. prow, profit, use, whence also in 
some cases the surname Proai — 

" That shul been for youre hele aod for yonre prow " 

(Chaac. B. 4t4°)- 

Nor is it likely that our name Heal is quite indepen- 
dent of the common ME, hele, health, salvation. 
Deeming appears to mean judgment — 

" Ffor drede that they had of dtmyng therafter " 

(Richard the BedeUss, ii. 94). 

With thiscf. Sentartce, Sentence, &nd William Jugement 
{Wore. Priory Reg.). Flattery is a quahty that lends 
itself readily to dramatic impersonation. Hardiment in 
Chaucer means courage, daring — 

" Artow in Troye, and hast non harditiunt 
To take a womman which that loveth thee ? '■ 

[Troilus and Cristydi, iv. 533). 

Travell retains the older meaning of travml, toil ; 
Plenty was in the thirteenth century the name of a 
lady [Christina Plenty, Hund. R.\ and a slup called 
la Flentee is mentioned in the PcU. R. Skill also 
apparently belongs here [Walter Skil, Pat. R.] ; cf. 

' The synonymous Pelibort ia fonnd both in Middle EngliHh [John 
Petibon, Pal. R.] and in modem French. Ltttleprovd may, however, 
have been a modest person like Robert Proudofnouth {NoU. Court R, 
1316), but Richard Smalprout (Hund. R.) supports the first explana- 

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SUgM, usually for " sleight " [Johannes dictus Slegh 
or S\t^, Bp. KeUawe's Reg.]- Wisdom is derived 
by Lower from an estate in Devon, but it is 
always found without de [Hugh Wysdam, Hund. 
J?.]. The oldest meaning of Purchase is pursuit, 
pillage [Andrew Purchaz, Fine J?.], it is also one 
origin of Purkiss [John Purkase,' Hund. Jf.], also 
Ptrkiss, Porcas, Porkiss. In fact there is hardly a 
common abstract term which could conceivably be 
personified in an indiwdual that does not exist as a 
modem surname ; and for most of these names 
medieval prototypes can be quoted.' 

Pkysick and Dainteth, Dentith are of special interest. 
The former has generally been explained as an imitative 
corruption of the local Fishwick. This may be true in 
some cases, but" physic "is personified by Langland — 

'■ Phiiik Bhal his fmred hodes for hia fode aele " 

[Piers Plowm. B. vi. 371) — 

and Richard Phyak {Malmesbury Abbey Reg.) certifies 
it as a nickname. Dainteth is an archaic form of 
Dainty. The latter, a Northants name, is generally 
local, of Daventry, or Daintry, in that county. But 
Dainteth [Agnes D^Titeth, NoU. Bor. Rec."] is OF. 
deintet, Lat. dignitai-em, and shows the transition of 
the final dental on its way to complete disappearance. 
The only existing word which preserves this inter- 
mediate sound is faith, OF. jeid (foi), Lat. fid-em. 
The two names Nation and Sumption, Sumsion may 

> This might, however, be ME, percase, perchance; cf. Per- 
sdvetttoie (p. tSa). 

* Many which occur in the Rolls appear to b« no longer repr»> 
sented, e.g. Cnvenant, Damage, Pnrveance, Tntimonie, Blithehait, 
the last apparently from an nnrecorded ME. bUlh-h»d», Bliss. 

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be for Incarnation and Assumption.' If so, they do 
not belong to this chapter, but to the group of names 
taken from church seasons, such as Christmas, Pente- 
cost, Middlemas, etc. But they may equally well be 
for " damnation " and " presumption." ' A very 
possible pageant name is Welladvise, Weiiavize, 
Willavise,* the " well advised " ; but dial. weU-avixed, 
comely, is related to visage ; cf. black-avized, swarthy. 
For the loss of the final -d, cf. WeUbelove, WeUbehw 
for WeUheloved. 

' Asuncion is a baptismal name in Spain. 

> This loss of the first syllable is normal in dialect speech. It 
is jnst OS natural that the north-country name Tinnion should be 
lor Justinian [Justinian Penyfader, Archbishop Pechham's Reg. 
1279-92] as that King Constantine of Greece should be called Tina 
by his imperial brother-in-law. 

■ Bien'ovisi el Mal-avisi is the title of an Old French morality 

n,<jv.<!h, Google 



" 'This infant was called John Little,' qaoth he, 
' Which name shall be changed anon. 
The words ve'll transpose, and wherever he goes. 

His name shall be called Little-John' " 

(Old Ballad). 

A TYPE of surname which is very common in Middle 
EngUsh,and is still stronglyrepresented intheDirectOTy, 
is that of which we may take Brownsmiih, Litilejohn, ^ 
Goodchild, Dawharn, as tjTpes, i.e. surnames formed by ^, 
adding a quaUfying word to an occupative name, a y ' 
baptismal name, or a name indicating relationship. 
Brownsmith is the smith with the brown complexion, 
Littlejohn points to a small ancestor,^ but probably 
also to one who had enacted the part of Little John 
in some Robin Hood play or procesaon, Goodchild is 
pretty obvious, and Dawbarn means the " bairn " of 
Daw, i.e. David. 

Compounds of this type are very much more \ 
numerous in French and German than in Enghsh (see^ . 
chs. xiii. xiv), but we have a fairly lai|je number of 

' Of course nicknames often go by contraries, as is the case of the 
historical Little John himself. SHOwball [Favia Snowball, Fine R.] 
may have been applied to a swarthy person, mBouU d« nei%e is in 
France to a n^ro, and Coodchitd may have obtained his sobriqnet 
by indulging in parricide, A wall-eyed portress in Marguerite 
Andonx' Marie-Ctairt is called Bebcil. 

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them, some common, some rare, and many which have 
never been explained. Taking first the occupative class, 
we notice that these compounds occur chiefly in connec- 
/' tion with the true old English words which lack the 
\ later agential suffix -er. They are connected with the 
essential activities of life, and are thus distinguished 
from the more modem names which spring from the 
shopkeeper and the speciaUzed craftsman.* These 
names are Wright, Smith. Hunt, Webh, Bond, the 
farmer, with its compound Husband, and Grieve or 
Reeve, the farm steward. To these we may add Mine, 
later Hind, Mann,* which often means simply the 
servant. Knight, originally also the servant. Herd, the 
herdsman, Day, the farm worker, Swain, knave, and 
Ladd. Nearly all of these are found in compound^ 
and those of Wright and Smith are fairly numerous^ 
though insignificant when compared with the German 
compounds of Schmidt and Meyer (see p. 298). 
From Wright * we get, according to the' nature of 

' Nomesof the [ater type, if long and cumbersome, have generally 

been redaced or have disappeared. In one volume of the Nott, Bor. 

Bee. I find Richard le Bonstringer, John Breadseller, Hugh Last* 

maker, . Walter Ponchmakcx, Martin Tankardmaker, John Ham* 

/ baromnan, i.e. hand-barrow man. We stiU have Bowimlitr, Slay- 

I maJter, the maker of " slays " for looms, MiUtfaker, Shoemaher, the 

V last two very rare, also Ashbumer, Ironmonger, Stonehawer, whence 

^~Stani«r, Whiltier {ace p. 135), and Others which are easily rect^nised 

Wooditr, Woodgtr are for " wood-hewer." Shoemark. Slaymark 

appear to be for Shoemaker, Slaymaker. With the former cl Ger. 

Schuhnmch. It is possible that they go back to Anglo-Saxon forms 

of the type Hunt, Webb, etc., but Uie loss of -cr, though rare, is 

not without example, for in the caae of one &imily the occupativ« 

AsKbumer has been shortened to Ashburn. 

■ CL Humm [Gilbert le Honune, Pai. R., Geofirey Homo, >b.]. 

■ Wraith, Wraaih are perversions of Wright The intcnnediate 
Wraighi is common in Kent 

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the occupation, the very obvious Boatwright or 
Botwright, Cartwright, Cheesewright, Plowright, Ship- 
Wright, SivevirigH, Wainwright, Wheelwright. Wood-'^ 
Wright may be the wright who lived in the wood (ci 
Wildsmith, p. 228), but more probably the " mad" 
Wright; cf. jyooiwiason, and seep. 308. InArkmightvn 
have the dialect ark, a bin, meal-chest, and Tellwright 
is for tile-wright. William Basketwricte {Pat. R.), 
Thomas le Glasenwryth (Chesh. Chamb, Accts. 1301-60), 
have given way to BaskeUer and Glaisher, and I have 
found no descendants of Matthew le Glewryte {Pat. 
R.), Simon le Bordwryte {I-pM.), or Richard le Hair- 
wright {Leic. Bor. Bee). The po-sonahty of the 
Wright is expressed in Goodwright, Micklewrighi,* Old- 
wright, Whitewright, and John Loi^s Faber {Writs of 
Pari.). Allwright, Woolwright, may be imitative fell- 
ings of the AS. Ealdric and Wulfric, but the first may 
equally well be for Oldwright, northern auld-, and the 
latter may mean a wool-worker. Goodwright (v.s.) 
may be AS. Godric, and Seawright is from AS. SEeric, 
or perhaps from the more common Sigeric ; cf. Sea- 
ward from Sseweard or Sigeweard. Aldritt may belong 
here or to Aldred, AS. Ealdred. Henwright is the Irish 
name Enright, Enragbt, and Kenwright is for Kenrick, 
AS. Coenric. Many of the above names are some- 
times spelt -right instead of -wright. 

The technical compoimds of Smith are curiously 
few. Blacksmith and Whitesmith are both said to 
exist by Lower, though I have not come across them, 
and Locksmith has generally yielded to Locker, Lockyer. 
With Browttsmith (p. 225) cf. Randolf Redsmith {Nott. 
Bor. Rec.). On the analogy of Plowright we should 

> See note on Sarrismiih (p 22S). 

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expect Harrismith,' Harrowsmith to mean " harrow 
smith," but I expect they are perversions of Arrow- 
smiih [John le Arewesmj^h, Pat. R.\ which, in America, 
has become Arsmith. Greensmith is local, the smith 
on the green,' and Wildsmith, Wilesmith, is the smith 
in the wild, rather a Forest Lovers sort of figiu'e • ; cf. 
Skatpsmith, Brooksmith. Specialists have given the 
names Shoesmith, Shearsmitk. Sixsmitk may contain 
scythe, the earliest Anglo-Saxon f^m of which is 
sighthi, or more probably sickle [John Sykelsmith, 
IfM.y In Sucksmith, Shmksmith, we have Fr. soc, 
a plough-share, whence ME. sock, suck, still in dial use — 
■' Y- sucke of a plow, vtnler " (Manip. Foe.). 

Grossmith is, I think, comparatively recent, and 
adapted from Ger. Grobschmied, blacksmith. Clock- 
smith, of which thexe are several examples in the 
Repton R^sto: {1578-1670), appears to be extinct. 
Nasmytk, NaysmUh, is explained by Lower as " nail 
smith," by Bardsley as " knife-smith." The fact 
that Knifesmythe was a medieval name, surviving 
into the sixteenth century as Knysmithe, is in 

> A possible Bxplanation of these names is tlichad the Wright 
and HEirry the Smith. Cf. Fr. Jtanroy, Goninfaurt, and Ger. SeAtm^ 
htnrur (Heinricb), Schmidtkunj [Conrad). But the only examplM 
of tnch a formation I have found in English are Pascoewtbb (p. 130} 
and Fosltrjohn (p. 241). Johncooh is more probably for Johncoeh 
(p. 139), though literol interpretation is possible. Wathing is of 
course WatMin. 

■ Is GfMnprica the Price who lived on the green ot is it a barbaroas 
hybrid Greon-prts ? Fr. pri, whence Pray, is a common element in 
Middle English names [Henry de U Preye, Hutid. R.], and is one 
sontce of Pruct. Prict. 

' So Hollinpriesl suggests a [nous hermit among the hollies. It is 
found in Cheshire, where HolHn- names, such as HoUingsktad, are 
1, but it is perhaps for " holy priest" 

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favour of the second derivation. Being a Scottish 
name, it inevitably has a legendary ori^. Some 
prince or noble, fleeing from his enemies, took refuge 
in a shodng forge and hastily donned the garb of a 
journeyman smith. The pursuers, of course, came to 
the same smithy to get one of their horses shod, and 
at once noticed the clumsiness of the smith's asMstant. 
" You're nae smith " wo-e the words that showed he 
was detected. Though led away captive, we may 
assume that he was released and had issue. Other- 
wise there could be no Nasymths now t Lower also 
gives Spearsmilh and Bucksmith, which I have not 
met with. The latter is perhaps for " buckle-smith " — ■ 

" Soktll smyihts leches and gold betera" 

(CocJU LonOe). 

Greysmitk, like Brownsmith, refers to personal appear- 
ance ; cf. Robot Greygroom {Fine R.). 

I do not know of any modem compounds of Hunt, 
and only one of the later Hunter, viz, Todhunter, i.e. 
fox-hunter, but in the Rolls we find Foxhunt, Boar- 
hunt, Wolfhunt. Hunt has flourished at the expense 
of Hunter by absorbing the nickname hund, hound 
[Henry le Himd, Pat. R.l, and is also local, " of the 
hunt " ; cf. the still existing Delahunte. The office of 
Common Hunt to the City of London was not abolished 
till 1807. The COTresponding OF. veneur has given us 
Venour and Venner. Gravenor, though it has inter- 
changed with GrosvenoT, is etymologically grand 
veneur [Richard le Grantvenor, Fine R.\ Hunt is 
one of the few occupative names of which the feminine 
form has also given a surname.' This is found as 

* For a large namber of obsolete oouns rA this fonn, as alio foi 
words in -lUr, see Trench, English Past mid Pr»s*tU, 

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Huntress, Huntriss [Agnes Venatrix, Hund. R.}. The 
only other names of this type I have found are Pewtress, 
Vickress, and posably Clarges [Juliana la Clergesse, 
Maimesbury Abbey Reg."]. Such names wctc once 
commoner,* e.g. in the Gloucester Cartulary occur 
Ahce la Carteres, AUce la Horsmannes, Isabella le 
Prestes, Matilda le Piperes. 

Webb has, I think, only two compounds, Green- 
Webb, the weaver who lived on the green (cf. Green- 
smith), and Norwebb, the weaver at the north end 
of the town ; with these cf. John le Bothwebb 
{Maimesbury Abbey Reg.), i.e. the weavCT who occu- 
pied a booth. Pascoewebb, Pascal the weaver, is an 
example of a formation which is commoner in French 
and German (see p. 228, «. i). Bond • gives New- 
bond, Newbound [Walter le Newebond, Hund. i?.X and 
Blackhond, Blackband, while correq)onding to Yowng- 
husband we find John Yongebonde {Chart. R.). 
Goodban, Goodbun, Goodband ' may belong here or to 
Goodbairn. Willbond may be for " wild bond " [cf. 
Edwin Wildegrome, Pipe R.]. Lovibond, Loveband, 
Levihond, seems to mean " the dear bond " [Nicholas 
Leveband, Hund. J?,] ; cf, Loveday (q.v,). Lighibound 
is an alteration of the local Lightborne (Lane). 

Grieve, with the imitative speUing Grief, has a com- 
pound Fairgrief, Fairgray. Forgreive is perhaps rather 
to be compared with Forman. a leader. Reeve is also 

• We also have many names in -sUr, originally used of trades 
especially practised by women, e.g. Brtwsttr, BaxUr, but this 
disttnctiaa was soon lust [Simon le Bakestere, Cai. Gtn.]. 

* Hence also Band. Bound. Bunt [Richard le Bande, IpM.. Ger- 
vase le Bunt, Maimtsbury Abbey J?ej.]. 

' Final -band may also stand for the local -bourne, -bum, e.g. 
MiUboHd for " miU-bnin," ChaOyaTtd from Oiatbnia (Lane.). 

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found as Reef. Its compounds are very numerous 
in Middle English, and it is strange that so few have 
survived. I find Oldreive [William le Oldereve, Pat. R.\ 
which, as a modem Devon surname, is neighboured by 
Oidrey (cf. Fairgray), and of course Sherriff (shire 
reeve), Shreeve, Shrive, a name less often due, perhaps, 
to official position than to a successful interpretation 
of the Sheriff of Nottingham in a Robin Hood pageant. 
The Scottish form Shirra also exists as a surname, 
and I suspect that Shearer, Sharer, a common name 
in Scotland, is sometimes of the same origin.' I can- 
not help thinking that Woodroffe, Woodruff, a plant 
nickname, owes something to the woodreeve, i.e. 
Woodward. But the apparent disappearance of the 
borough-reeve, dike-reeve, port-reeve, etc., is curious. 
Perhaps they were converted into Borrowman, Berry- 
man, Dickman, and Portman, as the word reeve 
became archaic. 

From Hine we have Goodhind [John Godhine, 
Wore. Priory Reg.'], a type of name [Richard Fidelis 
Serviens. Ramsey Cart.} once very common. With 
Goodlad, Goodlud, Goodlet, cf. the common French 
names Bonvillain, Bonvalet, and the extinct Robert 
le Godegrom {Hund. R.), and Richard le Lovegrom 
[Malmesbury Abbey Reg.). Lightlad* (httle) and the 
synonymous Pelivallei exist as English names. With 
Goodlass cf. Soielass (sweet). Goddard is occaaonally 
the " good herd " ; cf . Whiteheard, WhiUard for " white 
herd." The prefix Bon- is common in the Rolls [Richard 

■ It is generally & sheep-sbearer, and. In Northuinbiia. a reaper, 

* The only surviving compound of " boy " appears to be LiaUboy. 

Warboy is of coarsefrom Warboys (Camb.), and Mortiboy, Martiboy, 

found also as Mortiboys, evidently comes from some " dead wood." 



Bonswan, Coram Rege R. IZ97] ; ci. Bonfellow for 
GoodfeUow. To this class belongs Goodhugk, Goodhue, 
Goodhew, which I have previously explained ' as for 
" good Hugh," an explanation which may in some 
cases be right, for the name is fairly common, and 
Hugh, which probably ranks sixth in popularity {after 
John, WiUiam, Thomas, Robert, Richard) among 
medieval font-names, may naturally have joined the 
LiUlejohn, GoodwiUie class [John Godehugh, Pat. J?.]. 
But the real origin, from ME. kiwe, servant, jumps 
to the eyes [John Godhyue, Lane. Court R. 1323^}. 
And the same word hiwe is often the origin of the 
usually baptismal Hugh, Hew, Hewes, etc., just as 
hine is of Hine, Hinds, etc. In fact, the two words, 
which are ultimately cognate, are used as equivalent 
in Middle Enghsh — 

" He wittialt non hewe, vai. hytu, has byre overe even " 

[Piers Plouman, C. viii. 195). 

ThraleiepTesentsihrall, aserf[JohnleThryl,'Pfl/. i?.]. 
Goodchap is for Goodckeaf, a nickname ica a trades- 
man [Jordan Godchep, City A.\ Cf. Geoffrey Bon- 
march6 {City A,), whose name survives as Bomash — 

" BvH marchi, good cheap, dog cheap, a low rate, a reasonable 
price" (Cotg.). 

Goodgame, which Bardsley derives from the medieval 
Goodgroom, is, as the example [Walter Godgamen,' 
Hund. R.] shows, an abstract nickname, " good 
sport," perhaps equivalent to Fairplay. From Ladd 
we have the dim. Ladkin. The apparent compound 

' Romance of Names, p. 60. 

» ThriU in the Scottish form ; see NED. 

* Gcantn is the older form of gantt. 

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Sommerlat, Sumnterlad ' is ON. Sumerlida, summer 
warrior, of very common occurrence in Anglo-Saxon 
records [Sumerlede, DB.] ; cf. William Sumersweyn 
{Ramsey Cart.) and Winterled (DB.). the latter a 
Viking of sterner stuff. 

The original meaning of " dey " was a " kneader," 
as in AS, klafdige, loaf kneader, whence lady.* It was 
then used of a woman servant, especially a dairy 
woman, and later of a farm-worker in general. Good- 
day is sometimes from this word ; cf. Goodhind, Good- 
hew. Faraday, Fereday, Ferriday has been explained 
as " travelling day," from ME. fere, to travel. 
The formation would be like that of Delveday (v,i.), 
but I have found no early examples. The Lincoln- 
shire name Tolliday or Tolladay is very puzzling. It 
may mean " Tolley the dey," or the " dey of Tolley " 
[cf. Godus Tholynwyf, 1397, Bardsley]. In Leic. Bor. 
Rec. occurs the name of Richard Tollidenoitt (AF. 
toille de noit, toil by night). Was the first Tolliday 
the opposite of this ? Or does the name represent 
" toil dey " ? Cf, William Delveday [City C), William 
Piouday ' {Hund. R.). The fairly common Loveday, 
though usually of similar origin to Holiday, Hockaday, 
must in some cases actually represent an archaic form 
of lady [Margot la Levedy,* Lane. Court R. 1323-4]. 
It may also be simply the dear servant ; cf. Richard 
le Lovegrom {Malmesbury Abbey Reg.). 

' The development of thia name anggeata a possiUe etymology 
for lad, which the NED. regards as unsolved. 

' Cf. the origin of lord, from AS. hlafweard, the " loaf ward." 

* But Plough-day was also used for Plough Monday, the first 
Monday after Epiphany, so that the above example may belong to 
the same class as Holiday, Pentecost, etc. 

* She was fined for selling bad ale, so she was really no lady. 

D,g,„.«n„ Google . 


Knave, once common in compounds [William Gode- 
knave, IpM., Ascelin Wyteknave, Hund. R.], has not 
entirely disappeared. It still survives as Kneefe, Nave, 
usually absorbed by Neave, ME. neve, nephew, and in 
the compounds Batnave, servant of Baldwin, and 
Beatniff, servant of Beatrice, If Pecksniff is a real 
name, it means the servant of Peck, It is possible 
that in these names, as in Attneave (Adam), the 
suffix is -neve, which would bring them into the group 
of kinship compounds (p, 245) ; but Stephen le Knef 
{Pat. R.) favours the first solution, 

AS. ceorl, churl, survives as Carle, with dim. Carlin,^ 
but I find no modem form of Aldceorl {Lib. Vit.). 
Swain, a Norse word for servant, is cognate with AS. 
Svan, with the same meaning. From it we have 
Goodswin, Goodswen, while Goldswain means the 
" swain " of a man named Gold,' Coxon and Boeson 
are very s;^gestive of coxswain and Boatswain. 1 find 
Boeson still in Kent, where it has an ancestor [John 
Botsweyn, Pat. R., Canterbury], but Coxon is rather 
Cock's son. Another name of this type is Dreng, 
Dring, which, like so many of this class, ranges from 
the poetic meaning of warrior to the prose meaning 
of servant. It has also given Thring, a variant 
used by Layamon, The Yorkshire name Kettlestring 
means the dring of Kettle. We also find compounds 
of a few very common exotic names, e.g. Clark, 
whence Beauclerk, Bunclark (bon clerc), and Manclark ' 
[Saegser Malclerc, Pipe R.]. From Fr. Mauclerc 

1 In Uie north this also means " old woman." 

* A personal name Goldswegen is quite possible, bnt it is not given 
bjr Searle. 

* Forthe change of 1 to H,d.MuM£adOT(Cnmb.),formerlyMwIc(u(«r. 



y/e have Mockler, and, if Buckler were not already 
so well provided with ancestors, it could be simi- 
larly referred to Beauclerc. With the dim. Ctarkin 
cf. Robert Peticlerc (City D.). Similarly from Ward 
we have Pettiward [Roger Petygard, Pat. 1R.'\. Mat- 
press is AF, mal prest, bad priest, Cf . AUpress (p. 287). 
Knight has a by-form Knevit, Knivet, apparently 
due to Norman treatment of the -gk- sound. Com- 
pounds of Knight are Halfnight and Roadnight, Rod- 
night, both usually without the -A-, The former, 
AS. radcniht, was a tenant who held his land on 
condition of accompanying his lord as a mounted 
servitor. He was the same as a " knight-rider," a 
title which survives as a London street, thot^h not 
as a surname. Another name for the same rank 
was AS. radman, whence Rodman. Midnight is 
simply a nickname [Henry Midnight, Pat. i?.], per- 
haps for a man of gloomy temperament.' The cor- 
responding Neimuit, latinized Nigra nox, is common 
in the Rolls [Richard Neymuyt, Pat. R.], and 
the contrasted Midday was a fourteenth-century 
nickname. Midy is found in French and Mitt- 
nacht in German. Halfnight [John le Halfknyght, 
Chanc. R^ seems to be unknown to the dictionaries. 
As ME. halfman, coward, has also survived as 
Halfman, Hainan* I take it that a " half-knight " 
was a servitor of small efficiency ; cf. Richard 

* Or ha may have beeo a mao of midnight activities, but I think 
the first snggestioi] more probable. Cf. the nvmerovs -wtaihers in 
English and -tutttws in Gennan. We have Fatnatatlur or Fart' 
wtatlur^trryweaihtr, Manyweaihtrs, an uncertain person, A Uweathtr, 
and even Fouwtatlur [William Foulweder, Ramsty Charl.]. 

■ Haimayi, HeUlman is also occupative [William le Halleman, 
HoU. Court R. 1308]. Cf. BoawrtNOM, KUehitiimam, etc. 

D,9,t,.?<i I,, Google 


Alfthein {Pleas). Which brings us naturally to 
Doubleday — 

" Id Sniiderluid live, in tiie same bouse, Mr. Dotibltiay and Miss 
Halfhnigln " (Nolei and Queries, Aug. 30, 1873). 

I fancy that the Doubleday [RanuU Dubleday, Fine R.] 
was not only a Goodday (p. 233), but actually as good 
as two. If this conjecture is right, Doubleday and 
Halfnight offered as strong a contrast in the thirteenth 
century as they apparently do in the twentieth. 
Doubleday may, however, be a fantastic formation of 
the same iyp^ as Twiceaday (p. 180), and as impossible 
of explanation. 

Mann often means servant [Michael le Man, 
Hund. R., Henry le Man, City B.]. Its compounds are 
very numerous, and, though the -man in them does 
not always mean servant, it may be of interest to 
explain a certain number of them here. If we take 
the commonest, viz. Goodman, we can see that it has 
many possible origins — (i) the AS. Godman [William 
f. Godemon, Lane. Inq. 1310-33], or Godmund, with 
the common substitution of -man for -mund, (2) the 
good " man," i.e. servant, (3) the " man " of Good, a 
common personal name (see p. 30), (4) the " good 
man," {5) the " goodman " of the house, i.e. the 
master. With this cf. Goodiff, Goodey, which repre- 
sents " goodwife," just as Hussey is occasionally from 
" housewife " [Richard Husewyf, Fine i?.]. When 
-man is added to a personal name, it usually means 
servant of, e.g, Addyman, Harriman, Potman (Philpot), 
Human (Hugh), Monkman. Gilman, Wilman, Jacka- 
man may also represent the French dims. Guillemin, 
Wuillemin, Jacquemin. It is often local, generally 

D,g,t,.?<i I,, Google 


with a suggestion of occupation. e.g.Brickman (bridge). 
Houseman, Kiichingman, Yeatman (gate) , Parkman, 
Smithyman, Meatman (mead), Moorman, Sellerman 
(cellar). With these go Chesierman, Penkethman, the 
only examples I know of -man added to a specific place- 
name, and both from the same coxmty (Chesh.). 
Nyman is AS, neahmann ; cf. Neighbour. Sometimes 
-man is attached to the name of the commodity which 
the bearer produced or sold, e.g. Flaxman, Wadman 
(woad), Honeyman [Gilbert le Honyman, Pat. fi.]. In 
a large number of cases such names descend from 
personal names in -man or -mund, e.g. Ashman, 
Chilman, Osman, Rickman, Walkman [i^scman, Ceol- 
mund, Osmund, Ricman, Wealhman]. Cf. the numer- 
ous Greek names in -ander, Alexander, Lysander, 
etc. Pure nicknames of medieval origin are Bleak- 
man (pale), Hindman (ME. hende, courteous), Lyteman, 
Lillyman, Lulman (little), Proudman, Slyman or Slee- 
man. Juneptan is a hybrid, from Fr. jeune, whence 
also June. Some of these compounds are decep- 
tive, e.g. Bestman is occupative, the " beast man " 
(cf. Bester, p. 114) ; so also CoUman, Pullman (foal). 
Cappleman (ME. capel, a nag), Palfreyman. Chess- 
man is for Cheeseman, and Beautyman or Booty- 
man, which Lower identifies with " bothie man," 
from Sc. bothie, a hut, is possibly a nickname, equiva- 
lent to Bonnyman, though its formation would be 
unusual. Cf, Booty, which is certainly in some cases 
from "beauty" [W'illiam Beaut6, Close R^. I fcincy 
that Middleman * is for " mickle man," as MiddUmas 
is for Michaelmas. This ending is also substituted 

' The aame change tua occarred in Maie local oasoM in MiddU-, 
«^. M iddk d Ue k taa,y be for " mickle ditdi." 

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for the local -nham. e.g. Sweatman for Swettenham 
(Chesh.). Tottman for Tottenham (Middlesex), Twy- 
man for Twynam (Hants), In many of the common^" 
names of this type more than one origin has to be 
considered ; see Goodman (p. 236). 

The following Middle English examples show how 
words indicating servitude were tacked on to the 
names of employers — 


William Jndde Knave 

Ralph Sweyneaman . 

{Fiiu R.) 

Lawrence the servant of Geof- 

frey Stace .... 


Reginald le Pcrsonemau 

{Coram Rege R. lag?) 


{Nott. Court R.) 

Richard Jonesseijant. i.e. John's 

servant .... 

{Pat. R.) 

John le I^rssanesGervante . 




Alan le Ga»onwat«r, i.e. the 

tarjw. ofWalfcr . 


John othe Nonnes . 


WiUiam del FreiM . 


Robert Drewescok . 

{Pat. R.) 

Robert Godescoc 


The last of these ccaresponds in meaning with the 
AS. Godescealc,' servant of God [WiUiam Godescal, 

1 This name si^gests a parallel with those Celtic names with a 
prefix which originally meant servant, the second element being 
God, Christ, Maiy, etc., or a saint's name. Snch are the Scottish 
names in Gil-. i.e. " gilly." e.g. GiUits, servant of Jesns, which, whea 
prooeded by Mae-, becomes MacLtish. Scotch names in Mai-, MiU 
mean "tonsured servant," Gaelic maol, bald. Hence Malisfot 
MtUi*, servant of Jesns, Malcolm, servant of Columba [Malcolnmb I. 



Pat. R-X for Cock, which has various origins as a 
surname, was once the familiar appellation for a 
servant. The boy in Gammer Gurton's Needle is 
always referred to by this name — 

" My Gammer is so out of course, and frantyke all at ones. 
That Cache, our boy, and I poor wench, have felt it in our 

Some of the names ending in -cock may contain this 
meaning, e.g. Jokncock may mean John's boy or John 
the boy. 

It is espedally from the type of occupative names 
dealt with in the preceding pages that we find forma- 
tions in -son. Such are Smithson, Wrightson, Grayson 
(grieve's son), Rayson, Reason,' Raisin (reeve's son), 
Herdson, Hindson, Manson,* Day son, Ladson, Swain- 
son, Hewson, Clarkson. Oth^ names of this type are 
Archerson, Cookson or Cuckson, Taylorson, Shepherd' 
son, Sargisson (sergeant), etc. Sardison is no doubt 
a corruption of the last name, as both are equally 
common in Lincolndiire. Surgison, like Surgerman, 
may belong to Sargent or Surgeon, the latter still a 
surname, though almost absorbed by the former. 

Waldefar, ArcMtp. Gray's Reg. 1335-54]. I* ^ found also as Mil- 
in Miivain {Bean) and Macmillan, son of the bald gilly. In Ireland 
we have such names as Malone {John), and a great number in Mul-, 
while Mylecrist represents the Manx form. In CoipMrick, Goi- 
fatneh the prefix is cognate with Welsh gwas, man, whence the 
Fr. vasioi. 

> Rias<m is also an abstract nickname [Roger Raisonn, burge» in 
Parliament for St. Albans temp. Ed. II., Close A.]. 

■ Manson is perhaps more usually for Magnusson, an Orkney 
and Shetland name. Magnus became a personal name in Scandi- 
navia owing to the fame of Charlemagne, Carolus Magnus. The 
VildngB took it to the northern islands, where it became a surname. 
In Ireland it has given MaeManns, 

D,g,t,.?<i I,, Google 


Surgenor represents an obsolete elaboration of Surgeon, 
Woodison may be " son of the woodward." As fOT 
Crowdson, Crewdson, I believe it is the son of the 
Crowder or fiddler, a kind of cousin of Tom the Piper's 
son. It belongs to Lancashire, which is the home of 
this type of name ; cf. Adam le Harpersone {Lane. 
Court R. 1323-4), and Rutson, the latter the son of the 
Rutter, or fiddler. 

While on this subject, it should be noticed that 
many apparent -son names are really local. One may 
spend some time on Crowson and Strawson before dis- 
covering that they are local pronunciations of Croxton 
(Norf.) and Stroxton (Line). So also Frogson is cor- 
rupted from Frodsbam, Cawson from Causton, Musson 
sometimes from Muston, Wesson from Weston, Esson 
from Easton, Foxon from Foxton, and Brobson is a 
perversion of Brabazon, the man from Brabant. On 
the other hand, the Scottish Johnston is generally an 
improved version of Johnson (Macbain). 

Before leaving the subject of compound occupative 
names, there are a few deceptive or obsolete examples 
worth noting, Fairminer or Famtiner is simply a 
corruption of Fairmaner, which may allude to the 
good manners of the original possessor, but is more 
hkely local ; cf. Fr. Beaumanoir. Longmate. likeMofe, 
contuns mead. Fairhard is probably fOT Fairbeard, 
though the simple Bard is a thirteenth-century sur- 
name [William le Bard, Coram Rege R. 1297], i.e. much 
earlier than its recognition as a dictionary word. Its 
Scottish form is Baird, and the word has risen in the 
world — 

" The SchireSe ... sal punish somen, ovw-lyars, maistor-foU 
b^lgan, fuilles, bainles, vef^aboundea " (Skene). 

D,g,„.«n„ Google 


In Goodearl the second element may be rather the 
personal name Barl [Stephen i. £rl, Ramsey Cart.} than 
the title, but cf. John Brounbaron (Pat. R.), John 
Folbaroim (»&.)■ LUtUpage, SmaUpage need no ex- 
planations, and Pennycook ' or Pennycock is Iot the 
local Penicuik (Midlothian). 

Along with these may be mentioned a few compoimd 
animal nicknames such as Goodlamb, Whitelam, 
Wildgoose.* WiUgoss, Wildgust [Edric Wild^os, Feet 
of Fines], Graygoose, Wildrake, Hornram, Wildbore, 
Wilgress, dial, grice, pig [William Wildegris, IpM.]. 
Dancalf [cf. Henry Dunfoul, Chesh. Chamb. Accts. 
1301-60], Metcalfe' {mead calf?). The Oxfordshire 
Fortnum is from Fr. fort dnon [Nicholas Fortanon, 
Hund. R., Oxf.]. Names of this type were once 
much commoner. Cf, Gilbert Blakeram (Hund. R.), 
Thomas Bonrouncyn [Pat. R.), Gilbert Dayfoul (ib.). 
With the Wild- names cf. David Wildebuf (Hund. R.). 
In Wildman the first element is descriptive rather 
than local [cf. iEdwin Wildegrome, Pipe R.], but 
Wilder is local, of the wilder ne or wilderness [John 
atte Wildeme, Fine R.]. Machell, latinized as maUts 

■ Ptnnycad, Pennyeard are evidently from Ft. Pteicand. 

* The fact that that N»goose, Negus belongs to Norfolk, which !• 
the home of the " goose " names {Goos; GoQstman, Couard, Catard, 
goose herd), suggests that it is also a compound of -goose. But tD 
the same connty I find Edgoose, which may possibly be a compoimd 
of -hoiue (edge-hoase). from AS. eeg. corner, whence the name Egg. 
So Negtis might be " atten-eg-honse." Cf. Nash. Nye, etc. 

■ It has been sn^ested to me that this puuling name, which, 
though so common in the north, seems to be quite nndocnmented, 
may have been an ironic anbstitntloD for TunbuU I 

" Mr, Metcalfe lao oS, npon meeting a cow. 
With pale Mi. Turnbult behind him." 

D,9,t,.?<i I,, Google 


catulus, and Machin, Ft. Malchien, are uncompli- 
mentary compounds, but the latter has also other 
origins. Polecat [Thomas Polkat, Pat. i?.] survives as 
Polliket. Weatherhogg, a Lincoln^iire name, means in 
that county a male pig. 

Among surnames compounded from font-names 
John leads easily, as do Jean in French and Johann 
or Hans in German. In the latter language, with its 
love of compounds, we find something hke a hundred 
names which contain Johann or its pet forms. From 
LG. Liitjens, Uttle John, comes our Lutyens. In 
English we have Brownj'ohn, Goodjohn, Littlejokn, 
MickUjohn or Meiklejohn, Prettyjohn, Properjohn. 
With Fosterjohn, i.e. John the Foster (see p. 119), ct 
Pascoewebh {p. 230). With Upjohn, for Welsh ap 
John, cf. Vprichard. The fact that John was used 
like Jack, almost as an equivalent of man or servant, 
will expMn Durand le Bon Johan (Hund, R!), the 
origin perhaps of Bowgen. Budgen. Similarly Grud- 
geon seems to represent Fr, Grosjean and Pridgeon 
Fr. Preux '-Jean, while Spridgeon, Spurgeon may be 
the same name with the prefixed 5- which we occa- 
^onally find in surnames. RabjoHn ' may be Robert 
the servant, or perhaps Robert the son, of John, and 
Camplejokn may mean wry- mouthed John, from 
the Keltic word which has given Campbell. With 
Dunbobbin, Dunbabin, cf. the obsolete Brounrobyn 
{Lane. Inq. 1310-33). Goodrobert survives as Good- 

■ To this ajchatc Fr. adj., meaning doughty, we owe not only 
Proud, Proul, but also Prmest, Prowse, Frew, Pru*, Prow, with tho 
dim. Prtwett, Pntett. 

■ Rabjohns ia a Devon name, and tho neighbouring Dorset is the 
home of Rabbifis, which comes, I snppose, from Robert, thoagh it 

It Raybonld, AS. Regenbeald [Richard i. RaiMt,Pip»R.}. 



top. With Goodwill, Goodwillie, cf. Hervey PrnguiUmi, 
i.e. Preux-Guillaume {Feet of Fines). But Goodwill 
may also be an abstract nickname ; cf. Fr. Bonvouloir, 
Gaukrodger ' means clumsy Roger, but Gaybell is an 
imitative perversion of Gabriel. Other apparently^ 
obsolete names of this class are Dungenyn {Exch. 
R.), a hybrid from the English adj. dun and Fr. 
Jeannin, JoHfewille [Pleas), Dulhumphrey (Lower), 
Petinicol {Hund. R.), Halupetir (»&.), Dumbbardolf 
(tfc.), Dummakin (ifr.), Makin, whence Makins, Meakin, 
being a dim. of Matthew, and DunpajTi (Fine R.), 
from the very common Pain or Pagan. Walter 
Gobigrant {Leic. Bor. Rec.) seems to mean " big 
Goby," i.e. Godbold. The only modem parallel 
I know to this formation, with the adjective put 
second, is Wyattcouck, i.e. little Guy the red (CcMnish), 
unless Elsegooi is for " good ElUs, or Alice," and 
Drakeyoung for Drake junior. Cf. William le Loverd- 
newe, i.e. the new lord (ipM.). Goodbrand. is a per- 
sonal name, Norse Gudbrand, and LiUledyke, wWch 
looks so obvious, may be for " httle Dick " [cf. Richard 
Litelhikke, 1385, Bardsley], 

A good many surnames are formed by compounding 
terms indicating relationship. Now, excepting for a 
few interesting survivals, we use only -son or Fitx-, 
and, as early as the thirteenth century, we find such 
an illogical description as Margery le Prestesson 
(Pleas). The following medieval examples show a 
much greater variety — 

Ricaidns avnncalnB WilheUni {Pitas) 

John NikbiotlieT . . . {D&rbyihit4 Ckarttn) 

> In F. 0/ y. 16S5 it is spelt Corkroger ( 

D,g,t,.?<i I,, Google 


Heniy Hacbild . 

[Hund. R.) 

William Pereoncosin 


Adam Childesf adei 

iPat. R.) 

Robert Bamfador . 


John l« Fret Win . 

{Ptrcy Cart.) 

William Makewyie. i.e. heir of 

Mack .... 

{State Trials. Ed. J.) * 

Aemaldos (rater Archidiaconi . 


{Coram Rtgt R. 1297) 

John Geoer Adding 

(Northumb. Ast. R. i3iA ««rt.) 

William Richardesneven 

(Coram Rege R. 1297) 

Patrick William Stepsone 


{Cal. Ge».) 

{c. noo) 

Alicia Armwif , i.e. wife of Orme 

{Hund. R.) 

AmabiUa Folcwif, i.e. wife of 

Fuik . . ; . 


John WUbarno, i.e. the " baira " 

ofwm . . . . 

[BardiUy. 1379) 

William Godeabam ' 


AdamGlbbarne . 


William le Bainemawe. i.e. fli« 

brotber-in-law of the bairn 


William Dobmagh . 

[Cochersand Cart.) 


{Lane. Inq. laoy-tioy) 

John Gibbemogh . 

[Lane. Court R. 1333-4) 

AU the names of relationship have given surnames 
uncompounded, but usually with the addition of -s, 
e,g. Fathers, Fadder, Mothers, Sones, Soanes [Walter 
le Sone, Pat. R.], FUz, Fice [Antony fice Greffown, 

* No doubt a name assumed by some pious man. Cf. the AS. 
Godescalc, God'a servant, once common, but now swallowed up by 
Godsall, GodstU. Curiously humtde is Thomas Godesbest {L*ie. 
Bor. Rte), a type of name by no means uncommon in the Middle 
Ages. Pachnio quotes Festn-Dien, God's straw, and Tacon-Dien, 
OF. Iwwi, ft patch on a shoe. More assertive is William le Gode*- 
haln. the saint of God {Nott. Court R. 1308), while Geoffrey Godde*- 
wynoyng [ib.) appears to mean God's gain. 

D,g,„.?<i I,, Google 


NED. c. 1435], Darter, Brothers, Brodder,^ Godson 
(cf. Fr. LefiUeul), Frere, Uncles, Eatnes (ME. erne, 
uncle). Child, Fant, Favnt (Fr, enfant). Cousins, 
Cozens, and even Coxze, Nephew (rare), Neave (ME. 
neve, nephew), Neech, Neese,' Widdows, Gaffer at 
Gayfer * (grandfather '). o* which -Gaff is perhaps 
the shcatened form, Gammer (grandmother, as in 
Gammer Gurton's Needle), Belcher, Bowser, Bewsher, 
from OF. bel-sire, sometimes in the spedal sense of 
grandfather. Beldam, grandmother. With Bewsher 
cf, the oppoate Malsher. Also Husband,* Kinsman, 
Parent, Gossip, Camper [Roger le Comper, John of 
Gaunt's Reg.}— 

" Compera, a gossip " (Co^.). 
With Comper goes Marrow, from archie marrow, a 
companion, mate [John le Marwe or le Marewe, Leic, 
Bor. Recy- 
" Marwe or felawe yn travayle, soeius, eompar " {Prompt. Pan.). 

In one volume of the Fine R. we find John Darcy le 

» This may be rathor occupative, the " bioiderei " [Ricbaid le 
Broadeonr, Bp. Kellawt's Rtg.]. 

* From OF. nits, the nom. of ngv»u [Walt«r le NeJse, Hund. R.J, 
It is fonad in Middle English. See NED., s.v. nuM, where, bow- 
ever, the origin of the masculine word is not correctly explained. 
Neest may also be for " nose " (see p. 133). 

■ This is perhaps rather from Gaifier, a very common name In Old 
French epic, and, as it is often applied to Sai^cen chiefs, perhaps 
the Eastern Giafar, vizier to Haroun-al-Rasdiid. It might also 
represent the northern fonn of Go-faii [James Gafaiie, F. of Y}. 
SeesJsop. 233, «. i. 

* The analogy of gossip, Fr. compire, Ger. GevcUUr, all used in 
the familial sense of our gaS^', suggests that gaffer, gammtr may be 
rather for godfather, godmother. 

* This usually means husbandman, master of the bouse, etc. 
See p. 2z6. 

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Cosin, John Darcy le Frere, and John Darcy le Neveu, 
an example which shows how purely acddental is the 
possession of such surnames at the present day. 
Odam is ME. odam, son-in-law, cognate with Ger. 
Eidam, which now, hke odam, is practically obsolete 
except as a surname — 

" Octiatua, Danes' odaitu 
After theose hostes he tame." 

(King AUxand^, 14th cent.). 
Foad, Foai, Food, found chiefly in Kent, represent ME. 
fode, a child ' [WiUiam le Fode, Cust. Battle Abbey]. 
For this word, really identical with food, see NED. 
Grandison is local, I suppose from Granson in Switzer- 
land [Otto de Granson or de Grandisono, Fine R.\ and 
Outerson is the son of Ughtred, Practically all the 
ccMTe^onding surnames exist in French and German, 
and there is even a Pariaan named Pereimire (Bottin, 

Of the compounds formed from kinship names the 
most interesting are those illustrated by the five last 
examples in the list of medieval compounds given 
on pp. 243, 244. ME. maugh, really identical with 
May iq.v.), seems to have been used vaguely fen* any 
relative by marriage — 

" Jlfoui, boDsbandys slater or systei in taw, gtot " [Prompt. Pan.). 
In the north it usually means brother-in-law, in 
which sense it has given the names Maufe, Muff, 
Maw.' But it also survives in several compounds, 
viz. Godsmark,' Hitchmough (corrupted to Hickmott) 

' It also means a wife, a young man. 

' For tliia name see also p. 67. 

■ It is also possible that this is an oath-name (p. 181), though a 
curious one, " by God's brathei-in-law." In the Porkington MS. 
of the fifteentb-centoiy poem Mourning of the Hare we find " by 

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from Richard, and especially Watnwugh, Whatmaugh, 
Whatmore, etc., from Walter, There are probably 
many more names of this class which still live in dis- 
guise, as the formation was once very common. 

From ME. barn, bairn, etc., we have Whithorn, 
the complimentary Fairbairn, Goodbairn, Goodband, 
Goodbun, and the patronymics Dawbarn (David) and 
Giberne (Gilbert). With Dearborn cf. Fr. Cherfils. 
Many names in -burn, e.g. Blackburn, Fairburn, Day- 
burn, may in some cases belong hsxe. Maybin is 
probably the bairn of May and Huband the bairn 
(or perhaps bond) of Hugh. For Barnfatker, Bairns- 
father, Banfather, see p. 244. The simple barn is 
also one of the many origins of Barnes. With Fair~ 
child, Goodchild, LiUlechild, cf. Fauntleroy and FiUery, 
both meaning King's son (p. 18). Bonifant is bon 
enfant [Waltra Bonenfant, Hund. R.], i.e. Goodson, Good- 
child, and Bullivant. PiUivant includes both this and bd 
enfant [Colin Belenfan, Close J?.]. The opposite MaU- 
phant [Nicholas Malefiaunt. Pat. R.. Alan Evilchild, 
Hund. R,] also exists. Richard Beaufaimt {Pat. R.) 
has perhaps contributed to Bevan or Biffen. The 
simplex exists as Fant, Faunt, Vant. With the obso- 
lete Folenfant ci. the surviving Sillifant, while Selibam 
{F. of y.) is perhaps still represented by SiUibourne, 
Silburn. The epithet silly was rather complimentary 
than otherwise, for it meant gentle, innocent ; cf. 
Roger Sehday (Pat. R.), Robert Sehsaule (ib.). 

Fairbrother, Farebrother, Farbrother belongs to the 
old courteous style of address as in " fair sir," " beau 

cokkes aonle," euphemistic for " by Goddessonle " (p. 181). In Uu 
Cambridge MS. of the same poem this is replaced by "by cokkei 


sire," etc. With Alderson, usually " older son," cf. 
the common French surname Lafni. With the simple 
Alder, Elder, cf. Younger, but both the former are also 
tree-names. For some other surnames formed from 
comparatives, see p. 104. 

The nickname sire [William le Syre, Fine R.] sur- 
vives as Syer,* Syers, Surr, Sirr. Its compounds are 
Bonser,* Bouncer, Mountsier, Moncer, Munfer [John 
Monsyre, Fine R^, Sweetsur [William Swetesyr, Pai. J?,], 
Goodsir, whence also perhaps Goacher, Gaucher , Dunsire, 
which I cannot explain, and those mentioned on p. 245. 
Cosher perhaps represents " coy sire" [Simon Coysire, 
Hund. R.]. Maiden was used in Middle English of the 
unmarri^ of both sexes [John le Mayde, Pat. R., Ralph 
le Mayden, ib., William Pucele, ift.], but in compounds 
such as Chitmaid, Denmaid, Longmaid, Maidland, 
maid is for mead, a meadow. On the other hand. Mead 
often represents maid [John le Meide, Lond. Wills, 
1279]. May, a young man or maiden, has the famihar 
compound Mitdmay [cf. Richard Dusemay, Pat. R.], 
and the less common Whitmee [William Wytemey, 
Hund. i?.] and Youngmay [Martin le Yungemey, ib.}. 
The simple May is also local, apparently from an 
obsoletevariantof"mead"[WiUiamAttemay, Pai. ii.]; 
cf. Smee for Smeed (p. 77). Burkmay, for " birk mead," 
suggests that Peacfmay is possibly for " beech » mead." 

A few names which also suggest age and kinship 
may conclude the chapter. Such are SpringaU, Sprin- 
gate, Sfringett, Springhalt, the springald, young man 

> Cf. Damt, Damtt, though this may also be from an archaic 
•pelUng of the local Damm, Dammi ; cf . Gttp* for Gapp. 
■ This is also the local pronunciatioii of Bonsall (Derby). 
• Initial P-toiB'iB not uncommon in si 

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[Ai^erEspringaut,P«/. R., Julian Springald,//«f(d.ii.3, 
and Stripling, Stribling [Adam Stripling, Pat. J?.], 
But the first group may also belong to the warlike 
instrument which was called a springald ; cf. Mang- 
nall (p. 162) — 

" And «ke vithytmo tho castoll were 
Spryngoldts, guimea, bows and archeis " 

(Romaiivt of th» Rom, 4190). 

Damsell represents OF. damoisel, a young squire, rather 
than the fem. form. For Milsop, i.e. " milksop," 
see p. 268. Nursling, or Nutshalling, is a place in 
Hants. But John le Norrisone occurs in Nott. Court 
R., and the award of an honorary C.B. to Brigadier- 
General Nourrisson of the French Army has just 
been announced (Nov. 17, 1915) — 

" Nomrisson, a nnnliDg, nuTM-child, or nursing child " (Co^;.). 
Suckling is a genuine nickname, but Baby is rather for 
Barbara, as Gaby is for Gabriel. With Twin, whence 
Twint, cf. Gemmel, OF, gemel, used by WycUf of Jacob 
and Esau [Alan Gemellus, Pipe R., Richard Gemel, 
Fine J?.]. The Gemmels of Scotland, the chief home 
of the name, perhaps have another origin. Fr. Besson, 
whence our Bisson, is a dialect word for twin. Man- 
kin, Miniken, is for " manikin " [Stephen Manekin, 
Testa de Nev."]. Neame, usually for ME. erne, uncle 
[cf. Thomas Nuncle, Pat. R.], is also an Anglo-French 
form of Fr. nain,' dwarf [John le Neym, Pat. R.]. 
Male, Mayle, Maskelyne are simply what they appear 
to be [William le Male or Masculus, Percy Cart., Henry 
MaskeljTi, Testa de Nev.], but ManfuU, a Notts name, 

* Lsnain is a common French anmame. The comspoDding 
Eogliah name is Mvrci — 

" Murek, lytyl nua. mmm " {Prompl. Ptwv.). 



is from Mans&ekl,* whence also the imitative Manifold. 
An interestiDg variant of MaU is Madle, OF. masle, 
due to the Anglo-French practice at intercalating -d- 
between -s/- as in meddle, OF. mesler, idle, OF. isle (see 
IdU). Tteoyearold is still a Lancashire surname and 
has a medieval parallel in Adam Fivewinterald. 

To the obsolete examples quoted in this chapter 
may be added the foilowing^ — Bonsquier, ChildesfadeT 
(cf. Bairnsf other), Langebachelere, Belmeistre, Bel- 
verge, Bruncarl, Malhllastre (Fr. MaufiUUre, the bad 
son-in-law) , Hardimarchaimt, Ladychapman.Trewchap- 
man, Calveknave, Forsterknave, Rouknave, Smart- 
knave, Whiteknave, Bonserjant, Aldegrome, Greygrom, 
Litelgrom, Shepgrom, Bonswayn, Madsweyn, Litsweyn, 
Sikersweyn (sure), Yongswayn, Surewyne (friend), 
Porbam, Petytmey, Donemay, Prodemay, Levemay, 
Levedame, Lefquene, Quenemay, Sotemay (sweet), 
Boncristien, Bonchevaler, Bonseygnur, Frankchivaler, 
Sma^erson, Petitsire, Litilpage, Langeclerk, Schort- 
frend, Stalwortheman, Malvoisln, Malharpin (OF. 
karpin, a harper), Homedieu, Witwif, Blakshyreve, 
Countereve, Lithbond, Bedelking, Witebitele, Coper- 
kyng, Whiteking, Wodeking (mad), Jolyfray (AF. jolif 
rey), Wodeprest, Wytknyt, Godeboy, Jolifboie, Bhss- 
wenche, Joymeyde, Joyemaiden. The last three are 
probably disparaging ; cf. Fr. 0e de jaie. Animal 
compounds are Hogelomb, Tythinglomb, Maloysel, 
Maulovel (cf. Machell), Mallechat, Swethog, Wodegos, 
Wodemousse, Whytebull, Qwytgray {gray, a badger), 

'> The -t- in such names is quite optional ; d. Wil/ord, WiUfori, 
Atanbridgt, Mansbridgt, etc. For the change of -fitid, -fold to -/ua cf . 
Hatfuil, OahenjuU, etc. Fair/oul, which looks like a fantastic nick- 
name, is probably for Fatrfitld ; but see p. 319, 

D,g,„.«n„ Google 


Jolicok, Whytkok, Yongkok, Wytkolt, Diumebrid, 
Witfis, Stocfis, Fresfis, Rotenheryng were probably 
trade-names for fishmongers. Wytecole may refer to 
Nicholas, but more likely to cabbage. More abstract 
compounds, which do not properly belong to this 
chapter, are Godestokne. Curtevalur, Tartcurteis, 
Petikorteis, Tutfait, Tutprest, Megersens, Moniword, 
Maucuvenant, Maucondut {male conductus, cf . Mawditf), 
Mautalent, Scortrede, Littylrede, Smalchare, Stille- 
prud, Seldholi, Stranfers (stroi^ fierce), Welikeing. 

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" JohanneB Shakesptrt, querena. optulit se versus Ricardum de 
Cotgrave, spicer, defendentem, de placito conventionia ; et queritnr 
de to quod dictus Ricardns, die Jovis proximo post festum Sancti 
Bortholomxi Apostoli, anno legni regis nunc xxx" piimo, veudidit 
eidem Johanni unum ' stik ' de ' sanudrea ' pro ' brasill,' et 
manncepit quod fuit ' brasill,' et sic conventionem inter eos factam 
fregit, ad grave dampnum ipsius Johaniiis viginti solidorum, unde 
prodacit sectam " (Nottingham Borough Records, Nov. 8, I337)> 

The above is, I believe, the earliest known occurrence 
of the most famous of all English names. This very 
interesting type of surname is found plentifully not 
only in English, but in all the related European lan- 
guages,' Many examples, both English and French, 
are quoted by Darmesteter in his treatise on compound 
words, Ritter gives about 150 French examples and 
Vilmar collected nearly 250 German instances. Some 
examples of such will be found in chapters xiii. and 
xiv. (pp. 288,303). Among them occur names familiar 
to everybody, such as Fr. BoiUau {Drinkwater),* 
Ger. Khpstock * (knock stick), and It. Frangipani, 

I An interesting Danish example is OU LukSje, Olaf Shut-eye, a 
popular aiclmame tor the dnstman, recently adopted as a pseudonym 
by a brilliant English milttary writer. 

* I do not know whether medieval nit was equal to naming a 
dmnkaid thus ironically, but the following entries are suggestive — 
Uaigery Drynkewater, wife of Philip le Tavemer (Cily E.), Thomas 
Drinkewater, of Drinkewaterestaveme {Lond. Willi, 131S). 

1 Cf. our Swingtwood and possibly Girdwood, ME. gird, to strike. 

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break bread, said to be due to the benevolence of that 
well-known Italian &mi1y. Generally such names are x 
compounded of a verb in the imperative followed by J 
its object, while less often the second component is 
an adverb, e.g. Golightly [William Galigtly, Pat. R.], 
also foimd as GalleUy, Gellatly, with which we may 
compare John Gofayre ' {Pat. R) and John Johgate 
(»6.). Steptoe apparently has a similar meaning, 
though its formation is abnormal. 

Names of this type hardly appear in Domesday 
Book, though Taillefer, whence Telfer, Telford, Talfourd, 
Tolver, TuUiver,' is anterior to that compilation, but 
they swarm in the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries. 
Of the many hundreds I have collected, only a small 
proportion seem to have survived, though probably ] 
many more live on in disguise. Many of the medieval y 
examples are of quite unquotable coarseness, and point 
either to the great brutaUty or the great naiveti of our 
ancestors. This method of formation is one of the 
most convenient and expressive that we have. There 
are himdreds of common nouns so formed, e.g. holdfast,\ 
makeshift, stopgap, holdall, turnkey, etc. As applied \ '' 
to persons they are nearly always disparaging,* e.g. / 
cut-throat, ne'erdoweli, swashbuckler, scapegrace, skin- 
fiint, or artf contemptuous substitutions for occupative 

> Tbia la perhaps one origin ol Gooer, Govier. Stow men- 
tions a Goveie's Lane in the City, the earlier name ol which was 
Gofayie Lane [John Gofaire, Land. Wills, 1259-60, John Goveyre, 
*6, 1291). 

* I am told that It. Taglia/erro has adopted the form Tolvtr in the ,^ 

U.S. " Taillefer, the'^lfmame of the old Earls of Engoulesme ; bo 
tearmed because William the second Earle thereof, clove with his 
sword, at one blow, an armed captain down to the stomack t " 

* See Tieach, English Past and Present, pp. 2ig s»q. 

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titles, e.g. sawbones for a sui^eon, or the dial, bangstraw 
for a thresher.' Warring theologians have always 
been great coiners of these phrase-names. Compli- 
mentary examples, such as Welcome (cf. Fr. Bienvenu, 
It. Benvenuio), Makepeace ' [Gregory Makepais, Leic. 
Bar. Rec.], are exceptional. 

I ^cy that this type of surname owes something 
to the vogue of allegory and allegorical drama in the 
thirteenth and fourteenth centuries. At any rate, 
such compounds have been beloved by all^orists from 
Langland to Bunyan. The tatter's Standfast was a 
surname four centuries before the Pilgrim's Progress 
[William Stan^st, Fine R., Adam Stande&st, IpM.], 
and I have also found his Savealt both as a medieval 
and twentieth-century name. Langkind frequently 
personifies Dowell, Debet, Dobest, the first of which 
may be one source of our Dowell, and he has many 
references to SayweU, who still figures in the rustic 
proverb " Say well is good, but Do well is better." 

This suggests a short digression on the ending 
-well in surnames. Many of these are of course local, 
well having its wider, older meaning, which includes 
fountain, stream, pool, etc. Some are from specific 
place-names, e.g. Bakewell, the name of a well-known 
advocate of cremation some years ago, Hopewell or 
Hopwell, TidsweU, etc., all Derbyshire. Others, such 
as Cantwell [Gilbert de Kentewelle, Hund. R.], Tuck- 
well, Tugwell * are from spots which I cannot identify. 
Callwell, Cordwell are among the many variants of 

> a. Haitm Betewete {Hutid. R.) and Fr. BabUd. 

■ Cf. Alice Makehart (Hund. R.). 

' These may even be phiase-names. Tuekwell may have been a 
good "tucker" ot dotb (cf. TtutwtU. p. 356), and THf»«Uinay ba 
from ME. lug, to wrestle. 

D,g,t,.?<i I,, Google 


Cauldwell ' (cold). C/tVetceU is also local, from the gleed 
or glide, i.e. kite, to which we owe also GledhiU, GleadU, 
Gledstanes. Gladstone. Others again are perversions, 
e.g. Caswell and Kidwell take us very far back in history, 
for they represent the Welsh names Caswallon and 
Cadwal, the former of which was latinized as Cassi- 
velaunus, just as Caradoc or Cradock was made into 
Caractacus. Kidwell or Kiddell is the Somerset form 
of Cadwal, which in Gloucestershire hasbecome Caddell, 
Cadle. Caldwall, found in Hereford, is no doubt the 
same. Rouncewell is also historic, from Roncevaux 
[Ralph de Runcevill, Pat. R.]. It is also found as 
Rowtsevel, Rottnswell. Perhaps the name came rather 
from the ahen priory of the name in London than 
from the Pyrenean pass. This priory became the 
brotherhood of Roimcival, which existed till the middle 
of the sixteenth century (Stow). Otteweti, Otteneell* 
is a personal name [Otuel de Bosco, Fine R.] made 
famous by the medieval Romance of Otuel. It is 
a dim. of Odo, Otto, which, in its turn, is short for one 
of the Anglo-Saxon names in 0th- [Otulph le Drivere, 
Pat. R.], whence OU. See also Pepperwell (p. 189). 

But tikere still remain a few names in which -well is 
simply the adverb in composition with a preceding 
verb. Such are Eatwell [Robert Mangebien, Pipe R.I, 
Freiwell, ME. fret,* to eat, devour, Loveuiell, Meameell, 
Treadwell or Tretwell [Richard Tredewelle, Pai. R.] 

I Cf. SortwtU for " salt well." 

■ This may be local ; d. OtUrbtum. 

* This occora in several Middle English names (p. 373). Robert 
FretemoB (Pta. R.) may have been an English Manass* (p. 303), but 
bis name is perhaps from AS. Frithnmund. 

" Adam afterward ageines hus defeace 
Fntit of that fmit " 

{Pm$ Plomm., B. xviil. 194). 



and probably many more. Among them are a few 
trade descriptions, e.g. ThackweU for a good thatcher, 
and the Somerset Tazewell. Taswell, for a good " teaser " 
of cloth. With the variant Toswill cf. Tozer, for 
" teaser." The corresponding French names in -Men 
and German names in 'Wohl are also fairly numerous. 

As has already been suggested, surnames of this 
class are generally disparaging. It is even likely that 
the historic Taillefer and the first Shakespeare, Shake- 
shaft, Shackshaft, and Shakelance were heroes of a 
somewhat obtrusive character. Examples of " fright- 
fulness" are imcomfortably numerous. We find 
an extraordinary number of Middle English names 
beginning with break-, burn-, kill-, pill- (skin), or with 
the corresponding Fr. brise-, briUe-, tue-, pile-. In fact 
French, or rather Anglo-French, predominates over 
Anglo-Saxon in names of this class.* We still have 
Breakspear, Braksper [William Brekespere, Ramsey 
Cart.'] and the hybrid Brisbane [Thomas Briseban, »i.j. 
With the latter cf. Crakebone [John Crakebon, Lane. 
Court R. 1323-4], still an American name, though I have 
not come across it in England. Modern French has 
Brisemur, Brispot, and others which also occur com- 
monly in our Rolls, Burnhouse, Burness, Bumiss 
[WiUiamBemhus,i3tb century] may sometimes be local, 
at the "burn house," but Burnand, Brennand, though 
they may have other origins, point to a pubUc official 
[Simon Brenhand, Hund. R.]. Of the same craft was 

» Sometiines we have both forms, e.g. Buttifanl. Butterfaul, Fr, 
bouu-avam, push forward [Robert Boate-Avant, Fachnio], com- 
sponds to the native Puskfirth. I only suggest as a guesa that Monk- 
ttlow, ManhUtow. Mankelow may represent nanqua I'eau or mangut 
d* Peau, a French venion of Kalph Sparewater {Pkas). 



Henry Brendcheke (Northumb. Ass. R. 1256-79). 
Criminals were still " burnt in the hand " in the 
eighteenth century. Cf. Haghand, for " hack hand," 
and possibly also Branfoot. In one of the Towneley 
Mysteries the " second tormentor " is called Spyll- 
payn. The original Strangleman may have been 
official or amateur. In French we still find Brtde- 
bois and BruUfer, probably trade-names.' 

Among AiU names we find ME. Cullebol, Cullebolloc, 
Cullefincke, Cullehare, CuJlehog, the last perhaps 
surviving as Kellogg. Cf. Fr. Tubeuf, Tuvache. For 
the pill names, such as Pilecrowe, Pilecat, cf. the still 
existing Fr. Pellevillain which has a parallel in a Middle 
English Fleybund (flay bond), Jean Poilevilain was 
master of the mint to Philip VI. of France, and a 
medieval bearer of the name had himself depicted on 
his seal dragging a " villain " by the hair. Cf. ButUn, 
Bucklin, contracted from boute-vilain, hustle the churl 
[Adam Buttevilein, Fine R.], and the obsolete Butekarl 
{Feet of Fines), Of the same type is Fr, ^corcheviUe 
(p. 288), found also in Middle English along with Es- 
corceberd, Escorchebuef , etc. These are only illustrative 
examples of a type of name which is only too common 
in our records. In the list of presumably extinct 
phrase-names which forms an appendix to this chapter 
will be found further examples. 

Sometimes the phrase-name is merely descriptive 
of the bearer's occupation, e.g. Drawater. An interest- 

* Marwood, though it can be explaised locally, may also hav« 
boen a nickname for an incompetent carpenter [William Marwod, 
F. of y.]. Cf. the numerous French oamea in Gdu- (p. 262] and our 
own Thumbwood, apparently from the archaic verb to " thumb," 
i.e. to handle clumsily. 

D,g,t,.?<i I,, Google 


ing example is the Derbyshire Copestake, applied to a 
woodcutter [Geoffrey Coupstak, F. of Y. 1295 ; cf. 
Geoffrey Cuttestuche, Glouc. Cart.]. This naturally 
becomes Copestick, and in Yorkshire Capstick. With 
this name cf. Hackblock and Hackwood. Boutfiour, 
Boughtfiower was a nickname for a miller, " bolt 
flour " [John Bulteflour, Bp. KeUawe's Reg. 1303], 
from the archaic bolt, to sift,' and in BoUwood, Bought- 
wood the second element is " woad," an important 
medieval commodity ; cf. Powncewayde (p. 275). 
Pilheam was a barker of trees ; see Pillar (p. n8) 
and Beam (p, 184). In Ridland, Ridwood, Redwood we 
have the dialect rid, to clear, as in ridding ; cf. Simon 
Draneland [Hund. R., Camb.]. Hamahard suggests a 
smith, " hammer hard," emd has German parallels in 
Klopf hammer, Schwinghammer (p. 303), but it is more 
hkely an alteration of Haimard {DB.), apparently a 
Norman form of Hagenheard (see p. 41). I have 
found no early example of Clinkscales, but I expect 
the ancestor was an energetic tradesman or money- 
changer. Cf. John Rattilbagge {Hund. R.). Tylecote 
appears to have been a tiler. In Spingarn the second 
element is a still existing form of " yam." Doubtfire, 
for " dout fire," was porhaps in charge of a furnace, 
or he may have seen to the enforcing of the curfew. 
Cf. OF. Abat-Four and Tue-Four (Pachnio). John 
Adubbe-dent (Pipe R.) was an early dentist. With 
Cutbush cf. Tallboys, Fr. Taillehois. Tradition makes 
the first Fettiplace gentleman-usher to the Conqueror. 
The etymology of the name, AF, fete place, make 
room; points to some such office. The early examples 

D,g,t,.?<i I,, Google 


are all from Oxfordshire, and Adam Feteplaz, Fete- 
place, Feteplece, a thirteenth-century Mayor of Oxford, 
is mentioned repeatedly in the Rolls, 

But examples of this kind are not very numerous, 
and the great majority of phrase-names are descriptive 
of character, e.g. Lovejoy,Dooliitle[]ohn'Do]itel, Percy 
Cart., John Faypew, City D.], hjibit, e.g. DrinkaU, 
Drinkall [William Drinkale,' Pat. R.], Ridout, Rideout 
[cf. Adam Prikafeld, Pai. R.. Robert Chevalchesol, 
i.e. ride alone, Pipe R., Geoffrey Wendut, Fine R.], 
or even gesture, e,g, Bettdelow [cf. Arnold Stoupe- 
doun, Pat. K.], The famous name Penderell appears 
to mean " hang ear " [Richard Pendoraile, Chart, i?.], 
the opposite aspect being represented by John Kokear 
{Leic. Bor. Rec). Similarly, the existing Luckup has 
a pendant in the obsolete Regardebas, 

The mention of Lovejoy reminds us that we have a 
large number of surnames of which love is the first or 
second element. These are not all as simple as th^ 
appear, e.g, Loveguard is for the AS, Leofgeard, while 
Laverock is an alteration of the dial, laverock, a lark 
[Richard Laveroke, Fine R^, which has also become 
Liverock (p. 130, »,), Loveluck is for Lovelock (p. 131). 
Lovelady is a genuine phrase-name [cf. Simon Baise- 
belle, Fine R.} ; cruder are Toplady or Tiplady and 
Toplass, Topliss, for which see Othello, I. i. But the 
oldest forms of Lovelace, Loveless go to show that in 
this name the second element is not -lass, but -less 
(p. 149). Compounds in which the second element -love, 

» " Drink-ale " seems the nataral solution ; d. Fr, Boictrnoiu. 
Bat Drinkkail [Thomas Diynkhale, Hund. R.} saggests rather the 
phraae drinc Ml, to which the answer was ftot htil (wuskil). 
DrinhaU might be alto " diinlc aU " ; cf. GatheraU (p. 266), Wtttall, 
" waste all (f ) ". 

D,g,t,.?<i I,, Google 


in its ordinary abstract meaning, is qualified by an 
adjective are Dearlove, Sweetlove, Trudove, Newlove, 
Proudlove. Dearlove has an alternative origin from 
AS, Deorlaf, beloved remnant, of which Searle has 
several examples. Manlove, Menlove is abstract, from 
AS. mannlufe, philanthropy. Fullalove, FuUilove is, 
of course, " full of love," commoner in the Rolls in 
the form Pleindamour, which still exists in Dorset 
as Blandamore. Waddilove is a phrase-name which 
seems very out of place ' in the thirteenth century 
[John Wadeinlove, Hund. if.]. 

But, just as Love is often from AF. love,* a wolf [Alan 
le Love, Hund. i?.], so many compoimds in -love are 
phrase-names of an energetic character. Catcklove, Fr, 
Chasseloup, means wolf hunter [Alan Cacheleu, PaLR.}. 
We also find in the Pat. R. Alan Cachehare, perhaps the 
same man as the above, and Walter Cachelevere, Fr. 
liivre, hare. Spendlove, Spendlow, Spenlow, Spindelov 
is OF. espand-louve [Robert Spendelove, Northumb. 
Ass. R. 1256-79, Jehan Spendelouve, Pachnio], which 
perhaps refers to disembowelling.' Pritlove, which 
> In fact " wad« in love " is so unlike anything medieval that I 
am inclined to guew that the first element may belong to ME. atdan, 
to rage, and that ttw name may mean rather " furious wolf." See 
Catchlovt and cf. Walter Wodelof [Pm. R.), from the related ME. 
wo4e, mad. This seems to be now represented by Woollo0, 

* LovtU is asnaUy its diminutive ; cf. Ger. WOlfing, WMfing. In 
the medieval French romance of GviUouwm d'Angltttrre, one of the 
twin " babea in the wood," rescued from a wolf, Is christened LootI 
by his finders — 

" Lovel per le lo I'apelerent 
Qae anmi le chemin troverent 
Qui I'an portoit parmi les rains : 
final fnt U los sea pairains." 

* Fachnio's suggeition to read tspance is negatived by the Engliah 

D,g,t,.?<i I,, Google 


looks like " pretty love," is also a Kultur name [Alex- 
ander Pricklove, Exck. R.] with a common phonetic 
corruption, Cf. Prickman. Cutlove ' is paralleled 
by ME. Cutfox and other names of the same type 
(p. 272). In Marklove, whence also Marklow, Martlow, 
Mflrt/ew, we have the verb to "mark" in its common 
medieval sense of striking or aiming with a weapon 
or missile. Truslove appears to contain ME. truss, to 
bind, also to pack up, as in Truscott (coat) ; cf. Packe- 
hare (p. 274). ' It is natural that the hated wolf should 
be selected for ill-treatment, and Roger Frangelupus 
(Abingdon Cart.), though bad Latin, confirms both the 
etymologies proposed above and the general theory that 
the verb in these compounds was originally an im- 
perative. In local names, such as Lovecraft, Lovegrove, 
Lore/anii [Margery de la Lovelond, Pat.R.], itis at least 
possible that the first element also means wolf, and 
Wildlove is probably an animal nickname (seep. 241). 
The name Lovegood brings us to the problem of names 
in -good. Some of these, e.g. Thurgood, Osgood,^Win- 
good, are simply Anglo-Saxon personal names con- 
taining the element god {see p. 30) ; but others are 
phrase-names of the Shakespeare type and the inter- 
pretation of the second component is doubtful. Bid- 
good, Bedgood [Hervey Budgod, Close R.] I take to 
mean "pray God"; cf. Ger. FilrchtegoU. Lovegood 
might be for " love God " [Simon Lovegod, Fine R.], 
the opposite of Hatecrist (p. 212), or again for " love 
good," equivalent to Henry Hatewrong (IpM.) ; but 
its use in Cocke Lorelle — 

" Gregory Lovt good of Royston mayer " — 
• Cutwolf, which I have not found later than the sixteenth century, 
ia rather the Anglo-Saxon persona) name Cnthwulf [William 
Cattkewnlf, IpM.-\. 

D,g,t,.?<i I,, Google 


suggests rather that good has here the sense of wealth, 
property, as in Gathergood and Scattergood [Robert 
Scatergod, Cockersand Cart.'\. With the former cf. 
Sparegod (p. 275), and with the latter " Slyngethryfte 
fleshmonger " [Cocke Lorelle). Habgood, Hohgood, 
Hapgood, Hopgood [William Hebbegod. Fine R^ may 
contain the obsolete hap, to seize — 

" Happgr, to hap, or catch ; to snatch, or grasp at " (Cotg.)- 

But the antiquity and variants of the name point 
rather to ME. hap, hop, to cover, wrap up. Getgood 
sounds hopeful, but is really commercial. Dogood,^ 
with its northern variant Duguid, is a compli- 
mentary phrase-name ; cf. Faceben (p. 273). Whether 
Digweed is a southern attempt at the latter or a 
name for a gardener I cannot say. 

Sk)me names which appear to belong to the Shake- 
speare class are due to imitative spelling. Tearall is 
for Terrell, i.e. Tyrrell, an Anglo-French form of AS. 
Quickfall is for WigfaU {p. 70), Carvall is for CarveU. 
Carvill, from Cherville (Mame), Kilmaster is of course 
from Kihninster (Caithness), Marbrow from Marbury 
(Chesh.), Pillbrow from Pulborough (Suss.) or Pilsbury 
(Derb.). Wastall may be for Wastell (p. 165), but 
names in waste- were once common (p. 277) and French 
still has Gastebled, GatbU, Gastebois, Gatbois and other 

' Toogood may have been confused with this, bnt is really an 
adjecti%^ nickname. Id French ne find Trodoux and TropUmg. 
There is a fairly commoD Middle English name Tropisnel, Trt^nel, 
OF. Untl, swift, still found in Somerset as TrapntU. With Toogood 
goes Sargood, from ME. tor, very, as in " sore afraid." Perhaps tha 
original bearer of the name was " unco' guid." 

* Hence Kitchertids ; see p. 130, n. 

D,g,„.?<i I,, Google 

TURN AND Wm 263 

names formed from gAter. Cf. also Waister [John le 
Wastour, Pat. R.]. Ticklepmny, according to Lower,' 
is from a " place near Grimsby," but is remarkably 
like Ger. Kustenpfennig, kiss penny. Pinchback is of 
course for Pinchbeck (Line.) and Huntback for Hunt- 
bach {p. 53). Handover is for the local Andover, and 
Filpot, in spite of the corresponding Ger. Fiillkrug, is 
probably for Philpot, i.e. little Philip. Stow adopts 
the Filpot spelling for the famous fourteenth-century 
Lord Mayor of London. Makeman is either the 
" man " of Mack or for AS. Mjegenmimd, and Putwain 
is one of the many variants of Fr. Poitevin, whence 
also Patvine, Potwin, Portwine, etc. 

Some verbs appear with notable frequency in these 
compounds. From turn we have TurnbuU [Robert 
Tumebul, Pat. R.}, whence also Turnbill, Trumble, 
Tremble, and the less vigorous Turnpenny [Nicholas 
TTimepeny, Hund. R.]. With the former cf, William 
Tumebuk (Pat. R.), with the latter Richard Tumegold 
(ib.). French has several such names, including 
Tournemeule, probably a name for a hay-maker. From 
win we have Winbou/, Winrose, Winspear, Winspur 
(p. 162), Winpenny, Wimpenny, Vimpany [William 
Winepeny Chesh. Chamb. Accts. 1301-60], with which 
we may compare Fr. Gagnedenier. If Windlass, Wind- 
less (p. 170), is " win lass," the -d- is intrusive, as also in 
Windram, a nickname for a successful athlete — 

" Over-al, ther he cam. 
At wrastlyng be vrolde have awey the ram " 

(Chanc A. 546). 

• I fancy that some of Lower's " places " and " spots " vere 
extempore efforts. The only suitable " place " in Lincolnshire that 
I can get news of is TicUepesny's Loclc, which was named from » 
man called Ticklepenny, 

D,g,t,.?<i I,, Google 


John Winram was sub-prior of St. Andrews in 1550. 
In the F. of Y. we find " Winskip the mariner," which 
suggests a competent pirate, but the surname is per- 
haps from AS. winesU-pe, friendship {p. 220). One of 
the most curious of the Win- compounds is the common 
Norfolk name Winearls, in which the second element is 
the dialect " earls, arles," earnest-money. With 
Waghorn, Wagstaff of. Walto' Waggespere {Lane. 
Ass. R. 1176-1285), while Waggett may sometimes 
be the equivalent of Ger. Schtiddekopf, shake-head 
(see p. 128). To the Shake- names may be added 
Shacklock [Hamo Shakeloc, Hund. R.], with which 
cf. John Werpeloc {Leic. Bor. Rec.) and WiUiam 
Wrytheloc {Malmesbury Abbey Reg.), and Shakelady, 
Schacklady, with which cf. Robert Schaketrot {Lane. 
Court R. 1323-4)— 

" An old trot with ne'et a tooth in her head " 

IShrtte, i. 3}. 

and John Daubedame {Leie. Bor. Rec.) — 

" Daubtr, to beat, awindge, laoune, canvasse throughly " 

Of the Hack- names the most interesting is Hak- 
luyi. The DNB. describes the geographer as of a 
family long established in Herefordshire, probably of 
Dutch origin. The " Dutch " appears to be suggested 
by the second syllable. The name means " hack 
httle." ME. liU, and the founder of the family was 
probably a woodcutter without enthusiasm [Peter 
Hakelut, IpM., Heref.]. Walter Hackelute or Hakelut 
or Hakelutel occurs repeatedly in thirteenth-century 
records of Hereford and Salop. 

D,g,t,.?<i I,, Google 


There are also two rather large groups containing 
the verbs pass * and pierce. From the first come Passe- 
low, " cross water," whence also Paslow, ParsUm, 
PasUy, Pashley, Pashler ' [Edmund I^sselewe or Passe- 
leye or Passhelye, Pat. R.]. Passmore [Stephen Passe- 
mer. Fine R.], PassavatU [Alan Passavaunt, Lane. 
Ass. R. 1176-1285], contracted to Passant. In 
French we find Passelaigue,' Passerieu (OF. rieu, a 
stream), Passelac, Passepont, etc. With Passavant cf. 
the hybrid StartifatU, Siurdevant, Siurtivant, in which 
the first element is ME. steri, to start. In the F. of Y. 
it is spelt Stirtavaunt. The Pierce- names are verj- 
curious, and it is hard to say exactly what the verb 
meant in these compounds. The much discussed Per- 
ceval, Percival is simply what it appears to be, viz. 
" pierce vale " Another hero oi romance was Perce- 
forest. One origin of Percy, Pearcey, Pursey, etc, is 
perce-haie, pierce hedge [William Percehaye, Hund. J?.]. 
Passifull and Passfield, which look like compounds of 
fass, are in all probabiUty corruptions of Percival, 
and Purcifer, a Yorkshire name, shows the same slur- 
ring as in Brammer for the local Bramhall. Finally, 
Pershouse, Purshouse is " pierce house." Thirlway, 
Thirlaway contains the obsolete "thirl," to pierce, 
but the whole compound may be local, meaning 
a gap. 

Somewhat akin to this group are the French names 
in Tranche-, some of which, such as Trenchemer, 
Trenchelac are found also in Middle English. With 

' Th« cbarger of the paladin Geriw was Passecerf {Chanton d* 

■ Cf. BrisUr for Bristoai (p. 104). 

' AigtM {aqua) is a uinthera form of tau; cf. Ai^niea-mortes. 

D,g,„.«n„ Google 


Tranchevent cf. Ger. Schneidewind and otir Sherwin 
[Thomas Sherewynd, Fine R.], the latter the same type 
of man as WiUiam Windswift, mariner (F, of Y). We 
have other compomids of shear in Sherlock, Shurlock 
[Simon Skyrloc, Chart R.], and in Shargold, Shergold, 
perhaps a coin-chpper or a worker at the mint ' ; but 
Shearvood is local, of Sherwood. Another element 
which was once common is tread. We have still 
Tredwell, Tretwell, TreaddeU, and Tredgold ' [Walter 
Tredegold, Hund. R.], the last-named appearing also 
as Threadgold, Thridgould; cf. Threadgate, in which 
gate means street. In Middle Enghsh we find also 
Thomas Tredehalk {Chart. R.), Symon Tredhard 
(Yorks, 1379), and Richard Tradesalt (Rievaulx Cart.). 
Treadaway, Treadway is local [John de Treddewy, 
Exch. R.], from treadway, a thoroughfare, which was 
in use as late as the seventeenth century. 

Gather occurs in Gathergood {p. 262). Gathercole* 
Gatherall. The last-named, of the type of Walter 
Prentout (Lond. Wills, 1340), still a French surname, 
and Godwin Givenout (Rievaulx Cart.), has also become 
Caiherall,* with which cf. Catherwood for " gather 
wood," and Abraham Cathermonie {Rievaulx Chart.). 
In the Pat. R. we find Nicholas Gadrewit whose 
pursuit was wisdom rather than wealth. Tirebuck 

1 " The other (tane), corruptly called Sermon lane, for 5hci«- 
moiUers' kme, for I find it by that name recorded in the fouTteetttb 
of Edward I. ... It may, therefore, be well supposed that lan« 
to take name at Sheremonyars, such u cut and rounded the ptate« 
to be coined or stamped into sterUng pence" (Stow). 

> With this cf. Ger. Rosentreter, the tiampler of roses. 

■ It is uncertain whether the second etement means charcoal 
or cabbage [Robert Gaderkold, Pat. ff.], 

* I think CathtdraU must be an imitative alteration of this. 

D,g,t,.?<i I,, Google 


may be local, of Tarbock (Lane), but the first element 
may be the obsolete tire, to tear, rend — 

" I graunte wel that thon eodurest wo 
As sharp as doth he, Ticius, in belle, ' 
Wbos stomak fonles Uren evere mo 
That hight«n voltoures, as bookes telle " 

{Troilus and Criuyde, i. 7SS), 

This etymology is supported by William Randekide 
{Leic. Bor. Rec.) and the Lancashire Tyrer [Henry le 
Tyrer, Bp. Kellawe's R^.], formerly also Tyre-hare, 
though this latter may perhaps refer to a blameless 

Knatchbull may have been applied to a butcher, or 
perhaps to some medieval Mile of Crotona ; cf. John 
Felox (13th century) — 

" With a great chibbe (Commodns) kniUched them all on the bed " 
(NED. 1S79). 

Benbow, Benbough, Bebbote are of course " bend-bow " 
[William Bendebowe. City F.]. Robin Hood's foUower 
Scathelock is still found as Scadlock, Shadlock, Shatlock, 
Shediock, Shotlock, Shackcloth, though the compoimd 
can hardly be said to make sense. Evidently Shack- 
lock has contributed also to this group. There are a 
considerable nimiber of medieval names in -lock ; see 
p. 264. Rackstraw, Raickstraw, Rextrew, Rockstro, is 
occupative, "rake straw"; cf, Ralph Frapaile, i.e. 
frappe-paille [Pat. R.), a thresher, and see "bang- 
straw " in the EDD. Prindeville was a successful 
sokiier, Fr. prend ville. Parlby is altered from the 
once common parU bien [John Parlebieo, Pat. R.\ 
and ChaniUr is for the still conunoner ckante clair 
[Roger Chauntecler or Chaunteler, Pat. R.^. Cash- 



man is for " catch man " [Mabel Cacheman, Pat. R.]. 
ShadboU, ShotboU may be for "shoot bolt" (cf. 
Benbow, p. 267), or the first element may be a past 
participle and the whole compotmd have been ap- 
pUed to one who had shot his bolt ; cf. the common 
Middle English name Lancelev^e. Hurlbaii is doubt- 
ful, for Matthew Herlebaut (Pat. R.) looks like a 
personal name. Still, John Hurlebadde {Pat. R.) and 
Thomas Draghebat ' (ib.) tend to authenticate it as 
a phrase-name. Plantrose [John Plaunterose, Hund. 
r\ and Pluckrose [Alan Pluckrose, ib.] still exist and 
have plenty of medieval support ; cf. Simon Schakerose 
(Pai. R.), Peter Porterose {ib.), Andrew Plantefene ' 
{Leic. Bor. Rec), Elyas Plantefolye (Fine R.). Pluck- 
rose has a parallel in Culpepper ' [Thomas CuUepeper 
or Colepepyr, Pat. R.], with which cf, Richard Culle- 
bene (Hund. R.). 

Among examples in which the second element is 
adverbial we hnd, besides the quaint Gotobed or Golbed, 
such names as Rushout (cf. Rideout, p. 259) and Rusha- 
way, the latter perhaps a conscientious objector, like 
Robert Torne-en-Fuie (Pachnio). Fulloway may be 
for " follow way," as Followfast is found in the four- 
teenth century, and Standeven, Standaloft both seem 
to belong here also. Pickavant, altered to Pickavance, 
Pickance, Pickervance is Fr. pique-avant, spur forward. 

Subject and verb are inverted in Hornblow, Horni- 
blow, Orneblow and possibly in Milsopp, Mellsop 

i- This seems to be the native equivalent of Trailbaston, a term 
first applied to a class of malefactors. On the interesting develop- 
ment of this compound into a l^[al term ■«« NED. 

• Fr. foin, hay, Lat famnn. 

' There is just a possibility that this means " black pepper " 
c£. Thomas Pipetwyt (Curt. BaUle Abbey) and John Blaksalt {Pat. Ji.) 



[Roger Melkesopp, Hund. R.]. The latter may mean 
what is sopped in milk, but, as applied to a baby, or 
to a spiritless person, it may be rather one who sups 

" Hayll, lytyll tya mop, rewardei of mede I 
Hayll, bot oone drop of grace at 1117 nede ! 
Hayll lytyl ntylk sop I hayll, David sedel " 

[Towneley Mysteries). 

Similar inversions are found in Middle English, as in 
the pleasing John Coutorment (Pat. R.). The original 
Overthrow was perhaps a skilled wrestler ; cf. Henry 
Overdo [Close R.i Ed, IV.). John Lyngeteill, tailor 
(F. of Y.), may be for taille-Unge, or the second element 
may be toile, cloth. 

It excites no surprise that so many of these names 
have disappeared. They are, as this chapter shows, 
and as will be seen still more clearly from the hst on 
pp. 270-7, nearly ahvays contemptuous. Also they are 
often cumbersome, so that even so complimentary a 
name as that of JehanQui deriensne s'esraoie(Pachnio), 
i.e. John Dreadnought, had a very poor chance of 
surviving. Occasionally such names have been ab- 
sorbed by others. There can, for instance, be little 
doubt that some of our Pen/olds • represent the occupa- 
tive " pen-fowl " [Heiuy Pynfoule, Pat. R.}, an official 
who has become more usually Catckpole (Fr. chasse- 
poule). Walkinshaw, Wakenshaw, has a local look, 
but the existence of Rangecro/t suggests that it may be 
simply " walk in shaw," perhaps a forest ranger — 

" WallUrs, seeme to be those that are otherwise called forestera, 
Crompton in his Jmisdictioiis, fol. 154, hath these words in efiect: 
Theie bee foresters assigned by the King, whicb be waiktrs witbio 
a certain qioce assigned them to loolce unto" (Cowel). 

> This has sevecai variants, e.g. Ptnnifold, Pinfold, Pi*fi*id. 



Hence perhaps also Walkland. Or the name may 
have been applied to a forest outlaw, Cf, Jourdain 
Saill-du-Bois (Pachnio), Hugo Saildebroil ' (»6.), found 
also in Middle Enghsh as Saudebroyl, both of whom 
probably obtained their sobriquets by their unwelcome 
sorties from the woods that bordered the medieval 
highway. Waiklate is as natural a nickname as " toil 
by night" {see p. 233). Other names of the same 
type, some not easy to interpret, are, Wakelam ' 
(cf. Esveillechien, p. 273), Shearkod (hood), Siabback, ' 
Setiatree, Makemead [Gregory Makemete, Pat. R.I, 
Lockbane, SaUonsiall{cl. mountebank a.nAsaUitnbanque). 
The obsolete names in the following list all come 
from the same soiuces as those which are quoted 
throughout this book. To save space I have omitted 
the baptismal names and references. Some of them 
no doubt still exist in a corrupted form and perhaps 
others are wrongly included here. A few, which I cannot 
Dterpret, may amuse the leisure of some of my readers. 
'' It will be noticed that Anglo-French prevails over the 
^native element, while there are a few hybrids. Many 
are evidently trade descriptions, but the majority 
allude to some habit, or even some isolated act, on the 
part of the original bearer. 

BulMnen (OF. bailUr, to give. Baysen 

Ct F. BaiiUhart [halter], Besocu 

BaillehtKht{axe\,vheD.ceBail- Banesthef (banish thief) 

hackt) Bantbane (cf. Cmssekiiig, but 

Baiaedame (cL Lmielady) Banlather is for BainufatAtr 

Bayseboll (one nho loved the p. 144) 

bowl) Bureduk (cf. Facdieo) 


> See Brewitt (p. sj). 

' The rather vigorou»-looking Wahtm and (fAocAum are for the 
local Wall 

D,g,t,.?<i I,, Google 


Briabon (bone) 
BriKop (cnp) 

Beivin (6ot-cin), a very e 
Middle EngUsh nune, still 
found as Btoin) 



Boritawey (with the b*ar- nsiues 
cf. tbose in porl). 


Brendhers (hea-se f) 
Bryttdboys (in these five names 

we have Middle English forms 

Byggeharine (ME, big, to build, 



Bytewant (HE. want, a mole; 
cf. Moolbayt) 

Botetorte (see p. 358, n. 3} 



Brekednre (door) 





Brekerop (cf. Crakestreng) 

Bridebek (cf. Bridoye, the judge 
inRabelais. Geese were bridled 
by passing a feather throngh 
the orifices of the beak to 
prevent than from straying 
tbiongh hedges. Hence" oison 
britU, a sot, asse, guU, ninnie, 
noddie" Cotg.). 


Brisemustier (OF. mouilUr, 



Bnkepot (ME. buch, to wash, 
clean, as in buek-tiukel) 




Cachemaille (Fr. mailU, a small 
coin : cf. Pinsemaille. Cock*- 
mailU is an existing EngliA 
name, no doubt Huguenot) 

Cachemay (ME. may, a maiden ; 
? cf. Biniiass, p. iOO) 

Cachepot (cf, Fr. Chassipol, 
P- 389) 

Cochevache (cf. names in Chate-, 
Co**-. Hack-) 

Cakedan (Fr. daim, a deer) 





Cbasemnine (Fr. moitie, a monk) 

Chanteben * 

Chatmtemerle (Fr. mtrU, a black- 
bird ; but ChantemerlB is a 
common French place-name) 



CbaatemesM *" 


Cbaucebuef. Cansebuf 


Causseben (Fr. ehausser, to Bboe) 



Clocoppe (ME. etoek, to hobble. 
Ft. eloeher. Ct. Startup [p. iiz\ 
and trollop, TroUope, bom 
ME. troll, to saunter, pionl) 

aevegris (ME. gris. a pg) 

Qevehog (these two names are 
sometimes misprinted Clene- 
in the Htind R. Cf. the names 
in Traneht; Trenehe-) 



Counteiogbel (before Uiey were 


Coupeforge [? a mistake for 


Copegray (dial, gray, a badger) 

Conpne (wmf *-««) 

CooTSedien (cf. Cmaseking) 



Crakestreng (cf. Brekerop. 
" Baboiti, a crack-rope, wag- 
haJter, unhappy rogue, 
wretchlesse vUlaioe," Cotg.) 

Crevecnor (hence Crawcour and 
sometimes Croker. Cf. Breche- 
hert. But the name is local ; 
there are four Cr^ectenrs in 

Crollebois, Corleboia (OF. croUtr, 
to shake ; cf. <^levache) 

Crusseking (corse) 

Cnethemarket (know the mar- 

CnUebeoe (cf. Peckebeoe) 
Collebere ("kill bear" or Pick- 

Cnlletoppe (Fr. taupi, a meAo. 

For evil, to kill, see alao p. 357) 









Cutwesyll (this may be for awo- 
stl, but is more probably a 
perversion of weasand, throat) 


Dyngesande (ME. ding, to 
ponnd, crush) 





Drawesprae, Draespere 


Draneck (not from draw, bat 
from thraw, twiBted,a northern 
form of throtn, so it does not 
really belong to this group. 
Thrawneched is still in diaL 



Orynkpany (possibly belongs 
elsewhere. Drinkptimy was 
dsed in the same sense as Fr. 
pourboirg and G«r, Trinkgtld, 
Cf. VirgU Godipeny, Pat. R.. 




and the existing French n&ine 
Potdtoiti, from pol-d»-vin, a, 
present made in concluding a 
bargain, etc. Hamall also no 
doubt has sometimes a similar 


Dabedent (see p. 258) 


Dunpois (perhaps Ibr " don 
purse." But it may mean 
"brown purse"; cf. Irenpurs 
[p. 163] and Alexander Hari- 
pok, i.e. hairy pouch, F. of Y.) 

Enganevielle (OF. fttganer, to 

trick, deceive) 

Faceben (Dogoo^ 

Facehen (one who conld " (ay 
boh to a goose." But a line 
in Coat« LorelU suggests that 
there was a verb face, meaning 
to ill-treat, whence Facm — 
" Crakers, factrs, and chyl- 
deme quelleis") 

F&Ueninwolle (? well) 

Felebesche (cf. Coupchesne) 

Fernon (a HE. Dreadnought) 


Fiercop (OF. fitr-coup, strike 


Forthwynde (probably for wend, 
d Wendut, Gangeof, Ridte^l) 




Fretemette (cf. the nainea in 

£to-andseep. 255) 
Froisselewe (cf. Betewata) 
Fnlsalt (Fr. fouUr. to tread) 





Gatteprest (cl the names in 


Ginful (? trap fowl; cf. Pynfoole, 

Girdethewode (see Girdaood, 

p. sjr, ft. 3. But it may be for 

'■ guard the wood") 
Gratefige (Fr. gralU figut ; cf. 


Grindelove (see p. 260} 

Guanaben (Fr. gagne-bitn) 
Gyrdecope, Gyrdinthecope 


Hachchebutere (cf. Avice la Bu- 

terkervere. Close R.) 

D,g,t,.?<i I,, Google 


Halskyng (ME. Ao/se, to em- 



Hauotewak {aiake, now used 

oalj of a funeral least, for- 

meil)' meant a "revelling o' 

Heldhare (ME. helden, to bold, 

Hundecdst (cf . Hatecrist, Sbone- 

Hurteqnart (a drinker's name; 

cf. the archaic expreasioD 

" crushing a quart ") 
Hartevent (cf . Trancheoent, 

Sherwin, p. 266. It is also a 

French place-name, no doubt 

meaning "face wind," Mod. 

Fr. htufU*. 


Kacheboye [see names in 

Chase-, Cake-) 
Kembelof (apparently ' 

wolf " ; at. unkempt) 




Lockeburs, Locenpuis 

Locout (probably " look out ") 











Mangehaste (OF. haste, a. spit; cl 


Moulbayt (cf. Bytewant) 
Mucedent (OP. mutter, to hid«, 

cover up: cf. Adnbbe^ent, 

P 258) 

Pailcerf (akin stag, or perhaps 
for " poit de cerf ") 

Paynlow (torture wolf) 

Pakhameys (cl Trussehameya. 
In the Towneley Mysttries 
Cain's horse-boy is called 
Pike-hameis, probably the 




Patseflabcore (a. nickname applied 

D,g,t,.?<l I,, Google 



in Annal. Monasl. to RAnnlf 
Flambard, whose name am- 
vives as Flambsri. It appar- 
ently plays OD his name and 
suggests handing on the torch) 




Perceioil, Percesuil {also mis- 
printed Percefoil) 


Pichepappe (apparently the 
same as Fr. PUpape, and of 
the same type as Cmsaeking, 
Shonecrist, etc., but I cannot 
explain the first syllable) 





Pikemnmele (? Fi. mtimttit) 



Pill^os {cf. Jehan Escorche- 
Rainne. skin-frog, Pachnio) 

Pillemyl (mole) 

Pilemns (monse) 


PinsemaiUe (" Pime-maille, a 
pinch peny, scrape-good, nig- 
ard, misear, peniefather,"Cotg.) 



Pimetote (see Prentout. p. 366) 


Polprcst (an ecclesiastical haii- 


Portegoie, Portejoie 
PortesoyI (cf. the names in Bgre- 

names PoriAoU, Porttfaix, 

PorUlanet, PortmsBignt) 
Pownsewayd (a " pouncer," or 

pnlveriier, of woad. CL 

Wadtr, p. 120) 
Prikeavant (an alteration of 

Pickmant, p. 3 68) 
Pnllebrid (here ^»Jf is equivalent 

to pill ; see p. 357) 


Reulebon (AF. rmih-Um, rule 





Romefaie (a pilgrim to Rome) 

Sachevia (OF. sachiar, to draw. 
It may, however, be an al- 
teration of the French anr- 
nam« Sacavin, from " sae a 
DIM, a drunken gnlcb, or gor- 
belly ; a great wine-diinkor " 

S a c q u e B p e e (cl Drawesweid. 
This name, common in oni 
Rolls, has perhaps been ab- 
sorbed by Saxby. It is still 
foand in Fiance as Sacqutpi) 


Schapacape, Sbapeakap, 
Shappecape (a tailor ? ) 


D,g,t,.?<i I,, Google 


Scorchevileyn Supewortea 

ScrapetriMigl) (the name of t 

miUer ia F. of Y.) 
Spelkelesiaf (a misUke lo: 

" ipeak leasing ") 







Sintewinch (wench) 

Sprenhose, Sprenghoese (ME, 

sprenge, to scatter. Cf . Waste- 

hnB, Bernhns) 
Springanare. Sptingemer 
















Taillepetit (cf. Hacamal) 



Thurlewynd (sjmoaymouB with 





Totepeny (an early example of 
tout, in its original sense of 
looking out, watching fw) 










Trenchepin (Fr, pain 1) 



Trenchevent, Trinchevent 

Trend elove, Trendelawe (HE. 
trend, to turn. The second 
syllable means wolf. Cf . Tum- 
bull, Turnbuck) 

Trotemenil (for Fr. trottt-msHM, 
used of a tripinng gait) 


Trusseharaeys (" His gilly-frHcA' 
harniih, to carry his knap- 
sack," Wavtrlty, vb. xvi) 


D,g,t,.?<i I,, Google 




Tomemantel (of course the first 
syllable might be the adj. 


Tumetrave ((rone, a dial, word 

for a shock of com ; cf. Fr. 



Waynpayn {a Picard form of Fr. 

Waytecakc [a gamekeeper. 

wayU, to guard, and caht, 
variant of chasse ; cf. Cakedan) 




Wasthose, Wasthus 




Wendut, Wyndout 






Wynneyene (again) 


Wryngetayl, Wrangtayle 


D,g,t,.?<i I,, Google 



" As to bravery, foolish, iiie:q>erienced people of every nation 
always think that Uieir own wldiera are braver than any others. 
But when one has seen as much as I have done, one nnderstands 
ttiat there is no very marked diflerence, and that although nationa 
differ very much in discipline, they are all eqnally brave — except 
tliat the French have rather more courage than the lest " {Brigadier 

Soon after the beginning of the war I read, in a usually 
well-infonned periodical, that General Joffre was of 
humble extraction, and owed his name to an immediate 
ancestor, who, pursuing the calUng of an itinerant 
dealer, was wont to commence his remarks with the 
words J'offrel This statement, whatever may be 
thought of it philologically. seems at any rate to 
indicate some interest in the onomatology of our gallant 
allies. French names, like our own, have a history 
that can be traced, and are formed on a system which 
can be easily illustrated. From about the eleventh 
century, when the surname {i.e. super name) began to 
be added to the simple appellation which satisfied our 
remoter ancestors, down to about the middle of the 
fourteenth century, when names became hereditary 
instead of changing with the individual, surnames 
have been formed in four ways only. They are 
baptismal, from the name of the father or mother, e.g. 



Lamariine, Climenceau (little Clement); local, from 
place of birth or residence, e.g. DupotU (Bri(^e), Dupri 
(Mead), LaUemand (AlUnan) ; occupative, from trade 
or office, e.g. Boucher (Butcher), Serrurier (Lockyer), 
LemaUre (Master) ; or descriptive, from some peculi- 
arity of appearance, character, costume, habits, etc., 
e.g. Legrand (Grant) Lebon (Boon), Beaukarnais (fine 
armour) Botleau (Drinkwater). Thus, corresponding 
to our Messrs. Williams, Mills, BaJter, Small, we find 
in France Messieurs Guillaume, Desmoulins, Boulanger, 
Lepetit. Not only so, but, as in our language is a 
mixture of English and French and a large proportion 
of our population was bilingual during the period in 
which our surnames took form, most common French 
surnames are found also in this country, so that the 
four mentioned above not only translate the given 
Enghsb equivalents, but also Sourish among us as 
Gilham, MuUtns, BuUingcr, and Pettitt, with, of course, 
many variant ^)ellings. 

With a fair knowledge of modem French, which, 
judging from the pubhshed versions of the French 
despatches, is somewhat to seek in high places, and some 
tincture of the older forms of the language, it is possible 
to ascertain the meaning and origin of nine-tenths of 
the names in the Paris Directory. But the tenth 
name, or perhaps, in the case of a very well equipped 
student, the twentieth name, is often a teasar, the diffi- 
culties to be ovCTcome being sometimes greater, some- 
times less, than those encountered in the study of 
EngUsh surnames. Speaking generally, these dififi. 
culties are of a special nature resulting from the char- 
acter and genius of the language. 

The mi^eading aspect of a name, due to erratic 



spdling, is a commoa phenomenon in both languages, 
but the French practice of omitting the final consonant 
in pronunciation often leads to an orthographic sub- 
stitution of a specially baffling character. Dumouriex 
suggests nothing, but if we replace the final -z by -r 
we get at once the dialect mourier, a bramble, and the 
name is then as simple as Dubuisson (Bush) or Delarbre 
(Tree). MotUisut is obviously Moniaigu, the pointed 
hill (Peake), Darboy is for d'Arbois, from a place in 
the Jura, and Duclaux is simply Dudos (Close). The 
well-known name Hanoiaux is for Hanotot, formed 
from Jean by the most puzzling process in which the 
language indulges — thus, Jehan, Han, Hanot, Hanotot. 
A phonetic spelling gives Leclair for Leclerc (Clark), 
Lemerre for Lemaire (Mayor), Chantavoine for champ 
d'avoine, oat field, while Oxanne disguises the more 
homely Aux&nes, a nickname of a type not uncommon 
in French and meaning either an ass-driver or a dealer 
in those quadrupeds. Similarly we find Ozenfant for 
Auxenfants, corresponding to the Mr. Quiverfull of 
the old-^shioned comic papers. In Lailavoix is 
hidden OF. lez la voie (Bytheway) with the obsolete 
preposition lez (Lat. UUus) which survives in Plessis- 
l^Tours, and possibly in such English place-names 
as Chester-le-Street. 

We have also, as in EngUsh, to consider dialect 
peculiarities. Lat. faber, a smith or wright, gives in 
the north Fivre, Lefivre, but in the south Fabre and 
Faure, along with other variants and intermediate 
forms. La Chaussie (Cawsey, Cosway) is in Provencal 
La Caussade, and Salcide, drawn and quartered in 1582, 
was a southerner who in the north would have hera 
Saussaye, willow-grove (Lat. salicetum). Catwobert, 

D,g,t,.?<l I,, Google 


corresponding to such an English name as Kobertshaw, 
contains the Normand-Picard word for champ, the 
normal form of which is preserved in Changarnier, 
Warner's iield. With the latter goes the heroic Chandos 
(Bonefield). The iamous actor Lekain had a name 
which is a variant of Lequien, a dialect form of Lechien. 
BeUoc is the southern form of Beaulieu, Castehtau of 
Chdteauneuf. Corday is dialect for Cordier (Corder, 
Roper), Boileau is found also as BoHaive, Boilive, 
Boylesve, and Taine is an archaic or local pronunciation 
of Toine, for Antoine. So also we have archaic spellings 
in Langlois, as common a name in France as French 
and Francis are in England, Picquart, the Picard 
(Pickard), and Lescure, i.e. I'icuyer (Squire). In fact, 
while some names gradually change their sound and 
spelling in conformity with those of the words from 
which they are derived, others, and perhaps the 
majority, preserve archaic forms which aftect their 
pronimciation and disguise their origin. A tadpole 
is called in French Utard, while in Old French a man 
with a big head was nicknamed Testard, a name which 
is still common by the side of Titard. Also many of 
the variations which occur are due to the date of 
adoption, A name acquired in the twelfth century 
will not have the same form as one that dates from the 
fifteenth, e.g. the nickname Rey (King) is older than 
Leroy, and Levesque is obviously anterior to Livique 
(Bishop, Levick). Souvestre represents the Old French 
form of Silvester, of which SUwstre is a modem restored 

Taking in order the four classes of names, baptismal, 
local, occupative, descriptive, it is interesting to 
notice the resemblances and dilf erences in the methods 



by which surnames are created and multiplied in the 
two languages. We have in English more than a 
dozen names derived from William, without taking 
into account those with an initial G (Gill, GiUott, 
Gilkes, etc.) which belong to the French form Guil- 
laume. Wilhams. WiUiamson are EngUsh formations 
to which French has no exact parallel, and, although 
the prefix in Fitzwilliam is the French word ftls, French 
surnames of this type are very rare. But we also 
shorten WiUiam to Will and create by diminutive 
suffixes Willy, Willett, WiUing, Wilcocks, Wilkin, 
Wilkes, etc. French proceeds in the same way, but 
with much greater freedom, e.g. GuiUaumet, Guillaumin, 
Gvillawnot, Guillaumy, GuiUe, GuHlemain, Guillemard, 
Guillemot, Gillemaud, Guillemeau, Guillemenot, GuiUe- 
min, Guillemineau, Guillemot, Guillermin, Guillet, Guil- 
Uet, Guillen, Guillot, Guillotin, Guillen, Guilmet, GuHmin, 
and a few dozen more,' piling one diminutive sufhx 
on to another ad infinitum. Shortened forms such as 
Joffre from Joffroy (Jeffrey), Foch from Fochier, Fouchi 
(Fulcher) axe easy to recognize, and the addition of 
suffixes, as in Joffrin, Geoffrin, Joffron, Joffrenot, 
presents no difficulty. 

So far things are simple. But the tendency of 
French, with its stress on the last syllable, is more 
often in the direction of the decapitation of a name, 
as in our Bert for Herbert. Simple examples are Colas 
for Nicolas, Nisard for Denisard, Bastien for Sebastien, 
Jamin for Benjamin, Stophe, Stofflet for Christophe. 
But after this decapitation there generally begins a 
chain of names which is very difficult to trace, e,g. 

D,g,t,.?<l I,, Google 


from Thomas we get Mas, Massi,* Masset, Massenet, 
Massillon, and eventually, by a new decapitation, 
Sillon, which only preserves the final letter of the 
original name. So from Garaud (JerroM) we have 
Raud, Rod, Rodin, and from Bernard come not only 
Bernardin, Bernadot, BernadoUe, but also Nadaud, 
Nadot, while these may go on to Dauda, DoUin, etc. 
This is a game to which there is no Umit, and, as names 
can be dealt with both head and tail, it is often im- 
possible to decide how a series has begun. Such a 
name as Bert, with its Berthon, BerthoUet, BertilUau, 
etc., may be from the first syllable of Bertrand, Berthi- 
lemy (Bartholomew), etc., or from the final of Albert, 
Hubert, etc. Similarly Nicot may belong to Nicolas 
or Janicot, the latter name a diminutive of Jean, 
and possibly the origin of our JelHcoe, Garot niay 
represent Garaud (Jerrold) or ^Margarot (Margetts, 
Meggitt), Filon may come from Phihppe or Thtephile. 
This love of derivatives is especially characteristic of 
French onomatology, while in EngUsh the practice 
exists, though in a much more restricted degree, e.g. 
Phihp, Philpot, Pott, Potkins. On the other hand, 
French has not our trick of rimir^ names (Dick, Hick, 
from Richard, Dob, Hob, from Robert). 

Hence the French surname groups of baptismal 
origin are much larger than ours. Jean and j^tienne 
(Stephen) are said to have each more than one hundred 
derivatives, while Pierre has about two hundred. It 
will be noticed that these most popular font-names 
are all BibUcal. So also the Easter name Pascal 
has a large number of derivatives, e.g. Pasquin, Pdquin, 
Pasquet, Pasquier, etc., and, among female names, 

1 Massi ia also for Matthew. 

D,g,„.?<i I,, Google 


the great saints such as Marie, Catherine, Marguerite, 
head the list, e.g. Mariette, MarioUe, Riottc,^ Marat. 
Marot ; Catinat, Cathelineau, Linel ; Margot, Margoton, 
Got, etc. The relative popularity in France of Biblical 
and Teutonic font-names iks varied in the past. Before 
the Frankisb conquest practically all the saints and 
martyrs ' of Gaul have Greco-Latin names, though a 
few of Teutonic origin appear by the fifth century. 
By the eighth century the latter are in a majority, 
and by the twelfth the Greco-Latin names are swamped 
by the new-comers. In modern France these once so 
popular names, Beranger. Fouquier, Gamier, Gautier, 
Lambert, Oger, Regnard, etc., all of which have also 
given Enghsh surnames, have mostly fallen out of use, 
though very common as surnames. A few, such as 
Charles.Edouard.Henri, Louis, Robert, are still popular, 
but, speaking generally, French parents have gone back 
for the names of their children to the Bible and the 
Greco-Latin martyrology, e.g. Jean, Thomas, Phihppe, 
Piore; Alexandre, Eugene, TWophile, Victor, etc. 

French surnames of baptismal origin are occasionally 
accompanied by the article, Landrieux, Lasimonne, 
and also by the preposition de and d, Demichel, Duber- 
trand, Aladenise. These compounds had possessive 
force, just as in modem rustic French " I'enfant k la 
Hartine " means Martine's child. Such surnames 
formed from female names do not as a rule point to 
illegitimacy, but rather to the importance of the mother 
in the French family. Martin's wife was called La 

I This may be equ&lly well an abstract oickname ; cf. Ryott 
(p. «o). 

* It shonldberemembeied that French Christian names are usualljr 
taken from the Calendar, the name given being that of the saint on 
whose feast the child is bom. 

n,<jv.<!h, Google 


Martine and ruled the roost. Another peculiarity of 
French surnames of this class is the frequency with 
which they are qualified by an adjective. In English 
we have as a rule only compounds of John, e.g. Little- 
john, Meiklejohn, Prettyjohn, etc., with an occasional 
GoodwiUie or Gawkroger (see p. 242), but in French 
most common font-names are thus used. On his 
last visit to England President Poincarfe was accom- 
panied by Captain Grandcl^ent. Cf. Bonbernat 
(Bwnard), Beaujean, Grandcolas (Nicolas), Petitperrin 
(Pierre), Maugirard (Gerard), Grosclaude. Sometimes 
the article is also used, e.g. Lefietitdidier, from one of 
the few French names (Desiderius) which have never 
flourished in England. In France this name has been 
prolific, e,g. Didon, Didot, Diderot, etc. 

French surnames of local origin may, like their 
English companions, range in order from a country 
to a plant, e.g. Despagne (Spain), Lenormand (Norman). 
Damiens (Amyas), Dupuis (Wells), Lacroix (Cross, 
Crouch), Ddpierre (Stone), Lipine (Thome), Despots 
(Pease), but, while our names have, except in a few 
cases such as Atterbury, Bythesea, Delahunte (pp. 48- 
52), shed both preposition and article, French more 
often keeps both. So we find Croix, Lacroix, Delacroix, 
Salle, Lasalle, Delasalle, whence sometimes our Sate. 
With names of towns beginning with a vowel de is 
commonly prefixed, e.g. Davignon, Davranche. More- 
over, every French town has a corresponding adjective, 
a privilege accorded in this country only to the capital. 
So Bourgeois.hesides being a descriptive name (fiurgess), 
may mean the man from Bourges, while Bouhtois, also 
well established in England, indicates an inhabitant 
of Boulogne. 

D,g,t,.?<i I,, Google 


More interesting than names taken from specific 
places are those derived from common names, the 
majority of which belong, like our Clough, Hay, Shaw, 
Croft, etc., to the archaic and provincial vocabulary. 
To-day (Oct. 13, 1915) we read that Admiral de 
Lapeyr&re has been succeeded by Admiral du Fourmt. 
The first represents perriire, a stone quarry, whence our 
Ferrers, the second is a diminutive of four, an oven. 
The importance of the public oven in medieval France 
is attested by the frequent occurrence of the surname 
Dufour. In Dussault we have Old French sauU, a 
marsh, wood, in Z>umas a southern word for a" manse" 
or homestead, in Dumesnil (Meynell) a diminutive of 
the same word. Lapommeraye, equivalent to our 
Appleyard, has given us Pomeroy. Duplessis cOmes 
from the" pleached "enclosure which, as Scott reminds 
us in the first chapter of Quentin Durward, has given 
a name to so many French villages. In Dubailleul 
we have an Old French word for a fort or " bailey," 
and the origin of a luckless royal name (BaUior^. Des- 
prSaux, of the meadows, a name assumed by Boileau, 
has given us Diprose, while the common Ferti, LaferU 
is an Old French name for a fortress, Latin firmitas. 
In Duquesne we have the Norman form of chine, 
an oak, and Dufuy contains what was once the 
regular French name for a hill. This word is the 
origin of our " pew." In fact Dupuy has become 
Depew in America. Dekassi probably means " of the 
hut " ; Blois del Casset was a Knight of the Round 
Table. Pertuis, hole, is well established in England 
as Pertwee, and the well-known Maupertuis, the name 
of Renard's den in the old romance, has a parallel in 
William Foulhole {Nott. Court R. 1308). 

D,g,„.«n„ Google 


When we come to occupative names, we are again 
confronted by crowds of diminutives, Coiresponding 
to our Shepherd we find not only Berger, Leberger, 
Labergire, but also Bergerat, Bergeret, Bergeron, Bergerot, 
to quote only the most frequent variants, while Boucher 
gives us Boucharin, Bouchereau, Bouckeron, Bouchet, 
etc., and of course Leboucher and Labouchire. In a 
recent casualty list occurred the Canadian names 
Dansereau and Mercereau. We have no native EngUsh 
parallel to such names, though CarUrell, CkarUr^, 
derived from French ChatUereau, Chanterelle is not 

Corresponding to our names like Monks, Parsons, 
Reeves, which meant originally the monk's servant, 
the parson's son, etc., we find a number of French 
occupative names preceded by de or d, e.g. Dufaure, 
Augagneur. The word gagneur, contained in the name 
of the late French Minister of Marine, was used in Old 
French for any thriving worker. With this formation 
we may compare Aupritre, the origin of our AUfiress, 
which was in 1273 spelt Alprest (Hund. R.). In 1235 
Jordan le fiz Alprestre, i.e. Jordan the priest's son, 
was lodged in Nottingham gaol on an accusation of 
homicide {Pat. R.). 

Many of our occupative names represent obsolete 
trades and callings, e.g. Fletcher, the arrow-maker, 
Frobisher, the furbisher of armour, Catcbpole, the 
constable. So also we find among common French 
surnames FUchier, Laumonier (almoner, Amna), 
Verdier (forests), Larmuriar (Armour), Larbalestier 
(Arblaster, Alabaster). Or existing names are taken 
from archaic and dialect names for occupations, e.g. 
Meissonnier, the harvester (cf. our Mawer), Sabatier, 



the southern form of saveUer, a cobble, Lesueur, the 
shoemaker (Sutor), Molinier, the miller (MuUiner), 
Pellissier, the maker of fur cloaks (Pilcher), Lequeux, 
the cook, Ferron, the smi th (Fearon) , Grangier, 
the fanner (Granger), Lemire, the physician (Myer), 
MarilUer, the churchwarden, Perrier, the quanyman, 
Teissier, the weaver, and many more. 

On French nicknames, as on English, a very big 
book could be written. There is no name of bird or 
beast, no epithet, complimentary or spiteful, but 
usually the latter, which has not been used to form a 
surname. Some are of incredibly fantastic formation, 
others of unquotable grossness. Here I will only 
mention some which are connected with famous men, 
or which are of special interest at the present moment. 
To begin with. President PoincaH's name means 
" square fist," an honest sort of weapon, which is at an 
initial disadvantage against the mailed, or knuckle- 
duster, variety. By an odd coincidence two of General 
Joffre's ablest lieutenants, Maud'kuy and Maunoury, 
bear ancient nicknames of identical meaning. Maud'kuy 
is an artificial spelling of the common name Mauduit, 
William Mauduit was Chamberfain to the Conqueror 
and founded the Mawdiit family. The name is 
derived from Lat. male dodus, ill taught, by which 
it is commonly rendered in medieval documents. 
Maunoury is from mal-nourri, where nourri has its 
Old French sense of reared, educated.' The opposite 
Biennaurry also exists and corresponds to the well- 
known German name Wolzogen (tuohl erzogen). The 
name Ecorcheville has also woo honour in the war. 

> It may also have the modem meaning ; cf. William Weltefedd 
(F. ot y. 1397). 

D,g,t,.?<i I,, Google 


It is a mild alteration of the medieval Escorcfaevieille, 
skin old woman, a very brutal nickname, with numerous 
parallels in French and English (seep. 256). CI the 
existing surname Pellevillain, flay serf (p. 257). Names 
formed in this way from a verb are very common in both 
languages. Cf. French Ckasseloup, hunt wolf, whence 
our deceptive Catchlove, Ckassepot, not the pot-hunter, 
but the seeker after gratuitous meals, Gardebois, the 
"woodward," Fatout {fac-toium). or our own Shake- 
speare, Golightly, Doohttle, etc. 

The simpler kinds of nicknames formed directly 
from adjectives or nouns are generally accompanied 
by the article, e.g. Lebas (Bass), Lebel (Bell), Lerouge 
(Rudge), Larousse (Rouse), Latgle (Eagle), Leveau 
(Veal), Lesturgeon (Sturgeon). When an adjective 
and noun are combined, the article is more often 
omitted, e,g. Bonvallet (Goodhind), Petigas (Littleboy), 
Blanchemain (Whitehand), though it is also found in 
such names, e,g. I.epetitcorps (Lightbody). Adjective 
nicknames also form innumerable derivatives. In 
English we have the name Jolly and its older form 
Joliffe. French has Joly, Joliot, Jolivard, Jolivaud, 
Jotivet, etc., while the derivations of Bon, such as 
Bonnard, Bonnet, Bonneait, Bonnel, Bonneteau, etc., 
run into dozens. This applies also to a less extent to 
names derived from animals. Corresponding to our 
Bull, Bullock, we have not only French Lebceuf, but also 
Bouvet, Bouvot, Bouvelet, Bouvard, Bouveau, though 
some of these may also be formed from the occupative 
name Bouvier (Buller). 

To sum up, French surnames are very like English, 
the chief points of difference being the retention of 
prepositions and the article, the common decapitation 



of baptismal names, and the extraordinary power of 
multiplication by means of diminutive suffixes. There 
is also hardly a well-established French name which 
is not found in England, whether it " came over with 
the Conqueror," was imported during the Middle Ages, 
at the Huguenot migration, or in quite recent times. 
And, generally speaking, the earher its introduction, 
the greater will be its divergence from the modem 
French form and the difficulty of establishing their 

Those interested in this harmless amusement will 
find pastime, and perhaps some profit, in analysing 
any group of well-known French names. If we take, 
for instjmce, the chief writers associated with the 
golden a^e of French literature, viz, Descartes, Pascal, 
Malebranche, Corneille, Racine, Moliire, La Fontaine, 
Bossuet. Bourdaloue, La Bruyire. La Rochefoucauld. 
and the already explained Boileau and MassiUon, we 
shall find that they can all be assigned, though in some 
cases conjecturally, to one of the four groups. Pascal 
is a baptismal name associated with the Easter festival, 
and Corneille is probably from Comehus, though it 
may be a nickname (Crowe). Obvious local names 
are La Fontaine and La Bruyire (Moore), while La 
Rochefoucauld is from the rock fortress of Foucauld,^ 
the old Teutonic Folcwald, or ruler of the people. 
Descartes is probably local, from OF. quarte, a certain 
area in the outskirts of a town, and Bourdaloue looks 
like a corruption of bord de I'eau (Bywater). Racine 
is much commoner in France than the corresponding 
Root in England. Moliire, the name adopted by 

* " The Frencli submarine Fotiemttt sank cm Anstrian croiaar in 
the nei^bonrhood of Cattaro " (Renter, Jan. 15, 1916). 

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Jean-Baptiste Poquelin, is Old French for a qiaarry 
from which mill-stones are obtained. MaUbranche 
is an uncomplimentary nickname of the same type as 
Malherhe or the Itahan Malas-pina, and Bossu^ means 
the little hunchback. 

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" 9a ob6it mt^Dibqnement, surtoat tax. ordies appojrte de conps 
de bottes " (Clauds Farrbrk). 

German surnames, like English and French, are of 
four origins. They may be baptismal, local, occupa- 
tive, or nicknames. Taking as examples four names 
famous in literature, Codhe, like his hero Goetz, is an 
abbreviation of one of the numerous Old German names 
in God, e.g. Gottfried (Godfrey, Jeffrey), GoUhardt 
(Goddard), etc., Hans Sachs was of Saxon descent, 
the ancestors of Schopenhauer were "hewers" of 
" scoops," and Schiller is a Swabian form of SchieUr,^ 
squinter. As is natural in the case of a language so 
closely aUied to our own, many German names, in fact 
the great majority, not only correspond in meaning 
but also in form with English names. If Herr von 
Bethmann-HoUweg were an Englishman, he would 
be Mr. Bateman-HoUovay. Similarly, the famous 
general whose name is borne by the elusive Goeben 
would have been in EngUsh Gubbins, both names going 
back by devious ways to GoflAf«/tf, God bright (Godber). 
Of the four classes of surnames the oklest is that 

* Cf. our Shttl, originalty a Norse nickname, the sqainter [Sc«a] 
i. Colbain, Lib. K«(.] 

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which is composed of baptismal names, sometimes 
surviving in full, but generally made almost unrecog- 
nizable by all manner of abridgement, mutilation, and 
dialect variation. The correspondence of theseTeutonic 
dilhemetic names with those of Greece has already 
been noticed (p, 27). Other examples are Dietrich, 
people powerful, i.e. Demosthenes, Ludwig, glorious 
fight, i.e. Clytomachus, Vilmar, greatly famous, i.e. 
Pericles, Conrad, bold counsel, i.e. Thrasybylus. In 
process of time these musical names of heroic meaning, 
such as Eberhard, boar strong (Everett), GUrUher, battle 
army (Gunter), Megenhard, might strong (Maynard), 
/f «^«W, bright counsel(Hubbard),iid»MAcW, fame ruling 
(Rumbold), etc., have often been reduced to cacopho- 
nous monosyllables distinguished by great economy of 
vowels. Still, unattractive as their present form may 
be, these names belong to the oldest period of the race, 
and Bugge, Bopp, Dietz, Dankl, and Kluck have as 
much right to look down on most of their polysyllabic 
neighbours as our own Bugg, Bubb, etc., on such up- 
starts as Napier, Pomeroy, Percy, and Somerset, for 
are they not the modem representatives of the heroic 
Burghart, castle strong, Bodebrecht, rule bright, Dietrich, 
people mighty, Dankwart, reward guardian, and Cklodth 
wig,* glorious victory ? 

Dankl, the Austrian genera], and the redoubtable 
Kluck illustrate the two chief ways of forming 
diminutives of German names, the essential element of 
such diminutives being / in the south and k in the north. 
Other examples zreBebel (Badbrecht), Handel(Hando)f), 
Hebbel (Hadubrecht), Ranke (Randolf), Tieck (Theo- 
bald), etc. Another very common ending is z, or sch, 

1 Heiic« Ludwig, Clovis, Louig. 

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and often these elements are combined in one and the 
same name. This appears in the names of the two 
teachers of modem Germany, Nietzsche and Treitschke, 
I have seen it stated that both these sa^es viert of 
Slavonic origin, their names being quoted in support 
of the statement. Without knowing anything of tbdr 
genealogy, I have no hesitation in statmg their names 
to be pure German. It is not unfitting that the crazy 
degenerate who loathed his own nation and succeeded 
in sending it mad should have a name which is the 
diminutive of Neid, envy, the first element in Niedkardi, 
envy strong, while Treitschke goes back also appro- 
priately to Drt4di or Tkrudr, one of the Walkyries, or 
" death choosers." 

The third of the illustrious trio, Bernhardi, belongs 
to a different group, and incidentally, the regular 
collocation of his name with those of a madman of genius 
and of a considerable scholar must surprise even him- 
self. When the full baptismal n2ime becomes a sur- 
name in German, it usually does so in an unaltered 
form. Genitives such as Peters and patronymics such 
as Mendelssohn (son of Immanuel), Mackensen (son of 
Mack), are not common, and are usually of Low German 
origin. Thus we generally find simply Arnold, Hilde- 
brand, Oswald, etc. But in a large number of cases a 
latinized form of the genitive occurs, so that Bern- 
hardt, which I have seen explained as Itahan, is a 
survival of some such name as Johannes filius Bern- 
hard* ; cf, such names as Bartholdy. Henrici, Jacoby, 
Matihaei, Nicolai, etc. 

In the case of the non-German names which came 
in with Christianity, as often as not the last syllable 
has survived instead of the first, e.g. Hans from 

D,g,t,.?<i I,, Google 


Johannes, Klaus from Nicolaus, Mobius from Bartholo- 
mseus, Bastel from Sebastian, Grethe from Margarete, 
and these shortened forms lend themselves to frirther 
endless variations. Hans, like our John, is so common 
as to need qualification. I once Uved in Switzerland 
in a house which contained three of the name, who for 
purposes of distinction were known as Johannes, 
Hans, and Hensli. So, corresponding to our Mickle- 
john, Littlejohn, etc. {p. 242), we find in German not 
only Aldejohann, Jungjohann, Grossjohann, Liiijens, 
etc., but also Langhans, KUinhans, Guthans, Schwarz- 
hatts, and many more. But this subject is endless, and 
space only allows of the above brief indications. 

Names of local origin may range from an empire to 
a tree, and may be either nouns or adjectives, e.g. 
Oestreich, Preuss, SckoUldnder, Polack, Czech, Elsdsser, 
Hess, Flemming, Bremer (from Bremen), Kammerich 
(Cambrai). Backhaus* (Backhouse), Fichte (fir), Beer- 
bohm {Low German for pear-tree), Griinewald (Green- 
wood), Kreuz (Cross), Eck (Comer), etc. More often 
than in English such names are accompanied by the 
endings -er arid -mann (cf. our Bridger, Bridgman). 
hence Berger (Mountain), Brunner (Fountain), Kappler 
(Chappell), Heinemantt (Grove), Winckelmann (Comer), 
Hoffmann (Stead), etc. 

It is probable that the majority of modem German 
surnames are of local origin, ea,sily recognized by such 
characteristic endings as -dm, originally island, now 
wet meadow-land, as in Gneisenau; -horst, wood (Hurst), 
as in Schamhorst ; -ow, a Slavonic ending often con- 
fused with -a«, as in Biilow, Jagow ; -itz, also Slavonic, 


D,g,t,.?<i I,, Google 


rirpitz; -brUck, bridge, as in Delbriick; -stein, 
as in Bieberstein ; -hain, hedge, grove (Hayne), as 
flkenhayn ; -dorf, village {Thorp), as in Bernsiorff ; 
g, castle {Burrough), as in Dernburg, Hindenburg ; 
-fettt, clearing (Royd), as in Kalckreut ; -berg, mountain 
(Barrow), as in Gutenberg, and many others. But the 
study of these names belongs to topography. As in 
the corresponding English names we come across many 
obsolete and dialect words, such as Kamp or Kampf, 
an early lojm from Lat. campus, whence Rennenkampf , 
race-course, a German name borne by a Russian 
general, and Kuhl, pool, so that Baron KuMmann, 
late of London, is a German Pullman. In many 
cases surnames of local origin are still preceded hy 
prepositions and the article (for English examples 
see pp. 49-52), e.g.And^brugg, Vorderbrugg, Ingenohl,* 
a corruption of in dent Ohl, a dialect name for a 
tract of good agricultural land, Biedenweg (Bythe- 
way), Vorbusck, Zumbusck, von der Heyde (Heath), 
wm der Tann (Pine), LG. ter Meer (Bythesea), etc. 
. 1 his brings us to the question of von, so grievously 
misused by writers on the war, some of whom ought 
to know better. This preposition simply means 
"of" and was originally put with nearly all local 
surnames. It is still so used in some parts of Switzer- 
land, where I have had my boots mended and my 
shirts washed by vons dating back to the Middle Ages. 
It gradually dropped, hke the del, de la, etc., which we 
find in our own medieval Rolls ; but, corresponding 
to our own Delmar, Delafield, Delamoor, etc. (p. 51), 
we find a few survivals, such as von der Tann, von der 

> Adnuiftl von Ingoaohl was succeeded by Adminl voo Pohl 

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GoUz,^ von der Heyde, etc., in which the retention is 
generally due to the ennobling of these famines. As 
von came to be recognized as the nobiUary prefix, it 
got added to names of all descriptions. For instance, 
the name of Lieutenant von Forstner, renowned for his 
epic onslai^ht on the lame cobbler of Saverne, merely 
means Forster (forester), and Colonel von RetUer, who 
commanded the regiment involved, has one of the 
commonest of German names, meaning a " clearer of 
land." related to Baireu/, Wemigercufe, the Rfi/U, etc. 
So we find von Schmidt, von Kletnschmitt, von Muller, 
von Zimmermann (Carpenter), von Kettler (Tinker), 
von Bernhardt, von Kluck, von Moll/te, the last name 
being a diminutive of the same class as Kluck, possibly 
from Matilda ; cf . our Mault, Mould. 

Now, it is curious that we English, who never dream 
of saying von Bismarck, which would be excusable 
in the case of a territorial name (the bishop's mark or 
frontier), will insist on von Moltke, von Kluck, etc., 
which, in German, is a vulgarism only committed by 
the sort of people who in English address letters to 
" Mr. Smith, Esquire," or refer to a clergyman as 
" the Rev. Jones." Of course when the full title is 
given, the von is used, e.g. General von Kluck, Herr 
von Jagow, but otherwise it should always be omitted. 
The exception is a name hke von der Tann, including 
the article, where the von is original and logical. The 
Germans have a cruiser called the von der Tann, but 

I I can find no trace in Old German of this word nsed as a topo- 
graphical term, but in a German document of the year 1300 dealing 
with a grant of land occurs the word GoUnoeg. Professor Fiedler, 
of Oxford, ingeniauHly saggeats to me that this may be MHO. goitt. 
pair of breeches (Lat. catcta), applied to a fork in the road. 

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the Gneisenau, Scharnhorst, MoUke, and BtOcher 
appear, or did when this chapter was written, without 
the particle. 

Many corresponding Dutch names in van are well 
estabUshed in Englaiid, e.g. the obvious Vandam, 
Vandervdde, Vandersteen, while the more aristocratic 
Vansittart is from the Netherland town Sittard. Some- 
times it combines with the article to produce the prefix 
Ver- as in Vereker (acre), VerschoyU {scHuyl, shelter). 

Occupative names are in German more numerous 
than in English. This is due to the national tendency 
to elaborateness of description and differentiation. 
We are generally satisfied with the simple -er, but, 
corresponding to our Baker, we find in German not 
only Becker or Beck, but also Kuckenbecker (cake), 
Weichbecker (soft), Pfannebecker (pan), Semmelhecker 
(simnel), Weissbecker (white), and many others. So 
also the German compounds of Schmidt far exceed in 
numb^ those of Smith. We find, among others, 
BUchschmidt (tin), Kupferschmied (copper), Silber- 
schmidt, Stahlschmidt, Hackenschmidt (hoe), Hujschmidt 
(Shoesmith), Schaarsckmidt (Shearsmith), SicheU 
Schmidt, Dorfschmidt. Rosenschmidt (at the sign of the 
Rose), and about twenty more. But the commonest 
of all such elements is Meyer, farmer, the compounds 
of which number some hundreds. 

Also we find a great number of names in -macher,*' 
e.g. Radermacher (Wheeler), Sattelmacher (Sadler), 
Schleiermacher (veil), Wannemacher (bath) ; in -^esser, 

I Namea of tbis type were once mncli commoner in English (see 
p.3a6, «. I). Tlieybavegenerally been simplified, e.g. Robert le Jese- 
makei (Hund, R.) is now represented by Jtiser. Dutch generally 
adds -t to occupative names, e.g. Rathmatitrt (Wheeler). 



.founder, e.g. Kannengiesser, Potgieter ; in -binder, e.g. 
Biesenbdnder (besom), Fassbeftder (cask), now appearing 
in the London Directory in the proverbial form Fast- 
binder, Buehbinder, Biirstenbinder (brush) ; in -Schneider, 
cutter, tailor, e.g. Brettschneider (board), Riemen- 
schneider (thong), Steinschneider ; in -hauer, hewer, 
e.g. Steinhauer (Stanier), Fleisckhauer (Flesher), Holz- 
hauer; in -brenner, e.g. Aschenbrenner (Ashbumer), 
Kalckhrenner ; in -schldger, striker, e.g. Kesselschldger, 
LatUenschliger (lute) ; in -meister, e.g. Sutermeister 
(Lat. sutor), Backmeister (bake), Werckmeisier (Fore- 
man) ; and in -mann, e.g. Sitdermann (Lat. sutor), 
Schumann. The obsolete worthe, wright, survives in 
both Schubert and Schuchardt. To these may be added 
a few other odd compounds, such as Biengrdber, one 
who digs out wild bees, Gildemeister, guild master, 
FUrbringer, " fore-bringer," i.e. attorney, Schwerdt- 
feger, sword polisher (Frobisher), SetdensUcker , silk 
embroiderer, Saltsieder, salt boiler, MussoHer, jam 
boiler, Weissgerber, white tawer (Whittier), Letm- 
kHMer, glue cooler. As in England, some of the com- 
moner surnames of this class are from words now obso- 
kte. or refer to obsolete trades, such as Schroder. 
Schroter, Schroer, tailor (shredder), Kiirschner, maker 
of pelisses (Pilcher), KrUger, innkeeper, etc. 

Forming a transition from the occupative surname 
to the nickname, we have those names which are 
indicative of rank, office, etc., and which are seldom 
to be taken literally.' We And the same series in 
German as in otbo* European languages, viz. amcmg 
titles. Kaiser, Konig, Fiirst and Prinz, Herzog, with its 
Low G^man form Hartog, Graff {Markgraff, Landgraff), 
* See cliap. x. 

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Ritter, Junker. Of a more official character are KaniUr 
(Chancellor), Richter (Judge), Probst (Provost), Vogt 
(Lat, vocatus), corresponding to our Bailey, MarschaU, 
Hauptntann,Faehndrich(ens\gTi),Burgermeister. Among 
ecclesiastical nicknames are Papst, Bisckoff, AH, 
Pfaff, Monch, Koster (Sexton). Such names as Artn~ 
bruster (Arblaster), SchtUz (Archer), Bartenwerffer, 
axe-thrower, may have been of occupative origin or 
nicknames due to the skill of their original owners. 
Some interesting surnames are of domestic origin. 
Such is Knecht, which has gone down in the world as its 
Enghsh cognate. Knight, has gone up. with its com- 
pounds, Gutknecht (Goodhind) and Liehknecht. Other 
names of this class are the very common Koch, Schenk, 
butler, " skinker," Hofmeister, steward, head-servant, 
Schatzmann, treasurer, Wackier, watchman (Waite), 
with its compoimd Saalwdchter (Hallward). 

It is possible within the limits of a chapter to give 
only brief indications for nicknames, in many ways 
the most interesting of all surnames. In German we 
find the equivsdents of all oiu: own common surnames 
of this class, tt^ether with a number of examples of 
a grotesqueness rare in modem Enghsh. The exist- 
ence of this latter class is partly due to the fact that 
German surnames, at least in some provinces, became 
hereditary at a much later date than in England, so 
that local wit has had less wear and tear to endure, 
and also to the fact that absurd names were often 
conferred forcibly on the Jews as late as the b^inning 
of the nineteenth century. These latter I leave out 
of account. All the ordinary adjectives occur, e.g. 
Gross, Klein, Lang, Kurtz, Sckwarz, Weiss, Roth, GrUn, 
Hiibsch (Pretty), HessUch (ugly), Freeh, bold (FrraJte), 

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Vrey, Kahl, bald (CaUow), Kluge (Wise), Liebe (Leif). 
Ehrlich, honest, FrohUch {Merry), Wunderlich,* etc. 
The article which once accompanied these names has 
often survived in the Low Gennan forms, e,g, de Witt 
(White), DevtietU (Friend), de Beer (Bear), de Hoogh 
(High), etc. Most names of relationship also occur, e.g. 
Voter, Kind, SUsskind, LiebesHnd (Leifchild), with the 
compound Kindesvater (Bamfather), VeUer (Cousins), 
Neef (Neave), BritUigatn, Ohm (Eames), WiUwer. 

Compounds descriptive of appearance are Breitkopf 
(Broadhead), Grosskopf (Greathead), Krauskopf. 
Kraushaar (Crisp), Gelhaar (Fairfox), Schwartzkopf ' 
(Blackett), Widderkop (Ramshead, Weatherhead), and 
similar compounds of the alternative Haupt, such as 
Breiihaupt, etc., Barfuss (Barfoot), Katzfuss, Breitfuss 
(Broadfoot), Leichtfuss (Lightfoot), Langbein (Lang- 
bain), Krummbein (Cruikshank), Rehbein, roe leg (cf. 
Sheepshanks), Holbein (hollow), Gansauge, goose-eye, 
Diinnebacke, thin cheek, Dickhaut, thick hide, Harnack, 
obstinate (hard neck). Sometimes the physical feature 
is emphasized without an accompanying adjective, e.g. 
Havpt. Kopf (Head), Faust (Fist), Zahn (Tooth). From 
costume come Mantel, Weissmantel, Ledderhose,* Lein- 
hos, Beckenhube (Basnett), Rothermel, red sleeve. Panzer, 
hauberk (Habershon), and many others. 

Birds, beasts, and fishes are well represented, especi- 
ally birds, e.g. Adler (Eagle), Geyer, vulture. Fink, 
Strauss, ostrich, Storch, Pfau (Peacock), Elster (Pye), 

1 a. Nichdas le Merveleus [PtU. R.). 

■ It is coiious tliBt the Gennans use ths SchwartikopS totpedo 
and we the Whitehead. 

* Cf . John Letheihose {Hund R.), Richard Goldhose (ib.). and the 
famous Ragnar Lodbrog, hairy breeches. 

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Falcke, Habicht (whence Habsbui^), Hahn (Cock), 
Rebhuhn (Partridge), Specht, wood-pecker (Speight), 
Taube, though this last, hke Taubmann, may bek)ng to 
taub, deaf, Wildegans (WiMgoss), etc. These, like the 
corresponding EngUsh surnames, were sometimes 
taken from the signs of houses. The same applies to 
animal nicknames such as Lowe, Wolff, Fuchs, LG, 
Voss, Hase (Hare), Eichorn (Squirrel), Hirsch (Hart), 
Kalb, Schaff, etc. Among fish-names may be mentioned 
Hecht (Pike), Kaulbars (Perch), Stockfisch, Krebs 
(Crabbe), but these names are, for obvious reasons, 
less numerous than those of birds and quadrupeds. 

The two smallest classes of nicknames are those 
connected with coins and exclamations, represented in 
English by such names as Penny (p. 177) and Pardee 
(p. 182). Both classes exist in German, e.g. Hundert- 
mark (cf. Mrs. Centhvre), Pfundkeller, Weisspfennig, 
Schilling, Fiinfschilling, FiinfsiUck. and GcttbehiU. God 
forbid, Gotthelf, Gottwaltz, God rule it. With these may 
be mentioned a number of abstract nouns which 
. probably became surnames at the period of the pre- 
dominance of allegory (see p. 217). such are Freude 
(Joy), Glttck (Luck), Dienst (Service), Andacht (Wor- 
ship), Wohlfart (Welfare), etc. 

All the seasons are represented, viz, Fruhling or Lem, 
Sommer, Herbsi (Harvest), and Winter, also most of the 
days of the week, the commonest being Sonntag and 
Freyiag, and the feasts of the church, e.g, Ostertag, 
Pfingst (Pentecost), Weiknacht (Christmas). Then we 
have descriptive compounds such as Wolxogen, well- 
bred, Ansorg, Ohnesorg, Kleinsorg (Careless), /udeti- 
feind, Jew-hater, Burenfeind, peasant-hater, Siissen- 
gutk, sweet and good (cf . Peter Richeangod, Pat. R.) ; 

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some names taken from the v^etable world, e.g. 
Knohloch (Garlick), Wermuth (Wormwood), Rubsamen. 
rape-seed, Siroh (Straw), Erbstaehl, pea>meal, Gersten- 
kom (Barleycorn), etc. ; and quite a number dealing 
with articles of food, usually preceded by an adjec- 
tive, e.g. Siissmilch, Sauerbrei (broth), and especially 
the num^ous compounds of Brot and Bier, such as 
Weissbrodtiy^\\i\hieA&),Casembrood, cheese and bread, 
Roggenbrod (rye), Truckenbrod (dry), etc., and Gutbier, 
Bosbier, Sauerbier, Zuckerbier, etc., most of which have 
Ei^lish parallels. 

Lastly, we have the targe group of phrase-names, con- 
sisting of a verb followed by a noun or an adverb, such 
as our Shakespeare and Golightly (ch. xii). There 
are probably several hundreds of these in German, 
almost all of which can be paralleled by modem English 
names, or by others which, though recorded in our 
Rolls, are now obsolete. Some of these are warUke, 
e.g. Sck&Uespeer (Shakespeare), Haueisen (Taillefer), 
Hauenschtld, Zttckschwerdt, draw sword,' occasionally 
with the verb following, as in Eisenbeiss (Mangefer), 
Manesse, man-eater, ogre. Sporleder, spur leather, 
■was probably a Hotspur, RumschoUel* clear dish, a 
glutton, Irrgang a wanderer, Liesegang a Golightly. 
Regedanz, start dance, and Liebetanz explain themselves. 
Putikamer, clean room, was a Chamberlain, Common 
surnames belonging to this class are KUnkhammer, 
Pochhammer and Schwingkammer, Schnapauff, snap up, 
Schlagentweit, strike into the distance, Fiillgrabe, fill 
ditch, FuUkrug (Filpot), Mackeprang, make show, 
Kiesewetter, discern weather, Kerruth, turn out, Hebe- 

> Cf. Henry Drawoswenl [Hund. R.) 

* CI. TenicDS Wide-escnele, i.e. vitU letulU (PacLnio). 

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streit, start quarrel (cf. p. 254, «. 2), Habenicht, have 
noi^ht, Furchtenicht, fear nought, Findetsen, find iron, 
Schluckehier , swallow beer, Schmeckebier, taste beer, 
^Trinkwasser (Drinkwater), etc. With these ci the 
obsolete English examples on pp. 270-7. 

In conclusion, it may be said that there is simply 
no limit to the eccentricity of nicknames, though their 
interpretation is often a matter of conjecture. The 
G^man name Alleweldt,'^ all the world, has Middle 
English parallels Tutlemund and Altheworld. It is 
hard to see why a man should be nicknamed Lindequist, 
lime tw^ {originally Swedish), but this well-known 
German name is surpassed in minuteness by the French 
name Brindejonc. The names mentioned in this chapter 
all come, with the exception of a few of special interest 
at the present moment, from a recent German navy 
list and are in no way to be regarded as peculiar or 
exceptional.' A few other miscellaneous examples 
from the same source are Rohwedder (Fouweather, 
P- 235, ». i), Trwrm'/, grieve not, Af(ig£?e/rflM, maid wife, 
Ehrenkdnig, honour the King, Vogelgesang, Morgenr<4 
(Dawn), Kr&nzlin (Garland), Hufnagel (Horsnail). 
BuUersack (see p. 167), Luchterhand, left hand,' Neunxig 
(see p. 179). Hockgeschurz, high kilted, Handewerh, 
Gutjahr (Goodyear), Hiinerfiirst, prince of Huns, Teufel 
' In Middle High German this phrase seems to have been used 
as ao exclamation of joy and wonder. Waltber von der Vogelweide, 
when after long waiting he received a fief from the Kaiser of hia day 
(izzo), commenced his hymn of thanks with the line — 

" Ich ban min lehen, ai die warlt I iCh han min lehen." 
* Host of them enjoy Uie hospitality of Uie London Commercial 
Dinetory (1913)- 

■ Cf . Sinister, OF. senesire, left-banded, awkward [Simon Senestre, 
of Dieppe, CU>s* if.]. Lefthand is a ME. name. 



and its compound Manteuffel, man devil, the latter 
an honourable name in German military history before 
the destruction of Louvain. 

At the period of the Renaissance it was a very usual 
practice for men of learning to latinize or hellenize their 
names. The case of Melanchthon will occur to the 
reader. We have a few examples in English, e.g. 
Torrens (Brook), Pontifex (Pope), StUor, shoemaker, 
etc. Such names are much commoner in German. 
Well-known examples are Neander (Neumann), Sarh- 
ander (Fleischmann), Treviranus (of Trier), Curtius 
(Kurz), Vulpius (Fuchs), Fabricius (Schmidt), Pistorius 
(Becker), Avenarius (Habermann), Textor (Weber), 
Sartorius (Schneider). There is actually a Gygas 
in the list from which I have compiled this chapter. 
Even the Brown, Jones, and Robinson of Germany, viz. 
Mailer, Meyer, and SchuUz, sometimes appear glorified 
as Molinari, Agricola, and Pratorius, and there is a 
contemporary Prussian court chaplain Dryander whose 
ancestors were named Eichmann. 

D,g,t,.?<i I,, Google 



" En histoire, il faut w iteoudie A beancoup ignoier " 

(Anatolb Francs). 

An esteemed correspondent writes to the author that, 
owing to the many and various side-possibilities in 
etymology, he is inclined to think that the origins 
of most surnames are mere guesses, and that the whole 
study can only be regarded as a game or an amusement. 
He seems to me both right and wrong. It is perfectly 
easy to show, by irrefutable evidence, the derivation 
of the great majority of surnames, but it is at the 
same time impossible to say to the individual, " Your 
name comes from so-and-so," unless that individual 
has a pedigree dating back to the Middle Ages. To 
take a simple example, there can be no doubt as to 
the origin of the three names Cordery, rope-walk 
[John de la Corderie, Cal. Gen^, Cordurey, king's heart 
[Hugh Queorderey, Fine R.], Cowdery, Fr. coudraie, 
hazel copse [William de la Coudray, »6.]. But to any- 
one familiar with medieval orthography it is quite 
certain that these three names have been commonly 
confused, especially when borne by the peasant class,and 
there are modem variants such as Caudery, Cordaray, 

D,g,t,.?<i I,, Google 


Cowderoy, which one would be shy of assigning definitely 
to either of the three etymons. Hence we may say 
that, in the matter of the individual name, etymological 
certainty is possible, while genealogical certainty is 
'problematical. Moreover, there are many common 
names which have several well-attested etymologies, 
and others that have a subsidiary origin which would 
never occur to superficial observation. 

What, for instance, could be simplo- than Butcher, 
Child, Cross, Harrison, Nicholl, Stone, Wills, and 
Wood ? Yet each of these has been reinforced from 
sources only known to the scientific exptorer. Butcher 
has nearly absorbed Butchart, a common Middle Engtish 
font-name. Which comes to us via Old French from 
OG. Bujghart, castle strong. This would become 
Butcher as inevitably as Punchard,^ Fr, Ponsard [Simon 
Ponzard, Fine R.], has given Puncher. Child is occa- 
sionally local [Margery atte Child, Pat. R., Suss,, 
Thomas AttechiM, Hund. R., Kent]. This is the 
Norse keld, a spring, as in Salkeld, whence SawkiU, 
which in the south took the form " child." Hence also 
Honeychild,' trom a spot in Romney Marsh, Cross, 
usually local, is also a nickname [Robert le Cros, ipM.], 

> Hence also Pinkhard oi PinktU {cf. Everard, Evsrett) and 
IHnktr. Cf. Pinktrton from Pontchordon (Ome) [William do 
Pontcardnn, Fine R.], 

■ Apparently " honey ^riog." There are a good many lumea in 
Honty-, some from specific place-names, e.g. Hontybottmt (Hoiuybun, 
Humiybun), Hotuychurck, Honeycomb, and otbera, e.g. Hontysitt, 
Honeywell, Hontyamod, which correspond to no known locality. I 
have a suspicion that in some casea this Honey- is an alteration of the 
much more natural Holy-, a phonetic change common in both place- 
names and nmamea. The EDD. gives " Honeyfathers ! " as an 
expression of snrpiise used in Yorkshire, and exfdains it as " sweet 
saints." Is it not rather " holy saints " i 

D,g,t,.?<i I,, Google 


an alteration of Fr. gros.' Harrison has swallowed up 
the medieval nickname hirisson, hedge-h<^ [William 
Herizun, Testa de Nev.']. Hence also Hearson, while 
Harsum, Hearsom, Hersom may belong here or to the 
ME. hearsum, ready to hear, obedient. By an odd 
metathesis the Normans transformed Lincoln into 
Nicol.of veryaammon occurrence in medieval chronicles, 
hence Nickoll, Nicoll is often local [Alured de Nicol, 
Close R., Thomas de Nichole, Hund. R.]. Stone, 
usually local, is sometimes short for one of the Anglo- 
Saxon names in Stan-, such as Stancytel, Stangrim, 
Stanheard. etc. [Robert Ston, Ramsey Cart.]. This 
applies also of course to Slanes, Staines. Wills is 
sometimes a variant of Wells [John atte Wille, Pat. RJ]. 
Hence Aiwill, Honeywill, Twills (p. 50), Wood is 
often a nickname from the obsolete wood, mad [Peter 
le Wod, Pat. R., Robert le Wode, Close R.] ; cf. Robert 
le Madde {Lane. Court R. 1323-4), Ralph Badintheheved 
[Hund. R.). This is also one origin of Woodman; 
cf. Alexander Wodeclerc {Close R.), i.e. the crazy 
priest, and Walter Wodeprest [Mahnesbury Abbey 
Reg.). Wallis, Welch, etc., may occasionally mean 
French, as the early Norman settlers before the Con- 
quest were called walisc by the English (see Romance 
of Words, p. 151). Even the ubiquitous and simple 
Smith is sometimes local, of the smeeth, or plain (see 
Athersmith, p. 50), and is also a nickname, the 
" smooth " [Phihp le Smethe, Hund. R.]. Cf. Smeath- 
man. It need hardly be said that some Thompsons 
come from Thompson (Norf.), an ocample of 's ton 

> Hence also the adj. eoarst, eailiest form eors, a metatbesia of 
erat. Every shade of meaning in which mmtm is employed has & 
parallel in grosi and Fr. grot. 

D,g,t,.?<i I,, Google 


becoming -son (see p. 340), while others represent the 
baptismal dims. Thomasin, Thomasine [Barthobmew 
Thomasyn, City F.]. 

These examples show sufficiently that even the 
simplest and commonest surnames are sometimes less 
simple than they look. But in some cases the multi- 
plicity or choice of origins is quite obvious. The 
common name Burnett may be (i) baptismal, for Bur- 
nard, Bernard, AS. Beomheard, (2) a nickname, dim. 
of brown, or from the material called iwnd (see p. 154), 
(3) a nickname, "brown head" (see p. 128). (4) local, 
at the " bum head," cf. Beckett, (5) local, at the " bum 
gate" (see p. 91). It has also interchanged freely 
with Burnett, which is generally of identical origin. 
The rather less common Burnell may be for Beomweald 
[Simon Bemald, Pat. K.], Beomhild [Geoffrey Bumild, 
Hund. R.I, Beomwulf [Geoffrey Bumolf, Fine R.], 
from " bum hill" [Richard de Bumhul, Pat. i!.], or 
it may be a nickname from " brown " [Bumellus 
Venator, Doc. III.], in which sense it is used indiffer- 
ently with the preceding name [Alan Burnell or Burnet, 
Pat. H^. Probably in the case of these two names all 
the origins indicated are represented by the existing 
surname. But, if we take the rather uncommon Burret, 
we find that the possible etymolc^ies are hardly less 
numerous. Is it, for instance, for Burrard, from an 
Anglo-Saxon name in Burg-, such as Burgweard, Burg- 
hes^, Burgweald, all well attested in the Rolls, or for 
" boar head " [Robert Burheved, Fine R.], or for the 
" bower head " [Walter de la Burethe, Hund. R.} ? 
In the case of so uncommon a name it is probable that 
one only of these prototypes is represented. 

There Eire, however, many well-diffused names which. 



like Burnett, have several clear origins. Such is Low, 
generally local, at the " low," ' or mound [Ralph de la 
Lowe, Hund. R.], probably also at the " lough," and 
also a nickname, the wolf [William le Lou, CUy B.}. The 
existence of High and Bass shows that the entry " le 
lowe " is often for the English adjective, and Low is 
also one of the shortened forms of Lawrence ; hence 
Lowson. Drew is from the name Drogo, of uncertain 
origin [Drogo f. Ponz, DB.], and is also a nickname 
from OF, dru, which has two meanings, viz. "lover" and 
" sturdy ' ' [John le Dreu, Hund. R.]. It is occasionally 
an aphetic form of Andrew, Druce is the same as the 
above, from OF. Drues, the hom. case of the name 
Drogo, or for the patronymic Drews. It is also local, 
of Dreux (Eure-et-Loire), in which case it may repre- 
sent the name of the town [Herman de Drewes, DB.1 
or the adjective formed from it [Htigh le Drueis, Close 

Angell and Angle [Robert en le Aungle, Fine R.] 
have been confused, to the advantage of the former, 
which is both a pageant nickname (see p. 209) and a 
personal name [Angel Clericus, Malmesbury Abbey 
Reg.']. But these names also represent a contracted 
form of the Norse Ankettie [Henry Angetil or Angel, 
Pat. R.} ; cf. the contractions of Thurkettle (p. 31). 
Wynn has three origins, Welsh gwyn, white, fair, AS. 
iffine, friend, or the same word as an element in such 
personal names as Winfrey, Winward, etc. {p. 43.). Hogg 
is a nickname [Alice le Hog, Hund. R.], a variant of 
Hough* i.e. hill [Richard del Hog, Writs of Pari.'], a 

' In the north Law. 

■ Cf. Cape la Hogne and the hillock called Hooghe at the point 
of the famous Ypres salient. 

D,g,t,.?<i I,, Google 


variant of Hugh or How [Hogge the neldere. Piers 
Plowm., variant readings, Hugh the nedelere, Houwe 
the neWere ']. Ware is local for Weir, also from AS, 
wara, a common Domesday word used for an out- 
lying part of a manor,' and is a nickname, the " ware," 
or wary [Adam le War, Feet of Fines]— 

" A Sergeant ol the Lave, war and wys " (Chaua A. 309). 

There is also no reason why it should not come from 
vare, merchandise. Marchandise is a fairly common 
French surname and is found also in our records [Ralph 
Marchaundise, Northumb. Ass. R. 1256-78]. 

The above are simple cases which require no philo- 
logical knowledge. Less obvious is the double origin 
of the series Gale, Gales, Gall, Gaul, Gallon. The first 
is from " gaol " and the second from Wales, Fr. Galles, 
but all are also baptismal [John Gale. Pleas, Thomas 
Galyen, ib.], from an OF. Gal, Galon, which is OG. 
Walo, short for some name such as Walter. Both the 
G- and W- forms are found in Old French [Galo or 
Walo, Bishop of Paris, Ramsey Cart.]. Thus the above 
series of names are sometimes identical with Wale, 
Wales. Wall. Waule, Wallen [Richard f . Wale or Wales, 
Pipe ii.]. Gales has a further possible origin, of 
Gahcia [Piers GaUcien, Exch. R.. John de Galiz. ib.] — 

" Of tydyngea in Wales 
And of Sainct James in GalM " 

(Skelton, Btymntr Rummyng, 354). 

Similar cases are Gass, Gash, Gage, Gasson ' [Robert 

* See p. 166. 

■ See Roond, Ftudai England, pp. 113-7. 

* The foims In -ok are the Old French accnsative. 

D,g,„.«n„ Google 


Gace,' Pat. R.] for Wace. Wass. Wash, Wason. They 
come from OG. Waso, which belongs to the adj. 
hwas, sharp [Walter Wasce, Feet of Fines, Richard 
Wason, IpM.\ Forms of this adjective are still in 
Enghsh dial, use, and the name Wass is consequently 
also a nickname [Henry le Was, lpM.'\. Finally, like 
Wash, it is local, from ME. wase, ooze, pool, whence 
specifically the Wash [Richard atte Wase, Hund. R., 
Norf.], So also Gate, Gates may be identical with 
Waiie, i.e. watchman, from the OF, gfl»/« [Adam le Gay t 
w de la Geyte, ExcH. R.]. 

Less complicated are the four or%ins of Perry, (i) for 
Peter or Pierre, {2) for Peregrine, (3) for Welsh Parry, 
i.e. ap Harry, (4) local, at the pear-tree, ME. pirie, 
whence also Pirie, Pury [Alexander atte Pery,-Ciij' F,, 
Richard de la Pirie. Hund R:\— 

" And Uiaa I l«te hym sitte upon the pyrit. 
And Januaiie and May romynge myilo " 

(Chanc. E. 3217). 

There is scarcely a common surname, except those 
of easily understood frequency, like Baker, Green, 
Field, etc., which could not be dealt with in the same 
way, and, at the risk of wearying the reader, I will give 
a few more examples. Garland is certiiied as a nick- 
name by the synonymous Ger. Krantz, Krdnxl. 
It may have been taken from the sign of an inn — 

" The GarJMwl in little East Cbeape, sometime a brewtuHue" 

In the north it runs parallel with Garttand, i.e. the 
" garth land." It was also a personal name [Bartholo- 

> Manage rafen to Wace the chrcmider as Gasse. Swash is Qie 
same name with prefixed 5- [Guado or Swado de Limeriis, S0UA 

D,g,t,.?<i I,, Google 


mew f. Gerland, Pipe R.I, perhaps originally a nick- 
name from OF, graiUer, to cry hoarsely, croak, etc., 
which would explain its use as a dog's name in Chaucer. 
Cf. also Richard James called Greylond {Land. WiUs). 
The commonest source of Ray is probably OF, ret, a 
king. It is also for Rae, the northern form of the 
animal nickname Roe, and we cannot doubt that it is 
often for the local Wray (p. 84) and Ree (p. 71), and is 
also a costume nickname (p. 154). Swaftisa nickname 
[Hugh le Swon, Hund. R., Walter le Cigne, Close R.]. 
It also represents AS, swan, herdsman, which we have 
replaced by the Norse cognate swain. This word, 
in its poetic sense of warrior, was an element in 
personal names [Swan f, Robert, Fine R^. Finally, 
Henry atte Swan, of St. Osith, keeper of Queenhithe 
and collector of murage in London {P<a. R. 1319), 
was perhaps the owner of the hostelry which gave its 
name to Old Swan Pier. 

March is local, at the " march," or boundary, besides 
of course coming specifically from March (Camb.) or La 
Marche in France [Richard de la Maiche, hermit of 
Charing, Pat. R.]. It has also been confused with 
MarsA, which has got the better of the exchanges [John 
atte Marche or Mersshe, CUy £.], and is a variant of 
the font-name Mark [March Draper, CUy A., Mark le 
Draper, City C.]. Hann, Hancock, Hankin, Hanson 
are rightly connected by Bardsley with Flemish forms 
of John, Camden, with equal correctness, says that 
Hann is for Rxinn (Randolph) ; cf. Hob from Robert, 
Hick from Richard. But Hanne or Henry of Levnpol 
[Lane. Inq. 1310-33) shows a third, and perhaps chief, 
origin. The harassed reader will be tempted to conclude 
that any name can come from anything, nor will he be 



far wrong. I was lately asked whether Dobson was 
derived from the French place-name Aubusson, Thwe 
is no reason why it should not be, if it can be shown 
that any d'Aubussons ever settled in England. But 
Robert is a safer etymon. 

In the case of a great number of names we observe 
a simple double origin, without being able to r^ard 
either as predommant. Such are Agate, " atte gate " 
or Agatha, Rudge, Fr. rouge or dial, rudge, a ridge. 
Wild, " le wild " or " atte wilde," Coy, of Quy (Camb.) 
[John de Coye,' Pat. R., Camb.] or the " coy " [Walter 
le Coye, Pat. R.]. Agnew comes from Agneaux (Manche) 
[John de Aygneaus, Chart. R^ and is a nickname, Fr. 
agneau [Richard Agnel, Pat. R.] ; cf. the common 
French surnames Lagtuau, Lagnel, Laignel, Laignelet, 
etc. Vale is local and also horn Fr. veiUe, watch, while 
Veal is both OF. le viel. the old [Adam le Viel, Lib. R.] 
and le vel, the calf [Richard le Vel, City B.], and of 
course Vale and Veal are themselves now hopelessly 
mixed up. 

The above are simple examples in which the double 
origin appears on the sur&ce, but there are others less 
obvious. Gower is sometimes from the Glamorgan 
district so named [William de Goar, Pleas], but more 
often from a personal name G^hier [Goher de Alneto, 
Chart. R.], which comes through Old French from OG. 
Godehar ; it is thus a doublet of the native Goodier, 
Goodair, etc., AS. Godhere. The name has a possible 
third derivation from a shortened form of OF. goherier, 
a harness maker [Emald le Goher, Close R.\. With 
Gower may be mentioned Power, generally the " poor," 

' He weins to have been &a important penon. I find bim also 
M da Qnoye and do Queye. 

D,g,t,.?<i I,, Google 


but also from OF. PohUr. a Picard [Randulf Puherius, 
Pipe R., Roger le Poher, Fine Jf .], Tyson is ocplained 
by Bardsley as a form of Dyson,' from Dionysius or 
Diana, and, when we note the swarms of Tysons 
who. in Cumberland, Westmorland, and Lancashire, 
confront the innumerable Dysons of the West Riding, 
there can be no doubt that this is correct. But the 
first Tyson on record was Gilbert Tison (DB.), who 
came over with the Conqueror — 

" Gyabrigbt Tysonn iut le primer dea Tysonna " {Ptrey Cart.). 

His name was no doubt a nickname from Fr. tison, 
a firebrand ; cf. our Carbonnel and Fr, Charbonneau.' 
Mould, Mold, Moule are old forms of Maude. Stow 
mentions Henry Fitzwarin and "Dame Molde his 
wife," theparents of Lady Richard Whittington. But 
these names also represent dialect forms of the animal 
nickname Mole — 

" Paid the mould catcher, /a " {Nott. Bar. Ree. 1724). 

Bruton is local {Som.) and also for le Breton [John 
le Bnitun, Hund. R.] ; cf. Bruttner (p. zi6). Gibbons, 
usually from Gilbert or Gib, comes sometimes from 
Gobion (Gvbbins), an Old French name belonging to 

' Th« change Is common ; cf. Tmnyson and DenUon, both from 
Dionysiiis (Denis). The Welsh Denbigh and Tenby both represent 
the " Dane bye," 

' Our LiuUcoU is doubtful. It may be formed like Fr. PeHnicol. 
The Normans inherited from their Scandinavian ancestors a love 
of trivial and crude niclcnames, and some of the proudest names in 
English history are of undignified origin, e.g. Marmion, now found 
also as Mormon, Memunt, is OF. marmion, equivalent to modem 
marmot, monkey, brat. There is another OF. marmion, supposed 
to mean " marmot," but it is of no great antiquity and would not of 
course be a Norman name. 

D,g,t,.?<i I,, Google 


OG. Godbrecht. This is found as Noiman Gubiun 
[Richard Gubiun or Gibiun, Pleas] ; cf. ribbon, ruban. 
Similarly Higgins belongs perhaps as much to Hugh 
as to Hick (Richard), Gainer, Gaynor, Gunner is oc- 
cupative (see Augagneur, p. 287), and is also a variant 
form of Guinevere — 

" And Dame Gaynour, bis qveoe, 
Was somewtuit wanton, 1 wene " 

(SkBlton, PkyUyp Sparome. 636). 

Geary, Jeary is short for one of the Anglo-Saxon names 
in G(sr-, or from one of the cognate Old French names. 
As Geri it was the name of one of the paladins. It is 
occasionally a nickname [John le Gery, Hund. i?.], 
from an obsolete adjective meaning uncertain, change- 
able — 

" Right so kan gtry Venus overcasts " 
The bertes of hir folic ; right aa hir day 
Is gtreful, right so channgeth she airay " 

(Chauc A. 1535). 

Sometimes we find that an extremely rare name has 
more than one legitimate claimant. The name Godsave 
reached the author from a regimental mess, where the 
bearer was known as the " national anthMn." This 
interesting name, found also as Goisiff, represents 
the Middle EngUsh phrase " o' God's half," properly 
" on God's behalf," but generally used as a kind of 
exclamation. In one of the Chester Plays Noah says 
to his wife — 

" WiSe, come in I vhy standes thon their ? 
Thon art ever frowaide, I dare well sweare. 
Come in, om God»i halfi t tyme it were. 
For fear leste that wc dtowne." 

Thomas Agodshalf, whose name is latinized as de parte 


Dei, ' married a sister of Becket , Walter a GodeshaU lived 
in Sussex in the thirteenth century {Cust. Battle Abbey), 
de Godeshalf and Godsalve are found amot^ the 
Freemen of York, Thomas Godsalve, whose portrait 
by Holbein can be seen at Dresden, was Registrar of 
the Consistory Court of Norwich in the sixteenth 
century, Godsawfe is found in Notts in the seventeenth 
century, and in &ct the name is well attested in various 
parts of England up to comparatively recent times, 
and very Ukely still flourishes in some remote spot. 
Nothing would seem clearer than that this should be 
the origin of God&ave. But, on the other hand, it may 
be simply " God save " ; cf. the many names of that 
type given on p. 181, some of which were even used as 
font-names [Deulesalt ' f. Jacob, Pipe if.] nearly five 
centuries before the Puritan eccentricities, Chaucer. 
which still exists as Chauser, is usually said to come 
from OF. ckauceor, a maker of leathern hose, very 
common in the Rolls, and Baldwin le Chaucer de Cord- 
wanerstrete' {City B.) seems conclusive. But the 
modem Chauser may equally well represent the ME. 
chauffe-cire, heat wax, a name for a Chancery official 
[Ellis le Chaufesire, Pat. R.]. See NED.. s.v. chaff-wax, 
and Ducange, calefactor i 

" Ckaufft-ein, a chafe-wax, in the Chanceiie " (Cotg.). 

It could also quite well represent a " chalicer." 

Anger is a personal name, Fr, Angier, OG. Ansgar 
(p. 30) [Ansger solus, DB.]. It is also derived from 

I See Deparden (p. iSi). Probably some of our Pardms an 
•iinply French veniona of Godsave. 

* DiotisaM la an Italian name. 

* For eordwainer see p. 173 

D,g,t,.?<i I,, Google 


Angers, whence also Ainger, while it can hardly be 
excluded from the great class of abstract nicknames 
(pp. 216-224) ; cf. Ger. Zorn. Bottle seems to be a rare 
name, but, in addition to ME. hotel, a building, house, 
it has ancestors in the shape of Anglo-Saxon names in 
Bod- [Botild or Botil Hod, Huitd. R., Robert ButhewU. ' 
Chart, if.]. BeUasis is local [Robert de Beleassise, ■ 
F. of Y,], from BeUasis (Northiimb.) or Bellasize 
(Yorks), both of French formation;' but there is a 
font-name Belle-assez, kir enough [Beleassez ludxa. 
Pipe R.y, which is not uncommon in Middle English 
and would give the same result. With this cf. Good- 
enough, Goodnow [William Godynogh, Pat. J?.], White- 
now, Oldknow, Thomas Fairynowe {Pat. R.), Richard 
Langynou {Fine R.), and even Woodnougk, i.e. mad 
enough (p. 308). Lew, already explained (p. 66) as 
local, is also a variant of Low, wolf (p. 310). The 
full Leleu is still found in Devon. Nothard may be 
the " neat-herd " [Nicholas le Noutehird, F. of Y.] or 
the AS. Notheard, valour strong. Fear has alternative 
origins from ME. fer, fierce, proud (Ft. fier), and fere, 
a companion, as in Playfair, and of course has been 
confused with Fair. 

Stutfield is authentically derived from fitoutteville 
(Sdne-Inf,), with the regular substitution of -field for 
-ville [Helewin de Estuteville, Fine R.], but it can also 
be for " stot-field," from ME. stot, a nag, buUock 
[John de Stotfold, Chart. R.]. Trist is short for Tris- 
tram and alternatively local, at the " tryst " [Peter 
atte Treste, Hund. R.], the earhest meaning of which 
is connected with hunting. Cue is the cook, ME. 

D,g,t,.?<i I,, Google 


le keu from Old French, but there is a Sc. McCue, for 
MacHugh, which would inevitably become Ct4e ' in 
England. Suddard is a dialect form of the local 
Southward and a Scotch form of Fr. soudard, a soldier. 
Bew is usually Welsh ap Hugh {Pugh), but also a French 
nickname representing a later form than the more 
common Bell [Peter le Beus,' Leic. Bor. Rec.]. UzzeU 
probably represents both AS. Osweald and OF. oisel 
(oiseau), whence also Lazdl, LayzeU, Fr. Loisel. The 
antithetic Fairfoul might be for " fair fowl," for " fear- 
ful," or for " fair field," each derivation being legitimate 
and easily paralleled, but it may also have its face 
value, as a nickname appUed to a man of contrasts ; 
cf. Roger Fulfayr (Hund. R.), who may, however, have 
been " full fair." 

Finally, we have the case of a name of obvious and 
certain origin which has an unexpected subsidiary 
source. Some striking examples were given at the 
beginning of the chapter. Hull and Pool are evidently 
local, the former being a variant of " hill " — 

" On a May morwenyiig on Malveme kulUs " 

iPiers Plowm. C. i. 6). 

But Hidl was a common font-name in Lancashire 
[Adam f. Hul, Lane. Iiuj. 1310-33, Hull f. Robert, »'A.], 
hence FitzhuU. No -doubt it is for Hulbert, an Old 
French name cognate with AS. Holdbeorht, gracious 
bright. Pool is a common Anglo-French spelling 
of Paul, whence also Poll, Polleti, sometimes Powell 
and generally Powles. Arundell, Arndell, Arran- 

' This is a. common pfaenomenoo, the aphettc name usnally keep- 
ing the final -e of Mac, e.g. CawUy, Cailisler, disk, etc. So also ire 
find Carly for the Irish Macartby, while Casemtnl is for Mac-Esmond. 

* This -s is the OF. nominative. 

D,g,t,.?<i I,, Google 


dale are obviously from Anmdell (Suss.), but Osbert 
Arundel ' (Rievaulx Cart. c. 1140) was named from 
OF, arondel, a swallow. Beaver, Beevor, etc., show 
the usual pronunciation of Belvoir (Leic.) and have no 
connection with an stnimal which was extinct in 
England long before the surname period. But John le 
Bevere' {Fine R.), like Geoffrey le Buver (Close R.), 
was a thirsty soul, though not necessarily to be classed 
with William Aydrunken {Northumb. Ass. R. 1256-79). 
Bourne is generally local, from Fr. borne, a boundaiy, 
no doubt often confused with burn. It is also a nick- 
name, the one-eyed • [Walter le Borne, Pipe R., Peter 
Monoculus, Exch. R.], still common in France as 

Other examples of reinforced local names are Tower, 
sometimes the " tawer," leather dresser [Gilbert le 
Tower, Hund. R.], and Myer,* OF. mire, the physician — 

" Je ani tnalade a mort, Bi r«qiiier vostre ale. 
Que my»r» ne me pnet aidler par sa clergie " 

{OF. poem, 1401 ouit.). 

Buxton is occasionally a personal name [Aifric Bucstan, 
Pipe R.], of the same type as Wulfstan. Venn, usually 
for the local Fenn [Nicholas Dibbe of la Venne, IpM., 

> It is exceptional to find bird oicknaines preceded by tbs article. 

* The vowel change is regular ; cf. beef, people, retrieve, «tc. Or 
rather, in this case, vre liave kept the original vovel, the FYencb 
u being dae to lalialization. 

* The earliest meanii^ was probably " squinting." Hence 
LeboTgne may be rather Strabo than Codes. 

* MjTT, Myeri is generally local, at the " mire," and in modem 
times often stands for Ger. Meyer. OF. mire, a doctor, perhaps 
became a popular nickname in connection with the quack doctor of 
the medieval drama. It is a very common entry {mire, mew, tHeyr*), 
and has evidently been confused with Mair, Mayor. In fact it is 
likely that many of the latter spring from mire. It is hardly Dece»- 
*ary to say that the local Mean (p. 68) is also implicated. 



Som.] is also baptismal, probably for Vincent [William 
f. Venne, Lane. Inq. 1310-33]. Over is ME. overe, 
bank, sea-shore, whence several English place-names. 
In Middle English it seems to be used chie6y as a 
rime for Dover. The surname Over, whence also Owers, 
is also occupative, from OF. ovier, an egg-merchant 
(Thurstan le Over or Ovarius or Owarius, Leic. Bor. 

The above are eicamples of local surnames which 
have other subsidiary origins. Baptismal surnames 
have been similarly reinforced from other sources. 
Even the simple .<4i2[im is sometimes local, " attedam " ; 
cf. Agate, Adeane, etc. Willis has encroached on 
Willows [Andrew in le Wylies, Percy Cart.]. I have 
already suggested (p. 232) that Hugh may sometimes 
represent AS. hiwa, a servant. It is also, like Ho^, 
a variant of the local Hough [William del Hughe, 
F. of y.]. In fact Hugh, Hough, How, Hogg are so 
mixed up that a small chapter would be required to 
elucidate their history. Hitch, usually for Richard, is 
occasionally local [Richard Attehiche, Hund. R^, 
probably a variant of "hatch" or "hutch," The 
derivative Hitckeon, from Fr. Huchon (Hutchin), dim. 
of Hugh, suggests that the Hitch- group, like the 
Hig- group, belongs to Hugh as well as Richard. Bellis, 
having its home in North Wales, is clearly ab EUis, 
but it is also a variant of Bellhouse (see p. 96). Bryan 
and Bryanson are both occasionally local, from Brienne, 
a common French place-name [Guy de Briane, Fitte B.], 
and Brian^an [Bartholomew de Brianzim, 16.]. Neale, 
which represents the font-name Nigel and also the Norse 
Niel, i.e. Nicholas, is sometimes derived from Nesle 
(Sorame). Themerchants of Amyas (Amiens), Nealand 

D,g,t,.?<i I,, Google 


Corby, all now in the department of Somme, are oitexi 
mentioned in City records and appear to have enjoyed 
special privileges. It is only natural that each town 
should have given an English surname. Catlin, whence 
also Gatling, is usually from Catherine [William Cateline 
or Katelyn, Fine R.], and may even be a dim. of the 
Norse Kettle [Ketelinus le Fevre, Coram Rege R. 1297], 
but it also records stray Catalans, i.e. incomers from 
Catalonia [Arnold Catellan, Pat. R., John deCateloyne 
or Catelyne, t6.]. Everett, besides representing Everard, 
AS. Eoforheard, almost certainly means " boar head," 
cf. BuUett and the other examples on p. 128. 

Here it may be noted that personal names in -eit, -itt 
are not always to be regarded as dims. In Tamsett 
wehave merely theFrenchdim, ending -rf (Thomas-et), 
but in Hewett, Howitt, Wtllett, and many other names 
the ending may be the usual reduction of -ard, so that 
they would be from Heward, Howard,* Willard, rather 
than from the Hugh and Will which represent a first 
syllable shared by these names with other Anglo- 
Saxon names. 

An occupative name may also conceal one of the 
other classes. Metier, usually the " miller" • — 

"Monde the tmUnert, vai. pulUn, and moni mo" 
{Pitn Plowm. A. U. 8o>— 

' Homard has several origina, but the identitj', as penonal names, 
of the shortened How and Hew suggests that its chief origin is Fr. 
Huard, OG. Hugihart. Seaile has neither Hygebeard nor Hyg«- 
weard, but such names must have existed. 

■ It is inteiesting to note that, according to the NED., ntiUer, 
mtller, milner, muUitter, are not found before the fourteenth centtU7. 
They are all, however, common as thirteenth-century surnames. 
The Anglo-Saxon term was myUnwtard {Millward, Millard), really 
the official in charge of the lord's mill. In the Pat. R. occurs William 
le Wyndmylneward. 

D,g,t,.?<i I,, Google 


is also the " better " [John le Meillur, Chart. R.] ; cf. 
Fr. MeiUeur, Ger. Besser, and our own Better [John le 
Bettrc, Pat. R.]. Biddle. Bittle is not only for AS. 
bydel, the beadle, but, its home being Gloucestershire, 
represents Welsh ab Ithel (whence Bethell, Bitkell, 
etc.), the simplex being found in Wiltshire as Iddols. 
Ryder is obviously occupative, but the home of the 
name is North Wales, a country singularly unsuited 
for cavalry. Hence it must often be from a Welsh 
personal name [Mereduc f, Reder, Pat. R^. Mawer, 
a " mower " [Thomas le Mawere, Pat. R.I, is in East 
Anglia a variant of the dial, mawther, a girl, in fact 
this is probably the usual origin of the name, which 
belongs chiefly to Lincolnshire. 

" The old Maailhar biled 'em, sho did. Mrs. Gonunidge biled 
'em " {David Copperfield, ch. vii.). 

Very common names such as Carter, Cooper, Tucker 
easily swallow up uncommon names which have ceased 
to be understood. In Carter is almost lost Charter, 
which itseU may have various origins, including that of 
Carthusian monk [Phihp le Chartrar or le jCarter or 
de Chartraas,' Salisb. Cart.]. Cooper, Couper, Cowper 
includes not only " cupper," but also Du. kooper, a 
merchant, ht. buyer, which we still have in horse-coper ; 
and the not uncommon Toutcceur, all heart [Geoffrey 
Tutquor, Royal Let. Hen. III. 1216-35, WiUiam Tut- 
quere, F. of Y.] has been lost in Tucker. 

Even the obvious nickname has often a secondary 
source. I will take three examples only. Bird is 
from ME. hrid, properly a young bird,' and used later 

* Fr. Cbaitrense, Eng. Charterhouse. 

* For bird in general fowl was used, as in tiie Bible. 

D,g,„.«n„ Google 


of the yoting of other animals and even of children. 
In the fourteenth century it is used for maiden, by 
confusion with ME, burde, berde, and possibly also with 
bride, BO that these words must also be considered 
in tracing the pedigree of the Birds — 

" Thir bre«ks o' mine, my only pati. 
That ance were plush, o' gnid Uu« hair, 
I wad hae glen them oS my hurdles 
Foi ae blink o' the bonie bvtdUi I " 

(Jam o'SkatiUr). 

Ruddick, found also as Rodtck, Riddick, Reddick, etc.. 
is an Anglo-Saxon dim. of the name Rudd, i.e. red, and 
in dialect is a name for the robin — 

" T1i« tame ntddok and the cowaid kyte" 

(Chauc. Pari, of FouUt, 349). 

But Robert del Rowdick (Leic. Bor. Rec.), whose name 
is clearly local, may have been the ancestor of some 
of the Ruddicks. Cox is one of our commonest sur- 
names and represents Cocks, the simple Cock being of 
at least four orpins, none of which will voy well 
account for David atte Kokes (Hund. R., Norf.) and 
John del Cogges {Ckesh. Chamb. Accts.). Apparently 
these names rrfer to the boat called a" cog "or "cock." 
For similar names see p. 171. Theuseof thepluralis 
unusual, but cf . Hoyes, a common Lincolnshire surname, 
and Bates, sometimes an archaic northern form of 
" boat" [Adam del Bate, IpM.]. 

I had intended to have included in this volume 
a chapter on imitative name-forms, of which examples 
are to be found on almost every page of the book. But 
the subject is so vague and endless and so unsuited 
for metiiodical treatment that I will only mention a 

D,g,t,.?<i I,, Google 


few characteristic instances. The natural tendency 
is to strive at giving meaning to the unintelligible and, 
among a niunber of accidental variants, to prefer that 
which suggests something significant, however remote 
this may be from the real sense of the name. But the 
reader whose patience has held out so far will have 
come to see that siunames are often of such bizarre 
and unexpected origin, that one must exercise great 
caution in arbitrarily describing the unusual as imita- 
tive, Bardsley regards Tortotseshelt as an imitative 
form of the local Tattershall. The habitat of the name 
(Staffordshire) does not favour this, and there is no 
reason why it should not be a nickname, probably of 
costume, just as we have tortoiseshell cats and butter- 
flies. The tortoise was well known to our ancestors, 
and has given the existing names Totiiss, TotUse, the 
latter occurring in Norfolk, where the Promptorium 
Parvulorum was compiled — 

" Tortuce, a beeste, torttUa " {Prompt. Pan.). 

Beetle may be an alteration of Beadle, but we have a 
number of well-authenticated insect nicknames, e.g. 
Afnpt, Emmett,* Furmy, all meaning ant. Bee, Coachafer, 
Flay or Fly, Hornetl, Wasp, etc., and Robert Scarbode 
{ipM.) certifies Beetle as a nickname^ 

" Eseofbol, the blacks Bit called, a beelU " (Cotg.). 

There are, of course, some cases in which we may 
legitimately infer imitative origin even without docu- 
mentary evidence. When, in the roll of a regiment 
largely composed of Irishmen, we find KiitgselUr, 
Flirty and Caverner, we need not hesitate to recognize 

1 Unully « dim. of Emou. 

D,g,t,.?<i I,, Google 


the fine old Irish names Kinsella, Flaherty and Kava- 
n^h. Coldbreath, Cowkorn and Laughland may be 
similarly accepted as for the Scottish Galbiaith, Colqu- 
houn and Lachlan, while Cossack is the Irish Cusack. 
The Welsh Rhys, Rees is very common in England as 
Riee and occasionally as Race. Stow tells us that in 
1531 Sir Rice Grifith was beheaded on Tower Hill, 
and I have come across Race AUsaundre in a monastery 
cartulary near the Welsh Border. Anoth^ origin of 
Race is Fr. ras [John le Ras, Hund. R.]. 

" Ras. shaven, deane shaven " (Cotg). 

Straight ' is perhaps merely a variant of Street [Ralph 
del Strata or atte Strete, Close R.]. 

Sometimes a name, without being imitative, suggests 
something quite remote from its meaning. Lugger is 
AS. Hlothgar, famous spear. It cannot be of the same 
origin as Galley, Barge, etc. (p. 171), for, according to all 
nautical authorities, the name of the craft dates from 
the eighteenth century. Pinion is one of the many 
names from Welsh ap Eynon ; cf. Binyon, Bennion, 
etc. Pampklett is a dim. of the name Pamphile [John 
Panfelot, Pat. R.]. Cf. the derivation of the common 
noun pamphlet, from Pamphilet, "a familiar name of 
the twelfth-century amatory poem or comedy called 
Pamphitus, seu de amore, a h^hly popular opuscule 
in the thirteenth century " (NED.). With the Eastern- 
looking Durbar, Doorbar, AS. Thurbeorht, cf. Sirdar 
{p. 130). In Icemonger is preserved AS. isen, iron, ■ 

The locality in which an imitative name is found 

often furnishes a clue to its origin. Examples aire 

Blackcow, of Blackball (Lane), and Muse, a Yorjk- 

* The -g- of straight, for strMt, OF. csmU {/Iroil), U not origiii{ 



shire name, of Meaux in that county. So also Doubt, 
Doubting are found in Somerset with Dowd, Dowding, 
these probably from David. In Bucks Coughtrey is 
found side by side with Cowdery (p. 306), while in 
Lincolnshire Cushion occurs as a variant of Cusking. 
Names that have wandered far from their homes can 
often be traced back thither through a series of forms. 
To those mentioned on p. 88 may be added Counter- 
patch, a London version of Comberbach (Chesh.), of 
which Cumberpatch is an intermediate form, Kingrose 
for Kinross, and Roseworm for the much prettier 
Cornish Rosewame. 

Names of baptismal origin get perverted if unfamiUar. 
Williams does not change, but Paton, no longer recog- 
nized as a dim, of Patrick, is altered to Patten, Pattern, 
Patent. Any form, whatever absurdity it suggests, is 
preferred to the unintelligible. Thus Makood, from 
Maheut, the Old French form of Matilda, sometimes 
becomes Mawhood, and Dawtrey, i.e. de Hauterive, 
is spelt Daughtery. Liptrapp is a perversion of Liptrott, 
an early German immigrant, Liebetraut, " Dearlove," 
probably a Huguenot name. Loyal and Royal are 
doubtful. Though quite possible nicknames, they 
are perhaps rather for Lyle, Ryle or Lyall, Ryall. The 
first two are local and the second two baptismal, 
though they have of course been confused, Lyall is 
for Lyulph, representing an Old Danish Lithwulf [LioU 
f. Liolf, Fine R.], and RyaU is for Riulf [Henry f. Riolf, 
Lib. R.], AS. Ricwulf. 

One result of imitative spelling is that we find 
many names suggesting adverbs, conjunctions and 
interjections, or even paxts of verbs. These are 
generally pretty simple, e.g. While'v&iaTWile (seep. 83), 


Whence is at the " wence," i.e. the cross-roads. This 
is simply the plural of went, a way [John del Wente, 
Pat. R.]. Where is for Ware (p. 311) and the second 
element of Whereat is yate, a gate (seep. 91). In con- 
nection with these names it may be noted that initial 
Wh~ is often artificial, e.g. Whatkins, Whisker (p. 137), 
Whybird, AS. Wigbeorht, etc. Heigho is for Hayhoe, 
at the " high hoe." Would is of course for Wood ; cf. 
Wouldhave (p. 59). Goe, very common in Lincoln- 
shire, where it is neighboured by Coy, is local, from 
one of many places in France called Gouy [Hugh de 
Goe or de Goy, Close i?.]. 

Most collectors of odd simiames have been attracted 
by the great class of names in -ing. A curious little 
book ' now before me has a Ust of 150 such names, and 
this list could easily be doubled. It is probable that 
hardly any ' of these names are really present parti- 
ciples. We might nickname a man " Dancing Jimmy," 
but, for surname purposes, he would become " Jimmy 
the Dancer." A great many of these -ing names are 
Anglo-Saxon patronymics, e.g. Billing, Golding, etc., 
and some may be formed from local names and mean 
inhabitant. In the Abingdon Cartulary are mentioned 
the Beorhtfeldingas, Lambumingas, Winterlmm- 
ingas, Cnottingas, Horningas, who inhabited the 
" bright field," " lang bum," etc. ; but it is unc^tain 
bow far this formation survived into the surname 
period. Perhaps the majority of these names are due 
to the vulgar tendency to add final -g after -n, as in 
" kitching," Here belong Panting, Paintit^, for 

> C. L. Lordan, Of Ctriain English Surnames and thiir Occasion^ 
Odd Phases nhtn utn in Croups (London and Ronuey, n.d.). 
■ But MO Lteming (p. 89, n. a). \ 

D,g,t,.?<ll„GOOglC V 


PanUn, PatUon, a dim. of Pantolf > [William Pauntolf, 
Lib R., William Paunton, ib.]. Going is the French 
name Gouin [John Gowyn, Pat. R.}, Howling is a 
double dim. of How or Hugh ; cf. Fr. Httelin, HtUin. 
Wearing and Warring are for Warin, a common OM 
French name (Gu^rin) which usually gives Warren. 
During is a form of Thurstan [William Dusteyn, 
IpM.] and is also fotmd in the shortened form Dust. 
Fearing is for Fearon, OF. feron. a smith, and Basting 
is a perversion of Bastin, i.e. Sebastian. And so ad 
infinitum. It is possible that in a few cases the origin 
of an -ing name may be an abstract noun ; see Deeming 
(p. 222) ; while many of them are local compotmds of ing, 
a meadow (p. 64). 

But we have a few surnames derived from French 
present participles used as nicknames. Such are 
Currant [Beatrice Corant, Ramsey Cart.], Mordaunt 
[Robert le Mordaunt, Hund. R.], Morant or Murrant 
[John le Moraunt, Coram Rege R. 1297, Amicia le 
Murant, Close R.]. The latter name is more likely 
aphetic for OF. demorant (demeurant) than for mourani. 
Cf. Hugh le Demurant (Pipe R.), Johanna la Manaunte 
{Testa de Nev.), Alexander Sujoumant (Glouc. Cart.). 
These examples seem to show that Remnant, like the 
common noun remnant, represents the Old French 
present participle remanant. Many more names of 
this type occur in the Rolls, e.g. Penaunt, Poygnaunt, 
Saillaunt, Trenchaunt, Taylant, Erraunt, etc., and 
probably some of these are still in existence. 

The examples in this chapter are taken almost at 

> Of Old French iDtrodnction, from OG. Bandwolf , bumei volf, 
whidt doea not appear to be found in Anglo-Saxon. It ia fairljr 
common in the Rolls. 

D,g,t,.?<i I,, Google 


random and most pages of the London Directory 
would yield similar results. The reader will, I think, 
conclude that a real Dictionary of EngUsh Surnames 
would be rather a big book, and that compilations 
which dispense with evidence are not to be taken 

n,<jv.<!h, Google 

This indti cimtaiia, with a vtry fta douUfitt casts, oitiy nanM which 
wert in txisimce as latt as thf HinettenlH ctntuiy. Fortign namts art 
tfrinUd in italics. It aili be lometimts found that mort than ont origin is 

A'banow, 50 

Abbott, aoo 

Abel, 104 
Absolom, aoj 

A' Burrow, jo 
Acock, 57 
Acton, 160 
Adam, 204, 331 

Adcock, 57 
Addle, 3fi 
Addyman, 136 
Adger, 43 
Ad&rd, 43 

Admnt, 43 
AdwAd, 74 
Adsbjsad, 74 
Afferff, 32 


=, 314 

<S. <W 

Aldls, 96 
Aldous, 96 
Aldred, 42. Z37 
Aldrltt, 43. 3«7 
Aldus, 96 
Aldny, 44 
Alefounder, 114 
Alehouse. gG 
Aleiiinder, 1B8, 21 
Atflatt, 33 
Algar, 16S 
Algate, so 

Allabyme, Ji 
AUard, 43 
Allbones. 143 
Allcard, 33 
Allchin, 31 
Allcburcb, JO 
AUcom, 18} 
Allday, 42 
Alldiead, 43 
AUeawaters, 161, 
Allfree, 31 
Allfood, t6 
AUEuseo, s' 
Allibon, 51 
Alliott, 31 
AUman, 317 
Allmark, 178 
Allpasa, JO 
Allpikc, 30 
Allpiets, 187 
Alltolt, SI 
Allweitber, 13s, * 
AUwdgbt, 137 
Almond, 39 
Alner, iii 

Alsop, 63 
Altiee, 51 

Ambery, loG 
Ambler, t;i 
Ambrey, 106 
Ambroee, 187 
Amery, 4t 
Amner, 105, 106 

Ampt, 31s 
Amyas, 103. n. 3 
Anchor, 311 
Andacht, y>a 
AndtrbtMgg, 196 
Angell, 109, 310 
Anger, 317 
Angle, 310 
Angot, 30 

Angot, 3 
Anker, : 

Ankettle, 30 
Ankrett, in 
Annercaw, 3II 
Angntlil, 30 
Aniell, 31 
Ansorg, 302 
Anster 66 
Ansterbeny, U, n, 
Aotbistle, 83 
Anyon, 191 
Applequist, 19s, * 

Aram, 86 
Atber, 107 
Aibuckle, ija 
Arcededme. 3 to 
AtcbdeacoQ, 3 to 



Argent, 157 
Argles, 36 
A^ument, 317 

Aikcoll. 36 ' 
AikeU, 36 
Aikle, 36 
Aikless, 149, ai5 
Arkwiight, 337 
Armbnster, 300 

Aimitt, 209 
Almouc, is8 
Aimshav, isj 
Annsttoiig:, 139 
Amall, 36 
Amaud, 9 
Aradell, 319 
Arnold, 36, 188, n. 
Airand, 36 
Arrandale, 319 
Arrow, i^ 
AiTowsmitb, Mi 
Artmilh, 338 
Aiihur, 36 
Artlew, 149 
Arum, 8fi 
Arundell, 319 
AschtHbr«iuttr, 399 
Ashbum, 336, n. i 
Ashbumer, 136, •*. i 

Ashketlle, 30 
Ashmall, 68 
Athman, 337 
Ashmole, 68 
AshpitaL 107 
Athplant, 305 
Albwin. 38 
Ask. i6a'^ 
A«k«i. 102 
Askell. 30 
Aspenuni, 30; 
Aspland, 303 
Asplin. 303 
AsquitA, 84 

AstelL 30 
Atcoclt. 37 
Athawei, 49 
Atheis, 49 
Atbecall, so 
Athenmith, 50 
Athenuch, 30 

Athake, 49 
Atbow, 49 
Atkey, 49 
Ato, 49 

Avery, 3* 
Awdas, 96 
Awdrey, 39 
Ainocihy, 86, ». s 

Aylward, 33, 43 
Aymer, 33 

Baby, 349 
Baccbus, 29s, n. 

Back, 34, 138 
Backiiaia, 29} 
Backbouse, 393, n. 
BadtnuiHtr, 399 



BaUbacbe, 270 
BailUhaclu, 170 
Bailwaid, 53 

Baines, 143 

Baird, 24a 
Bftimsfalhw, 147 
Bajout, 133 

Ballance, 166 
Ballard, 133 
Ballinger, 35 
Ballistei, I3i 
Balm, 1 88 

Balster,' 121 
Band, 330, n. 3 
Banfatber, 347 
Bannister, lit 
BanUck, 94 
Bantock, 94 
Bard, Z40 
BarH, 53 
Bailoot, 141 
Bar/uts, 301 

BarK, 171 
Barkbouse, 96 
Barkis, 98 
Barleges, 140 
Bailey, 1S5 
Barleycorn, 134, 196 
Barnacle, B9 
Barnard, 34 
Barnes. 347 
Baraett, 34, 309 
Bamfatbor, 347 
Bamish, 34 
Barnwell, 34 
Barr, 36 
Bairaclougb, 88 
Bairass, 98 
Bairell, 133 
Barrett, 34, 137, 

Bamnger, 33 
Barrowclifi, 88 
BaTttnwtrfftr, 300 

Bartkoliy, 294 
Barton, 60 
Bartram, 38 
Baskett, 124, ids ■ 
Basketter, 115, 337I 
Baskwetl, 90 ' 

Basnelt, 139 
BasUt. 293 
Bastei, 105 


BeUoc, zSi 

B«llom, 96 
Bellilnger, 10 

neecfalcg. 65 
■ eechner, 88 
1 eemasler. 68 

Benbow, ^6? 
Bead. 54 
Beadelow, 159 
Btn)i6e\A, 11 
Benninger. 35 
BeimioD, 336 
B«niiMG, 85 
Beoskin, 196 
B«Dt, 34 
Benvmuito, an 
Sere, 33 
B«re cloth, 88 
Birmgtr, 34 
Btrger, aS?, ags 
Bergtral, 187 
Btrgtrtt, «87 
BtTfroft. 387 
Bergirot. »B7 
Berkengfaaw, 88 
Btmadot, 183 
Bemadotta, 183 
B«raa], ^1 
B<r»ardt», 183 

Btmhardi,' 3^, 3gt 
Bemilorff, 396 
Benin, is8 
Bcnineer, 35 
Benycloth, 88 
BetTymui, 331 
Btrt, »8j 
Berteoshaw, 88 
BtrOoUti, 3S3 
Aorthm, 283 
BtrtilUau, 3 S3 
Bertram, 36 
Bertrand, 38 
Beryl, 138 
Besant, 177 
Bessemer, no 
Besstr, 313 
Bntim, »^g 
Bester, 114 
Beslman, 337 
Bethel), 313 
Belhime, 103, n. a 
Beltany, 1S7 
Better, 393 

Beveiidge, 174 

Bew 319 
Bewkers, I3g 
Bewsher, 145 
BuuuUtuuut, 49 

Biclieno, 88 
Biek, 13 J 
Bickersua, a 
Bickentetb, » 
Bidaway, 31 
B[ddis, 97 
Biddle, 3>3 
Bldgood. 361 
Bid^ke, 3a 
Bidmead, ja 
Bi4litrsltm, 196 
Biultnmig, ag6 

Bi*itpib*r, a 99 
BitiMOUiTy, a 88 
Biimttiit, an 
Bitaenbiiidar, a 99 
Biflea, a47 
BlUer, it4 
BiUelt, laj 
BiUiald, 38 
Billiard, 38, 135 
Billing, 31 B 
Billion, 38, 180 
Billows, 96 

Binyon, 3a 6 
Birchenougb, 88 

Bircumahaw, 88 
Bird, 323 
Birdieye, 133 
Birdwbistle, Sa 
BirkennU. 167 
Birkensbaw, SB 
Bbrkett, 88 
Birkbead, 88 
Birkway, too 
Btrrell, 130. »• 
Birtensbaw, 88 
Birtwblttt«, Sa 
Buctioff, 300 
Bisgood, 196 
Bisbop, 300, a 10 
BIsboprick, aiv 
BUmarch, 197 
Blsmire, aao 
Biuell, 134 
Bissett, 134 
Bisson, 349 
Bitheii, 323 
Bitbray, 83 


Blackall, 61 
Blackbaoii, 330 
Blackb«ard, 136 
BlackbiixL 136 
Blackbond, 130 
Blackbrow. 131 
Blackburn, 247 
Blackcow, 3t6 
DIackctt, 138 
Blackball, 6a 
Blackie, 133 
Blackleacb, 65 
Blackledge, 63 
Blacklock. 131 
Blackmore, zii 
Blackrod, 13 J 
Blackshields, 7j 
Blacksbice. 88 
Blacksmith, 117 
Blacktop, 12B 
Blagg, ij6, H, 1 
Blakelock, 131 
Blampey 141 
Blampied, 141 
BlaHcktmain, 189 
Blanche tt, 196, n. 1 
Blanchfldwer, 196 
Blandamore, s6o 
Blankett, us 
Blay 131, n. 
Blayiock, 131 
Bleakledge, 6} 
BleakmaD, 137 
Bl4ehichmidt, 19S 
Blee, 131, "■ 
Blellock. 131 
Blenkame, 88 
BlenkiQ, 88 
Blenkiron, 88 
Biewitt, 154 
Blinkbom, 98 
Bliss, 333, n. 1 
Block, is6 
Bloge, 136 
Blood, 141 
Bloom, 190 
Bloomfield, 90 
Blossom, 190 
Blowey, 133 
Bloyd, 1:4a 
Btud, 143 
Bluett, IS4 
Blunderfield, go 
Blunkett, 154 
Boag, S4 

Boag, J, 

Boast,' 119 
Boat, 171 
Boatswain, 134 
Boat Wright, 337 

Body, IZ7, 129 
Body coal, 148 
Doesoo. 334 
Boggeis, 97 
Bojgis, 97 
BMcervoist, 339, it. 
Boilaiv*, zSi 
BoiUau, 2 S3, 379 
BoiUvi, 381 
Bolistec, 131 
Bolstec, 131 
Boltwood, 138 
Bomasb, 331 
Bon 389 
Banhemai, 2&s 

Bones, 143 
Bonest, 97 
Bocfellow, 333 
Boohote, 175, n. 
Boniface, 133 
Bonitant, 347 
BoHiuitigt, log 
Bannafi, 389 

Bonnymaa, 337 
Bonser, 148 
BoMi. ai8 
Bonus, 97 
Bonvalltt. 389 
BiMvoulair, 243 
Boobyer, 54 

Bookless, 149 
Boosey, 54 
Boot, 133 
Booty. 337 
Bootyman, 337 
Bopp, 393 
Borei 116 
Borrell, 154 
Boirowman, 331 
Borstall, 34 
Bisbier, 303 
Bosom w^h, 31 
Boss, S4 

Bmmm^ a 91 
Both«rway, 37 
Bothway, 37 
Bottle 31S 
Botwrlght, 337 
Bouch, 134 
Boucharin, 387 
Bouehtr, 379, 387 
Bouchtrtau, 387 
BouthtroH, 387 
Bouelut, 387 
Bough, 196 
BongbtOowet, 138 
Bought wood, 338 


Boulnois, 38s 
Bouncer, 348 
Bound, 230. n. 1 
BourdalOH*. 390 
Bourgeois, 383 
Bourne. 320 
Bout, 133 
Bout flour. 358 
BoulOH, 153 
Bouvard, 389 
Bouvtau, 389 
Bov-Vfltt, 189 


Braiich«U, 196, n. I 
Brajicliflower, 196 
BraDd, 38, 161 
Branfoot, 357 
BraosoiD, to 
Biaawhile, 88 
Brasnett, laS 
BrdHfiesM, 301 
Bray, zi 
BraMll, i8g 

Brazil '189 
Bceocfi, 34 
Breakspear, is6 

Brtilfus), 30 1 
Brtitkaupt, 301 
BrtMop), 301 
Brtmer, 195 
Brcnd, 35 
Bietmand, 256 

Btetonnei, 116 
Brett le, 40 
Bnttscimiider, 299 
Btevetor, no 
Btevitt, no, it.3 
Brewill, 55 
Brewis, 97 
Bee Witt, 174 
Brewster, 230, n. i 
Brick, III, n.t 
Brickdale, iii, n. 2 
Bricker, 112, n. 2 
Biirkett, 88, iii, n. 
Bchkland, iiz, n. 2 

fUckman, 237 
Brickmaster, 112 
Bdckstock, 112, «. : 
Bfiikwood, III, n. : 
B^dock, 94 
deoke, 94 
dges[ 71, »■ 
dgett, 1 28, r 

Britcher, 115, «. i 
Britland, 99 
Brittle, 40 
Briioy, 38 
Broadbelt, la*, iji 
Broadbent, S4 
Broadtool, 141 
Broadhead, 124, 128 
Broadiibb, 139 
Brobson, 240 
Brockett, 118 
Brockis. 97 
Brodder, 243 
Brodribb, 139 
Brokeoahite, 88 
Brolly, 35 
Brond, 38 
Bronkhurst, 144 
Brookhouse, 97 
Brooksmitb, 228 
Broom, 184 

Brotherhood, aao 


. 245 

i,.u~, 130 

Browell, 33 
Browett, 174 
Brown, 154 
Brownbill, 161 
Brownetl, 128 
Browaie, 133 
Brown John, 242 
Browasmitb, 2:5 
Brownsword, 161 

Bruckshaw, 88 
Brudeuell, 6z 

BnUebois, 237 
BruUter, 237 
Bnimfit, 91 
BruimiT, 293 
Brush, 3S 
Brushett, 35 
Bruton, 315 
Bruttner, 216, 313 
Bryan, 321 
Bryimson, 321 
Bubear, 54 
Buchbinder, 299 
Buche, 1 34 
Buck, s6 
Buckaway, 100 
Buckett, 136 
Bucklaod, 99 
Buckle, i}Z 
Buckler, 160, 23s 
Bucklio, 237 

Buckmaster, 68 
Buckoke, 93 
Buckpil, 69 
Bucksmitb, 229 
Budd, 196 

Bugler, 175 
Bmst, 53 
Bulcock, 91 
Bullas, 97 


Bullion, I So 
Bullivant, 2. 
BuUpilt, 69 
Builwinkle, 83 
Biilow. 295 
Bulteel, 173 
Bumbey, 33 
Bunclack, 234 
Bundle, ij? 
Bunker, 142 
Bunt, 230, «. 2 
Burchard, 39 
Burchett, 39 
Burdas, 96 

Burdis, 96 

Buidus, 96 
Burmfeiiid, 302 
Butioot, 141 
BiirgermtistiT, 300 
Burgoyne, 103, n. 2 
Burkensbaw. 88 
Burkmay, 248 

Burls, '71, ". 
Bumage, 34 
Bumand, 236 
Bumaid, 34 
Bumell, 34, 309 
Bumess, 256 
Burnett, 34, 309 
Bumhouse, 250 
Bumip, 63 
Bucnisfi, 34 
Bumiss, 236 



Bunell, IJ4 
Biuret, 309 
BiUTows, gS 
Bucrus, 9S 
Burst, iS 
Buistall, 54 
Bilrsttnbindtr, a 

Burton, 60 
Burtonshsw, 88 
Busbiod, 15s 

Biutin,' 86 
Butcbart. 307 
Butcher, tii, 307 
Butler, 105 
Butlui, 337 
Butt, 56 
Butlerfill, 169 
Butterfant, zje 
BiMiTSatk, 304 
Buttery, 106 
Buttifant, t56, n. 
Button, 153 
ButtDoshaw, 88 
Buttress, gi 
Buxton, 330 
Buzzard, tot, n. 

Bycrott, 51 
Byers, jt, it. 1, 5 
Byfotd, 51 
Bygott, SI 
Bygrave, 51 
Bypeaves, 51 
ByiQg, 51 
Bysouth, 5t 
By these a, ji 
By the way, 51 
Bywater, 51 

Cachemaille, 171 
Caddell, 25s 
Cadle, 353 

Caflyn, 131 

Cage. 56 

Cake, 114, «•!, "4.173 

Calcott, 93 

Caldecote, gj 
CaJder. 161, n. 
Caldetside. 161, ». 
Caldovall, 355 
Caller, 119 
Calliater, 319, it. i 
Callow, 56 
Callwell, 3S4 
Calvey, 133 
Camamlle. 187 
Cambrey, 103, n. x 


Camis. 133 
Cammidge, 66, n. 
Cammis, 133 
Cammisii. 133 
CampioD, 113 
Camplejohn, 141 
Caadel^nd, 100 
Canrobtrt, a Bo 
Cantrell 187 
Cant well, zS4 
Cape, ISO 
Caplia, 159 

Capp, 146 

Capstick, isS 
Carasa, 97 
Carbonnel, 315 
Cardinal], 199 
Careless. 149 
Caress, 97 
Carker, iii 
Carle, 134 
Carlin, 234 
Carloss, 149 
Carlton, 11. n. 
Camell. loB 
Carr. 3B 
Cailatt, I7t 
Garrett, 171 

Carritt,' 171 
Canodus, 88 
Carroll, 171 
Carroway, 100 
Carruthers. 88 
Cart. 171 
Carter, 333 
Carlledge, 65 
Cartlick, 65 
Cartwrighl, 3*7 
Carly, 319, n. i 
Car us, 97 
Carvall, 3 63 
Carvell, 361 
Carver, loj 
CarviU, 263 
CasimOTiKid, 179, 
Casement, 319. ». 

Caslelnau, 281 
Caswell, 253 
Catch, 171 
Catcbeside, 262 
Catcblove. 260 
Catchpole, S69 
Cater, 1*0 
CathedraU. 366, • 

Catherall. 366 
Catberwood, 366 
CoHnat, 2 84 
Catlin, 333 
Cato, Z16 
Cator, ISO 
Caltennole, 6S 
CatUe, 39 
Caudery, 306 
Cauldwell, 334 
Cave, 13* 
Cavell, 132 
Cavemer, 315 
Cawcutt, 92 
Cawley, 319, n. I 
Cawsey, 69 
Cawson, 340 
Cawthia, 84 
Cawthry, 84 
Cayzer, 199 
Cemery, 87 
Cbadband, 330, «. 
Chaff, 13a 
Chaffer. 173 
Chalk, sB 
Challen, 103, ». a 
Chamberlain, 10 j 
Chambers, 103 
Champion, 313 
Cbampneys, 103, 1*. 
Chance, lis 
Chandos. 3B1 
CAoogamMr. 381 
Chantavoiiu, 380 
Cfiantirtau, 387 
ChanierftU, 287 
Chaotlei, 267 
Cbantrell, 287 
Chantrey, 109 
Chaotry, 109 
Chaplin, 159 
Chappell, 147 
CharboiMtatt, 147, n 

CAartoiM^f, 147. < 
Chare, 74 
Charge, 310 H. , 
Charity, 218 
Charker 113 
CbameU, 109 
Charrier, 112 
Cbarteria, 97 
Charters, 96 
Choistloiip, 260, 
Ouustpol, 3 89 
ChdteauHiuf, 381 
Chaucei, 317 
Chauser, 317 


CbBve, 131 
Cbaytor, no 
CbealM, 71, n. 
Cheap, 74, ». 
Cheatfr, lao 
Checker, no 
Cbeckland, 100 
Cbecklin, 100 
Cheeli, 133 
Cheeper, it6 
Cb«eis, 74 
Cheesewright, : 
Cheke, 133 
Chequer, no 
Chtrfiis. 196, z. 
Chermside, 161, 
Chessman, 2. — 
Cfaettle, 39 
Cbeyoe, 56 
Chllcock, 92 
Child, Hi, 307 
Childerhouie, 96 
Childien, 96 
Chilmaid, 148 
Cbilman, 137 
Cbilvers, 39 
Chian, 134 

Chipper, 116 
Chirnside, 161, n. 
ChUell, 168 
Choak, j6 
Cholmondeley, 14, 1 
Chown, I 



Chi^, 'aoS 
Cbtistun, tti 
Christopher, lOi) 

Chuck, 56 
thugg, 5^ 
Jthurch. 47 
Churchers. 96 
Cbum, iGi, H. 
Chumslde, 161, n. 
CinDamond, S7 
Clrcuitt, ita 
Circus, 9B 
Claggitt, 91 
Clampilt, Gg 
Clapshaw. 1^1 

!, 130 
1, 335 
ClBrksoQ, 239 
ClarvU, 83 
: Clay, 58 
I Cleall, 63 
ff Cleggett, gi 


CUm4titlau, 379 
aencb, s6 
Clinch, j6 
Clinlucaies, 338 
Clisb, 319, ». I 
Cloake, i}o 
Clodd, 57 
Clothes, 171 
Clothier, 17a 
Cloud, 57 
Clout, 37 
Clown, 89 
Clubb, 134, 13s 
Clunn, S7 
Clyne, S7 
Coachaler, 325 
Coate, 148 
Cobbelt, 43 
Cobbold, 43 
Coct 57, 139. 314 
Cockbaln, 143 
Cockelt, 118 
Cockhead, 138 
Cocks, 314 
Cockshoot, 57 
Cockshott, 57 
Cockspiir, 163 
Coffin, 13a 
Coloi, 381 
Colbiain, 38 
Coldbreath, 3^6 
Coldicolt, 91 
Coldtart, r6S, ». i 
Coleman, 11, •>. 
Collar, 147 
CoHaibooe, 143 
Colledge, 95 
CoUingbine, 191 
Collinuplatt, 78 
Collop, 174 
Coltard, 168 
Coltman, 337 
Columbine, 191 

Comer, 119 
Comfort, 330 
Commander, 107 
Comper, 243 

Conrad, 293 
CoQvbeare, 54 
Cook, 15, 103 
Cookson. 139 
Coolbeer, 174 
Cooper, 313 
Cope. 150 
Copestake, *j8 
Copestlck, 258 

Coppack, 94 
Copper, 119 
Coppodi, 94 
Copus, 98 
Corbally, 160 
CoTday, a8i 
Cordetay. 306 
Cordery, 306 
Cordier, iSi 
Cords, ITS 
Corduroy, 306 
Cord well, 154 
Cord went, 17a 
Cotkitt, 91 
Conoell, 66, H. 

Corn'nUs, 390 
Cosher, 248 
Cosier, 115 
Cospatrick, 938, «. 
Cossack, 3z6 
Costard, 194 
Coster, 194 
Cosway, 69 
Coltls, 97 
Cottle, 43. 148 
Couch, 131, n. I 
Coughtrey, 327 
CouTtas, 97 
Coulter, 168 
Coulthard, ia8 
Coultish, 97 
Counsell, 121 
Count, 199 
Counter, 113 
Counlerpatch, 337 
Conper, 333 
Courage, 217 
Courtenay, 132 
Cousins, 343 
Coustos, 208, H. a 
Coverlid, 146 
Cowderoy, 307 
Cowdery, 306 
CoweU, 146 
Co whom, 336 
Cowl, 14G 
Cowmeadow, 85 
Cowper, 333 
Cowiao, 97 
Coi li 334. 
Coxhead, 13 S 
Colon, 334 
Coy, 3H 
CoEcns, 34] 
CoEie, 343 
Cracknell, 114, n. i 
Cradle, 57 
Cradock, 7 

n,<jv.<!h, Google 


Crakbone, ije 

CraDkhoiD, 3J, n. 
Cranksbaw, 35, n. 
CiaanU, 9B 
Crappct, 114 
Crawcour, X7» 
Crease r, 104 
Creaier, 104. 
Craedybridge, 161, n. 
Creak-, 35, »■ 
Crcmiell, 108 
Crewdson, j«o 
Criak-, 3S, n. 
Cripps. to, 131 

CroftI 119 
Crais, 283 
Croket, 271 
Ctomack, 94 
Cronk-, 35, n. 
Crook, 63 

Crook*hanks, tn, 140 
Cross, 107 
Cnwwell, 73 
Ctolhen, SB 
Crowdace, 88 
CrowdsoD, 340 
Crowfoot, r+i 
Crowne, 14 j 
Crowson, 340 
Crucifii, 167 
Cruddas, B8 
Cruicksbank, 140 
Crum, J7 

Culpepper, 268 
Cumberpatcb, 337 
Cundlck, 177 

Coriey, 133 


CurtalD, 57 
Curtbose, 145, IS3 
Curthoys, ijl 

Curtita, 303 
Curtler, 118 
Gushing, id6 
CusbloQ, 106, 317 
Custacd, 194 

Cutbuah, 158 
Cutcliff, 31 
CuUove, 161 
Cuttell, 43 
Cuttle, uS 
CtecJi, J 95 

Dadt^w, iBo 
Dagger, i6a 
Daggett, 41 
Dainteth, 333 
Dainty, 333 

Dais?; 191 
Dale, s8 
Dallamciie, 51 
Dallas, 97 
Dallicoat, ji 
Dallicott, 31 
DaUywatsrs, ji 
Damant, 41 
Dame, 148, B. t 
Damer, 41 
Dames, 348, n, I 
Damiens, 385 
Damm, 248, n, I 
Danuns, 348, n. i 
Damsell, 349 
Damson, 193 
Dancer, iiS 
Dattckatrts, 43 
Daodo, 160 
Danhi, 393 

David, 3 


Darboy. 38a 

Darey, 108 

Darnell, 188 
Dart, 245 

Dasb, '31 
Dasbper, 213 
Dasbwoo<L 31 
DatkM, 303 
Daugbtery, 317 

Daw 301. 


Day, 41, 
Daybell, 43 
Daybum, 3*/ 
Dayman, 41 
Dayment 138 
Daymond, 41, ijB 
DaysoD, 339 
Dayns, 98 
Deal, 57 
Dealbridge, 51 
Dealchamber, 51 
Dearborn, 247 
Dearlove, 160 
Dearth, 331, •(• 

44 Bter, j,t>t 
D* Broglu, 5S 
Debutt, 40 
Deebanks, 161, »■ 
Deebte, 4a 
Deeming, 323 
dt Hooth, 301 
Dilabrouilt, 5S 
DOacmix, 385 
DelabUDt, 5i> >'9 
DOaptyrirt. a86 
De la Pryme, 180, H 
Dilarbr*, 280 1 

Dtlar4y, 71 
DtUaalU, 283 
Delbridge, 51 
DelbrOtk, 196 
DOtasU. 286 
Delderficld, ji 
Delf, 58 
Delbay, 51 
Delhuary, 106 
Dellaway, Si 
Dellew, 51 
Dellow, 5t 
Delpb, s8 
Dapinre. 385 
Delves, 38 
Demieha, 384 
i>«ftu, 10 
Denisard, lO 
Deoison, 315, n. i 
Denmaid, 248 
Dennis, 14 
Dent, 137 
Dentltb, 233 
Depew, 386 
Depledge, 6s 


. \i 

DmbUTg, 196 
Derrick, 40 
Derry, ^o 
DisbUis, iSs 
DDbrostti, ss 
Daearia, tgo 
Damaiures, 104 
DamouUns 179 
Daorgis, 1S6 
Dispapii, 3 85 
DupDiS, jflj 
i>cieriaut, 186 
Detbiidge, 40 
Deulsch, 64, »- 3 
Dcvill, 109 
Devlin, l», h. 

Dewell, SB 


i# WiU, 3or 

Dcwsnap, 78 
DenSDip, 78 
DiamoDd, 41, is8 
Diaper, 103 
DIbb, j8 

Dibble, 3 8, 309, ». i 
Dible, log, f>. t 
Dickhant, 301 
Dickman, 331 
Didcock, 93 
Di4*rot, 3 8j 
DMon, 385 
Di4ot. a 8s 
Ditnsl, 303 
HUlrich, J 93 

Dip weed, 163 

Dijlicar, 58 
I>iL]i5toiies, J I 
Ddlowar, 31 
I fngle, 40 
I ntaifass, l67, ». 3 
, } plock, 70 
I pper, 103 

ipple, 40 

iprose. 3B6 

iahman, 117 
► 5more, 178 
,P spet, 315 
i> Itcheatt. 91 
nfilchetl, or, h., 138 

nixfiMi/, r79. "■ 
Tpbson, 314 

Kiggett, II S 

Dofe, 57 
Dolittle, 33 
Dolloway, ji 
Dollymore, 51 
Domesday, 109 
Doolittle, 259 
Doorbar, 326 
Doowra, 84 
Dori, 157 
Dorf Schmidt, 398 
Doirell, 44 
Dorsey, 51 
Dot, 10 
DoUin. 10,383 
Doubleday. 136 
Doublett, ISO 
Doubt, 337 
Doubtfire, 158 
Doubting, 317 
Doust, 58 

Dowd, 337 
Dowding, 317 
Dowell, sB, 3J4 
Dowey, 103, n. 1 
Dowle, 58 
Down hard. 53 
Down ton, 53 
Downward, 32 
Drags, 186 
Draeon, 109 
Drain, 38 

Drane, 38 
Drawater, 337 
Drawbridge, 106 
Drawer, 116 
Dredge, 186 
Dreng. 334 
Dresser, 116 

Drews, 310 



unDKall, 2 59 
Drinkhall, 259, ti. 
Drinkwater, 253 
Dron, s8 
Drought, 217 
Druce, 3 10 
Drudge, i8e 

Dryattdtr, 303 


DulKuOtut, 286 
Duberley, 31 
Dubtrtrmid, 2 84 
Du Boulay, si 

Dubreuil, 55 
Dubiiiisoti, 180 
Ducat, 177 
Ducker, 102 
Duckering, 103 
Duckers. 96 
Duckett. 128, 177 
Duckhouse, 96 
Duclaui, 280 
Ducloi, 280 
Duell, 58 
Du/aurt. 287 
Du/our, 286 
Dm Foumet, 3 86 
Dugard, 182 
Dugori. 61 
Duguid, 261 
Duly, 183 
Dumat, 386 
DumesHii, 2 86 
DumovrUl, 380 
Dumphrey, 39 
Dumpress, 39 
Dumsday, 109 
Dunbabin, 243 
Dunbobbin, 142 
DuncaU, 341 
Dunnaker, 93 
DUnndiiick*, 301 
Dunnett, 87, ». 3 
Duophle, 107 
DuDslre, 248 
Diujt, 58 
Dupltix, 70 
Duplatii. 3 86 
Duplex, 70 
Duplock, 70 

DupVHl, 379 

Duppery, 31 
DupTi, 31. 279 
Dupree, si 
Dufmit, 383 
Dupny, 2 86 
Dsfucsnf 286 
Durbar, 326 
Durescn, 160 
Ducose, 83 
Durrell. 44 
DussauU, 286 

nust 329 

Dusting, 329 
Duloit, 108 
Dwerrybouse, 98 
D wight, 89 

D,g,t,.?<i I,, Google 

Dyter, iij 

Eachard, 3B 
Ealaad, jg 
Bales, 6z 

Earl, 341 
Eaip, ^i 
Eankia, 143 
Eaitby, 36 
Eastaway, 70, 
Eastland, 99 
Eastwood, 90 
EatweU, 155 

EbtTluwd, 193 
Eberli*. 35 
Ebtrt, 3 J 
Eborn, 73, n, 
Eck. i9i 
EcoTChtniiU, 1S7, 
Edlcker, 44 
Edmead, 30 

Efemey, 197 
Ehrttikdmt, 304 
Ekilich, 301 
EKAAont, 30a 
Eidam, 34G 
Eighteen, 179 
EuffttMis. 303 
Eland, S9 
Elborn. 75, >>. 
Elcock, 92 
Elder, 148 
Element, 317 
BlSeet, 33 
Elflitt, 31 
Ei^ar, 168 
Ellicock, 92 
EUicott, gz 
Ellimaii, Ji7 
Ellwand, 1G4 
Ellway 37 
Elnough, 33 
Blphick, II 
Elrod, 164 
EUiistr, 393 
Elsegood, 343 
BliUr, 301 

Elvidge, 33 
Elvin II 
Elvitb, 33 

76. n 


Elwall, 31 
Elwln, 33 
Emblem, 3 17 
Emblin, 217 

Emm e it, 333 
Emperor, 199 
Enderwick, 51 
Engeham, 319 
England, 64 
Engleheart. 31 
Englisli, 64, ». 1 
Ennion, 7, 191 
Ennis, 64 
Enock, 106 
Enslin, 31 
Bnticknap, 31 

EnsmM, 303 

Escreet, 87 
Essery, 86, %. a 
Esson, 340 
EthawM, 30 
EtUisbank, 140 
Evamy, 197 

Everatd, 33 
Everett, 34, 35.93.3** 
Bverwin, 35 
Bwart, It 
Ewbaik, 161, «. 
Ewer, 105 
Ezpence, 106 
Eye, 133, 133 
Eyett, 133 
Eynon, 191 

Faber, 13 
Fabrt, 2 Bo 
Fahritita, 30} 
Face, 130 
Pacini, 45, n. 
Fadder, 244 
Ftukndrich, 300 
Fafgetter, 113 
Fairbaim, 347 
Fairbard, 240 
Pairbeaid, 136, 340 
PairbroM, 140 
Faitbtotber, 347 
Pairbum, 347 
Faircha^ 347 
Pakdotb, 88 
Fairer, 131 
Fairest, 93 
Pairfoul, 230, n., 319 
Fabgray 330 
Fairgrief, 330 

Faiihead, 128 
Fairless, 149 

Fairman, 38 
Fairmaner, 240 
Faicminer, 340 
Fairplay, 232 
Paii5ervlc«, 221 
Faitweather, 335, ■- » 
Faith. 218 
Rake«, 4S 
Fatclu, 302 
Falcon, 45, n. 
Falconas, 97 
Falcate, 91 
FalktnHayn, 396 
Falkous, 97 
Fall, 59 
Fann. S9, 107 
Fanaei, 39 
Fant 245, 247 
Faraday, 233 
Faraway, too 
Farbrace, 140 
Farbrother, 247 
Fardell, 39 
Faret>rother, 247 
Fareweathet, 333, •. i 
Farewell, 181, n. i, 310 
Farman, 38 
Farmery, 107 
Parmiuer, 240 
Pamunedows, 83 
Famdell, 39 
Famortb, 89 
Farraker, 93 

Fanimoad, 39 
Farrow, 105 
Farthing, 38, 59, 
Parwell, Z30 
Ftusbtiidtr, 399 
Fathers, 146, 244 
Faloul. 289 
Faultless, r49 
Fauat. 34}, 347 
Fauntleroy. 347 
Faure, 3 So 
Faust, lay, joi 
Pavel I, 133 
Fawcus, 97 
Pawkes, 43, «. 
Faiakerley, 30 
Feakes, 45, «, 
Pear 31 8 
Feanng, 339 
PeanuMe, 184 
Pearon, 339 

Feather, 146 



Featberstonebaugb, fyt 
F Bgs, 45, ". 
j'elgate, gi 
Peltboiue, 96 
Fenboueh, 86 
Pennfll, iSS, 1S9 
Penning, 6} 
Ferdaane, 166 
Fereday, 133 
Ferler, 114 
Fermidge, 174 
PeiiL 1S4 
Femday, 133 
firron, a88 
FerU, a86 
Fessey, 139 
Fetliplace, 15S 
Fivn, *6o 
Pewkes, 45 

FicUt, 293 
Piddiaa, 39 
Fidel. 176 
Fiddy, 39 
Piddyment, 39 
Fidlec, 176 
Pieldine, 63 
Pifchead, a, iiS 
Fifett, z, 138 
Pifoot, gi 
Filbert, 193 
Rle, 16S 

.., 168 

Uery, iS, 347 




A'indtaen, 304 

fink, 301 
Kiimls, 97, lie 
l-'irbank. 161, > 
Firebrace, 140 
Fireman, 38 
Fiimage, i7t 
Fish wick, 333 
Fist, 117 
Fitchell, no 
Fit ton, 310 
Fits, 344 
Fitzackerley. a 
FittbuU, 3 '9 
Flather, 114 
Flatman, 60 
Flatt, S9 

FlaveU, 133 



PTawa, 114, n. t 
Flaiman, 337 
Flay, 33 s 
Flear, ti3 
FUchiei, 387 

FltUMautr, 199 
Fleming, 103, n. 2 
FUmming, 393 
Fleshet, in 
Fletcher, in 
Fie will, 176 

Flinders, 130, n. 
Flirty, 335 
Flood, 143 
Flooh, 4S 
Flower, 1S9 
Flowerday, 197 
Flovferdew, 197 
Floyd, 143 
Huck, 45 
Flud, 143 
Fluke, 45 
Flute, 176 
Flutter, 176 
Flui, 45 
Fly, 3»S 
Foad, 246 
Foakes, 4 s 
Foat, 346 
Fock, 46, 183 
Fockier, 383 
Fopg, 4S 

Folgate, 91 
F6&, 45 

Folkard, 37, 4° 
Folker, 38, 45 
Folkes, 45 

Food, 346 

Foot, IS5, »■ I, 14: 

Foidy, 179 
Forehead, 130 
Foresight, 217 
Forfcitt, 219 
Forget, 91 
Forgrieve, 230 
Forkett, 91 
Forman, 130 
Fonestal. 60 
FoiresthiU, 85 

Forsdike, 60 
Fotse, 60 
Forss, iSo 

FUnHur, 397 
Portescae, 160 
FoTtoum, 341 
Forty, 179 
Forward, 33 
Fotdlke, 60 
Foskett, 9 1 
Foss, 60 
Foasev, 63 
Fostall, 60 
Foster, 119 
Fosterjoho, 33S, ». 

FoucauU, 39a 
FoucM, 3B3 
Foulkes, 45 

Fouracre, 93 
Fourreau, 73 
Founil, 169 
Fou weather, 335, n 

Foweraker, 93 
Fowkas, 4S 
Foxon, Z40 
Foyle, 60 
Foyster, 119 
Framboise, 194 
Framboisier, 194 
Fraitet, 64, it. * 
Franapani, 353 
Frankland, 99 
Frary, 109 
Fraler, 107 
Frazer, 3^9 
Frtch, 300 
Freebody, 139 
Freeborn, 44 
Freeborough, iSo 
Freeguard, 41 
Fieeiand, 99 
Preelove, 39, 39 
Freeman. 41 
Freeman tie, 14S 
Freemont, 39 
Freestone, 39 
Frere, 315, 34J 
Fresbney, 87 
Fretwell, 35S 
Friudt, 303 

Frewin, 46 
Frey, 30r 
Fr$yta(. 303 
Friary, 109 
Flicker 39, I03 
Friendship, 330 
Frift, 330 
Frigbt, 60 



FrdUuS, 301 
Froissart, 40 
Frammt, 183 

Frostick, 60 

FroyseU, 39 
Fruea, 46 
Friihhng jox 
Frushard, 40 
Frushei. 40 
Fryer, 2.5 
Fuths, 303 
Fudge, 45 
Fudger, 45 
Fuge 4S 
Fuggle, 79 
Fuke, 45 
Fulcber, 38, 45 
Folk, 4S 
Fulker, 38. 45 
Fullalove, a6o 
FaUgrabe, 303 
Fullflove, 360 
FuUlames, 141 
FUUkrui, 263, 303 
Pullman, 137 
Fulloway, )68 
FullooD, 114 
FUntaehiaing, 301 
Fiin/mck, 30» 
Funnel I, 169 
Fiirbringfr. S99 
FarchU^tt, 261 
FitrcUmtcM, 3D4 
Fuller, 114 
Furmidge, 174 
Fuimy, 313 

Fumell, 169 
Fumen, 108 
Furnish, 108 
Furrell, 73 
FAnl, 299 
Fane, 184 
Fuster, 119 
Futcber, sS, 45 
Fylde, 169 

Gaby, 349 
Gadd, tss 
Gafl, a 43 
GaflfT, 345 
Gage, 171, «. 
Gager, 171 
GagtmUnitT, 263 
Gagn^Mtt, 377 

Gaicote, 148 
Gaiger, 171 
Gainer, 316 

Gale, 311 
Gales, 311 
Gall, 311 
Gallactree, 60 
Gallery, 108 
Gallelly, 253 
Galley, 171 
Galliver, 192 
Gallon, 311 
Gamage, 66, n. 
Garabray, 103, «, 
Gamson, 159 
Ganner, 3tfi 
Gansaugi, 301 
Gape, Z48, n. 1 
Gapp, 284, n. 1 
Garaud, 283 
Garbally, 160 
GardeboU, 289 
Gargate, 135 
Gargett, 133 
Garland, 312 
Garlick, 124, 188 
Gambam, 137 
Garaoo, 137 
Carol, 2 S3 
Garrett, 21, loB 

Garroway, lao 
Garston, 6a 
Gartland, 31* 
Gactrude, 29 
Garvin, 38 
Garwood, 31 
Gash, 311 
Gasper, 138 

GasGOQ. 311 
Gasttbltd, Z62 
(ruMdu, 262 
GattU, i6z 
Gate, 91, 31a 

GalesI 312 

Gatberall, s66 
Gathercole, 266 
Gatherer, 116 
Gathergood, 262 
Galling, 322 
Gaokiodger, 343 
Gaul, 311 

Gauntietl, 151 
Gawler, 11 1 

Gaybell, a 43 
Gayfer, 24J 
Gaynor, 316 
Gayter, 152 

Gacard', 241, n. 2 

Geary, 316 

Gtb/iardt, 44 
Gelhaar, 301 
GeUatly, 253 
Gellibrand, 39 
Gemmell, 249 
Gennery, 108 
Genower, io8 
Gentleman, 105 
Gentry, iiS 
George, 209 

Gtrstathini, 303 
GtssltT, 43 
Gelgood, 263 
Gtyt, 301 
Gbost, 214 
Gibbons, 3 IS 


Giffard, 44 
Giggle, 137 
GDbert, 43 

Gilham, 279 
Gillies, 238, n. 
Gillibrand, 39 
Gilliagwatei. i6r, 1 
Gilliver, 192 
Gilman, 136 
Gilpin, 161, H. 
Gilstcap, 95 
Giltpen, 161, *. 
Gimblett, 169 
Ginger, 188 
Ginnery, 108 
Oiotto, 30 
Girdwood, 232, ». 
Gladstone, 855 
Gladwin, 43 
Glaisher, 227 
Giave, 162 
Gleadie, 25s 
Gleaves, 162 
Giedhill, 255 
Gledstanes, 255 
Glew, 219 
Glidewell, 255 
GUtctt, 302 
Glue, 219 

?<i I,, Google 

Stuiitmu, 395 
Goscber, 14 S 
Goad, aoB 
Gobb, 30 
Gobbet I, 30 
Gobby, 30 
Merl, 30 
Goble, 30 
Godbehcrc, 181 
Gi,dboU, 30 
GodsalLi., ^»< 
Codaave, 316 
GodselL 11, 41 
Godsia, 316 
CcHismaik, 346 
Godson, 308, 34} 
Godwin, 2? 
Goe, 3JS 
Gotbai, 191 
Goelhi, 30, 192 

[81, i 

}oifitr, 35 
rtclightly, 2S3 
•(JmbeTt, 43 


Goodday, 233 
Goodearl, 241 
Goodenough, 318 
GoodeTGd, as I 
Goodey, 236 
GoodfoUow, «32 
Goodgame, 231 
Goodhait, 143 
Goodheart, 143 
Goodbead, 230 
Goodhew 232 
Goodhind, 231 
Goodhue, 232 
Goodfaugh, 233 
Goodier, 314 

Goodiff 336 

GoodlouD, 941 
GoodlBd. 231 
Goodlamb, 241 
Goodland, 99 
Goodlass, 83 1 
Goodlet, 231 
Goodlud, 131 

timpem, 43 
ondibert, 43 
minfaurt, xii, n. 1 

oodair, 314 

oodbaim, 330, 247 
oodban, 330 
uodband, 330, 347 
oodboer, 134, 174 
oodbeher«, ttll 

oodbody, 129 

ood brand, 343 

oodbun, 330, 34? 

oodchap, 13a 

oodcheap, 332 

oudchild, 325, ^^Si * 

uooaman, 236 
Goodnow, 318 
Goodread, 22 1 
Goodred, 221 
Goodrich, 30 
Goodrop, 242 
Goodium, 37 
Goodsall, 183 
Goodsir, 24S 
Goodship, 3lS 
Goodaoo, 247 
Goodspced, ziB 
Goodswen, 134 
Goods win, 234 
Good way, 37 
Goodwill. 143 
Goodwilbe, 343 
Goodwin, 30 
Goodwrlgbt, 337 

Gooseman, 241, h. 
Goosey, 133 

Gorstidge. 90 
Gorsuch, 90 
Gorl, 61 

Gospatrlck, 33S, n 
Gossag«, 90 
Gossett, 128 
Gossip. 119, 343 
Gostick, 90 
Gotllge, 90 
G<4. 2B4 
Golbed, 368 
Golobed, 26B 
Gott, 30 

GoMbrtU, 303 

GMthat, 301 

GoUsdiaik, 43 
GoUmaSts, ym 

Goucher, 2 46 

Goulden, 137 


3S3, " 

Governor, 307 
Govier, 98 
Go vis, 98 

Goy, 318 

Gozzard, 241, n. a 
Graddige, 196 
Gra^, 399 
Grain, 136 
Grttindvrit, 196 
Grandaee, 196 
GranOfUmeHl, 285 
Graiulcolas, 385 
Graodison, 246 

Grape, 61 
Grapes, 193 
Gcasett, 128, ft. I 
Grasmeder, 114 
Gratton, 60 
Gravenor, 139 
' Graven, 12S, n. i 
Gray foot, 141 
Grayion, 139 
Greatbatch, 53 
Greathed, 138 

Greed, 2*19 
Greedy, 219 
Green, 16, 134 
Greenacre, 76, w. 
Greenall, 6z, 76, n. 
Gteenaway, 70, 76, n. 
Greenberry, J6, it. 
Greener, 104, n. 1 
Greenfield, 76, n. 
Greennass, 76, »., 186 
Greeonalgb, 61, 76, n. 
GreenbaU, 63, 76, o. 
Greenhead, 76, «>. 
GreeahiU, 76, 1. 
Greenbom, 76, H., 89, 

Greenbougb, 76, h. 
Greenhouse, 76, fk 
Greening, 63, 76, n. 
Greenlit, 76, ". 1, ' 
Greenland, 76, m. 
Greenlaw, 715, •. 
Greenleaf, 315 


D,g,„.«n„ Google 


Greeolew, 76, n. 
Greenoak, 94 
Gceenopj 76, n. 
Greenpnce, 218, «. i 
Greenrod, 76, «., iS5 
Greencoyd, 76, n. 
Greensall, 73. 76, »■ 
GreenshieldS, 7Si 76. • 
Greeosides, 76, «., 13 
GreensiU, 76, ». 
Greensmitb, tlS 
Greenstock, 76, n. 
Greenup, 73, 76, n. 
Gieeawaid, 76, n, 
Ckeeawebb, 130 
GT««owell, 76, •. 
Gceenwood, 76, n. 

Grenfell, 76, «. 
GieoDan, [37 
Grakt, 393 
Grew, 91 
Gievraick, 91 
Grey, 154 
Greysmitb, 119 
Gricfl, 185 
Gri«f, 330 
Grieve, 116 
Griffin, 209 
Grlmble, 40, 44 
Griminett, n, fi- t 
Grimsbaw. 76, n. 
Grinrod, 76, n., IJS 
GiinCer, Si 

Grist, iSG 
Griitock, 76, n. 
GTobsckMud, 11 S 
Grocott. 91 
Groocock, 91 
Groom, 10 j 
GrotelamU, 183 

GfOSfMH, X4i 


Guett, r(M 

CotU-, a Si 

GiwllaHm*, 179 

Guinea, 177 

Guiscmd, 137 

GuLMd. ao4 

Gidletl, 104 
. Gulliver, 35 
I Gully, ao4 

Gullyes, 104 

Gumbrell, 44 
Gumpert, 43 
Gunneil, 36, n. i, 

Gtinttw, »93 
Gun win. 37 
Guntrip, 95 
Glister, 103 
GMtiiiir, J03 
CtUenhtrt, ag6 
CvlAans, 195 
Gut brum, 37 
CtitjakT, 303 ■ 
GKiJtntcAJ, 300 
Gutiell, 4a, iBi 

Gyer, i\a 
GygM, 303 

Habberjam. 139 
Habberjan, 159 
Habbijams, 159 
HaiaiitU, 304 
Habershon, 159 
Habpood. 162 

Cn>M, joo 
Gnaiiohatm, ,_ 
Gfosskoff, 301 

IHfl, 193 

GroMDUtb, 3«8 
GtMvenor, sag 
(^ucott, 91 
Ground, 61 
Grounds, 6t 
Groundwater, S3 
Gtowcock, 91 
Growcott, 91 
Grudgeoo, a 4a 
Gtummett, 44, n. i 
GrOn, 154. 300 
Grundy, 61 
GriiHoraU, 295 
Cabbina, 313 

HaUacre. 93 
Halfhead, izB 
Halfhlde, taS, n. ■ 
Holfnjght, 333 
Halfpenny, 177 
Halfiide, 13S 
Haliburton, 60 
Halkett, 61 
Hallas, 97 
Halleck, 61 
Halleit, 61 
Hallman, 133, n. a 
Hallmark, 178 
Hallowbread, 173 
Hallows, 61 
Hallpike, 31, i6t 
Halman, 33s 

Halsey, 3a 
Hamabard, 138 
Hamar, 169 
Hunblock, 1S4 
Hames, 61 
Hammer, 169 
Hammond, 41 
Hamper, 133 
Hamon, 41 
Han, 10, aSo 
Hamsbar, 75. M 
Hancock. 313 
Hand, 139 
Handasyoe, 13S 
HatUil. 303 
Handewtrk, 304 
Handover, 363 
Hands, 139 ■ 

Handsomebody, 199H 
Handyside, 138 
Hanfslaengi, igy 

Hankin, 313 
Hann, 313 
Hanolavx, 10, 3 So 
Hanoi, 10, 380 
HanoM. to, 180 

Hansard, 33, n. 
HanseU, 31, 33. "'. 
Hansom, so 
Hanson. 313 
Hapgooo, 363 
Harboid, 44 
Harbour, ro? 
Hard. 61 
Hardacre, 93 
Hardaker. 93 
Hardbaitle, i5> 
Haider, 61 
Haidkker, ga 



I HardimeDt, laa 

Hardman, 4a 
. Hardrib, 139 

Hardmeat, 1S6 

Hards, 61 - 

HardstaS, 14 J. iSS 

Hardware, 165 

Hareood, 38 

Harkaway, 100 

Barker, 97, 133. "■ 

Barkey, 133 

Harklns, 133, n. 

Harkul. 97 

HarllM, 131 

Bulock, 131 

HaimaD, 36 

Bamack, 301 

Harness uS 

Bamisck, 159 

Harp, 176 

Harper, 176 

Hanap, 63 

Hairaway, 37 

Uarrlman, 336 

Harrismith, 3z8 

Harrison. 308 

HaiTOld, 1 89, n. 

Uarrowsmith, ziS 

Harsnip, 78 

Harsum, 308 

Hartfree, 14a 

HartaoU, 130 

UsrlDUpp, 138 

H-irtog, 399 

H artshom, 64, 89 

flnj«, 30a 
Blaskell, 30. 13. "■ 
H. isluck, 33, ». 
" ^ard, 218 
i-issett, ai8 
llNtcbatd, 33, ". 

'^tchett, 168 

iitfoU, ajo, •. 

lathaway, 37 

latherall, t33 

latied, 37 

■latt, I4J. U6 

Matter, H7, »■ i 

'latto, 47 

■Jaumif, 303 

ti(ui*nscJiM, 303 

^augh, 6l 

kaupt. m6. 301 

kMtPHnatuh 300 

fiaAe, te 

lawketl, "8 
Sawkey. 133 
lawUn*. 3» 

Hayboe, 318 
Haynea, 41 
Hayter, Sr 
Haytor, Si 
Haywood, iia, ». I 
Haiaid, ziS 
Head, 124. "S 
HeadWough, iBo, * 
Headland, 99 
Headiigg, 99 
Heal, 63, 233 
Heald, 6a 
Heam, 62, n. a 
Hearsom, 308 
HeaiBon, 308 

Heatb', 63 
Heathcock, 91 
HeaveD, 210 
Heavislde, 138 

Htbbti, Z93 

HtbutTtit, 304 
Hickt, 303 
Heckler, iij 
Hector, Si, 21G 
HeeU, 143 
Heigho, 33 8 
Heintmann, 393 
Hell, 210 
HeUcat 310, n. i 
Helm, 63, IS9 
Helmer, 38, 159 
Helms, 63 
Hempenstall, 197 
Hempsecd, 124, 196 
Henayside, 13S 
Henftey, 41 
HtiiTict. 194 
Heosher, 104 
Heowtigtit, 337 
Herapatb, 63 
Herbage, 107 
Herbert, 44 
Htrbit, 303 
Hereules, 113 
Herd. 326 
Herdsoa, 339 
Herepatb, 63 
HerUeu. 313 
Herod, 307 
Herdck, 29 
Heisoc^ 308 
Hirm*tfl, 63 
H#riofc 299 
Heseltbe. 31 
Hesmondhalgb, 61 

tf oiitdt, 300 
Hever, lo) 

Hew, 332 

Hewett, 333 
Hcwish, 84 

Hewliogs, 43 


1. 339 

Hibbert, ,. 
Hickmott, 346 
Hide, 63 
Hig-. 3»' 
HiSRliia, 316 
Hildtck, 37 
HUditcb, 17 
Hilger, 37 
Hill. 47 
Hilldrop, 93 
Hillers, 97 
Hmyar, 37 
Hind, 336 
HituUnbtfrg, 396 
Hinder, 104 
Hindbaugh, S3 


Hindmarsb, : 
Hinds, 333 
Hindson, 339 
Hine, 326, 333 
Hirsch, 303 
Hitch. 321 
Hitch-, 331 
HitcheoD, 321 
Hitchmougli. 346 
Hoad, 63 
Hoatb, 83 
Hobart, 43 
Hobgood, 36a 
Hobman, 40 
H«diti*<Min, 304 
Hockenhall. 87 
Hoffmaim, 395 
Hofnuisttr, 300 
Hogg, 310 
Hogaeu, 133, ». 1 
Hogsett. 13S 
Hocsflesb, 173 
HotMn, 301 
Holdah^, 33 1 
Holla*, 97 

HoUlmaD, 143 
Hdlindnke, 1 

HoUingsbeacl, 330, m, 3 
HoUinprieit, 118, n. 3 

HoUoman, 143, n. 3 
HoUowbread, 173 
HoUyliead, 330, m. j 

D,g,„.«n„ Google 


Holyhead, no, w. 3 
Holyoak. 94 
Hotihautf, 399 
Honeyball, 33 
HoDcrbounie, 307, n. i 
HooeybuD, 173, 307, 

Honeychild, 307, n. a 
Hoaeycburch, 307, H. 1 
Honeycomb, 307, ». 1 
Hoaeymao, 137 
Honeysett, 74, 307, n. a 
Hooei^all, 307, n. a 
Hooeywill, 30S 
Honeywood, 307, n. i 
Hoimor, 63 
Honour, 63, 317 
Hooi ij, MS, 1*6 
Hoodlesi, 149 
Hook, 63 
Hope, 63, 3iS 
HopeweU, 154 
Hopgood, tit 
Hoppei, 118 
Hopwell, 1J4 
HorUck, 131 
Horlock, 131 
Horn, 6x, n. :., 64 

Horablow, a6S 
Horablower, 176 
Uornbuckle, 13a 
Horneti, 323 

Homiblow, 168 
Horse good. 30 
Hon fall, 39 
Horsfield, 59, n. 
Horsnaill, 163 
Horsnell, 163 

Hosegoi^, 30 
Hosmer, 33, n. 
Hoagb, 63, 310 

Housatiold, 105 
Houseman, 337 
How, 62 

Howard, 311, n. i 
Howcbln, 41 
Hawaii, iS, n. i 
Howitt, 3tt 
Howling, 339 
Hoy, 171 
Hoyes, 3^4 

Huband, 247 
Hubbard, 41 


Hobble, 40 
Huben, 43 
HubrtcSt, 293 
Hibsck, 300 
Hucks, 63 
HuMn, 319 
Hufi, 61 

Hu/Mget, 166, 304 
HuficAmidl. 398 
Huggins, 43 
Hugh, 43, 3i7t 232 
Hughes, 7, 321 
Hulsh, 84 
Hulance, 161 
Hulbert. 319 
HuliH, 339 
Hulk, 64 
Hull, 319 
Hullett, 42 
Hullins, 161 
HuUyer. t03 
Human, 236 
Humbert, 33 
Humbout, 33 

HuHdtrttnafk, 302 
HUHtrtitnl. 305 
Hunnybun, 307, n. 
Hunt, 336. 339 
Hanlliach, S3 
Huntback, Z63 
Huntress, 230 
Himtriss, 230 
Hurlbatt, 368 
Hum, 62, n. i 
Hurst, 47, 9S 
Husband, 226, 343 
Hush, 106 
Husbet, 106 
Hussey, 336 

IcemoQger, 326 
Iddols, 323 
Idle, 64 
Uelt, 64 

Inderwick, S3 
Ing, 6+ 
Ingmohl, ig6 
Ingham, Z19 
Ingle, 43 
Ingle bright, 31 

Inglett, jt 
IngUa, 64. «■ 3 
Ingold, 45 
Ingoll, 31 
Instance, 131 
Iremoagei, 4 
Ironmonger, 226, 1*. r 
Ironside, 138 
Irrping, 303 
Irwin, 35 

jackaman, 331 
jackett, ISO 
Jaclunaa, 40 
Jackways, lOO 
Jtuoby, 394 
Jagg, 136, ». I 


Jaoders, 97 
J anient, 383 
anuary, 108, n 

eanfoy, 338, «. 1 
, eary 316 

ekyli, 157 

ellicoe. 383 

ellicorse, 139 

enner. 108 
, ennerway, 100 

ennins, 3 

eremiah, 206 

ermaay, zo6, n. 

ermy, 306 

:, 398, n. 

estlco, 130 
eudwin, 27, 45 

ewers, 96 



Toffrenol, aSx 
Joffriti, 282 
foffron, a 8a 
Joffroy, a 82 
lobDcock, 139 
Johacook, ai3, ' 

- jobOSQIl, 14, ft. 

JohnsloQ. 140 
Jaliot. 189 
Jotivard, aSg 
yolivaud, aSg 
^oHvtt, 389 
Joll. IS7 

Joyce, 61 
Joyot, 130 
Judd, zo 
Jud*njeind, 302 

Juneman. 237 
Jungblul, 141, It. 
Junaohann, 39J 

juniper, 1 

Junker. 31 

[Kahl, 301 

|Kats«r, 399 

'Katb, 301 
/fatcMrmntr, 299 
Kalckrtut, 296 

Kampt, 296 
/fanntngussff, 299 


Kaulbars, 303 
Keeler, 114 
Keemish. 133 
Keller, nr, ti 
Kellogg, 2S7 
Kemberv, 103 
KenDard, 39 
Kennaway, 3 
Kenward, 39 
Kenwiight, - 



Kercher, 147 
Kerchey, 147 
Kerfoot, 91 
Ken. 58 
Kttnith. 303 
KastUiul, IS9 
KtsiehMSeer, 199 
Ketch, 171 
Ketcbel, IS4 
KftHhad. 159 
Kettle, 39 
Kettlebum, 39 
KrmtT, 297 
Kettlestriiig, 234 
Kew, 13, n. 
Keyboe, 87 
Kibblewbile, B9 
KiddcU, ajs 
Kidgell, 154 
Kidney, 142 




KieseiPiHtr, 303 
Kiggel, 154 
Kilmastei, 68, 263 
Kilomter, 68 
Kilvert, 39 
Kind. 301 
KiitdtsutMr, 30 1 
Kindness, 21S 
Kindred. 43 
King, 198 
Kingrose, 327 
Kingsellci, 323 
Kinnell, 36, 44 

KioGman, 343 
Kirbysbire, 88 
Kirlew, 132 
Kirtland, 88. n. 
Kictler. iiS 
Kitchen, 154 
Kitchen, 47, loC 
Kitcberside, 262, n. 
Kitcbingman, 333, n. 

Kittermaster, 68 
Kittle. 39 
Kittler, 114 
Kit to, Z16 
Klaus. 295 
KlublaU, 196 
Klein 300 
KUinharu, ags 
KMnschmilt, 297 
KUinsorg, 302 
KUnkkammer, 303 
Kloptlock. 231 
Kluck, 293, 397 


Kmuktust, no 

Kntcht, 300 

Kneefe, 334 
Kneebone, 141 
Kneese, 132, it. 
Knell, 65 
Koevit, 335 
Knie. 141 
Knife, 16 


. 199. ■■ 

], 65 

Knlpe, 63 
Knivett 235 
Knoblock, 303 
KoA, 300 
Kflfttg, 399 
Kopi, 126, 301 
KisUr, 300 
Kraft, 319 
/fniftf/vil. 142 
KrSntlin, 304 
Ktauihaar, 301 
Krautkopi, 301 
Kretj, 303 

Krigtr, 3^9 
/fnitHNMnH, 301 
Jir«MAnifr««^, 298 
Kuklmaim, 296 
Kup/ersckmidl, 3 98 
Kuicber, 147 
KlirtcilMtr, 299 
X'urti, 300 
KUUtnpftnnig, 263 

Labat, 211 
Labbett, 311 
Labirg/rt, 3B7 
Labomkirt, 187 
L4 Sray^<. 2 9a 
, La Caussadi, 380 
Z^ Ckausti; a So 
lackland, 149 
Ltcraix, 283 
Ladd, 326 
Ladkrn, 232 
Ladson, 239 
Lafmairt, 96 
La/<fU, aSe 
I.aAU«, t68, ». a 
L4 Fottiaitti. 290 
I^gnasK. 314 
[Mentl. 314 
Laldier. 104 
Ldtgl*. 289 
Ltttgntl, 3H 






jwless, 149 

Donald, 33 

Ukei, 121 
Lalante, 160 

awty. 231 
Uy«li. 3.9 
jzell 319 


LaUmand. 179 

Lawnty, 15 

UmarUne, 279, 1S4 

Lea, 140 

«queui, 388 

Lamb, 3S, n. 

Leach, 65 
Leaf, 196 

ambert, 41 
Lamtehcad, lie 


Uah, 3b6 

. .erouge, 289 

Lamifal, »ti 

Leaper, 118 
LeaptagweU, 83 

L«nn', 381 

Lamort, an, n. 

Leafhem, 308 

Lescurt 281 

Le Seilleat, ti8, n. i 

Lampet, 69 

JUbM. 389 

Lampitt. 69 


Lapril, 114 

Lamputt. 69 

Lti*Tgtf. 397 

Lessons, 66 

ance, 160 

LthM/, 289 


an^aff, 399 
andless, 149 


Ltborgnt, 330 

Lttutur, 388 

Letberen, 208 

Ltbwohl, 231 

L«ip«»., 389 

.andseet, 74 

Z><^i«», 381 

LArfjw, 2-8i 

«»g. 35. ". 



LlcUrc, 3B0 

Ltvfrt, IS4 

angabeer. 54 

^esoQ. i|6 

.evitraod, 330 
^w, 66, 318 

Langbain, 143 

^dger, 40, 140 

Leech, 65 

angcake, 173 

Leeming, 8», n. a 

Afighoni, 29J 

Leese. 66 

LewET, 106 

anghonie, 64. 89, n. a 

L«/A».. 280 

•ewin, ti 

^Ehear. 7i, 88 

UfiUt«l, 245 

^wry, 106 

^gaid, 140 

Lewtas, 98 

-egg. MO 


Uggatt, 199 

Liberty, 66 ; 

Larbj-. zM 

Leggett, 2. 

Licence, 66 

Wi^, 158 

^ggalt, 31 

Liddialt, 67 -~^ 

Umoii, .58 

.tgrani. 279 

Lidgate, 67 


Larockt/oucauld, 390 

.egwood, 21 

t4ro««^ 1S9 

Lfl'<*/Mj, joj 

Liebhucht. 300 

Lart. 6j 

^if, 196 

latter, 6s 

uigb, 140 

. -Ubtlatu, 303 

Lasalle. 185 

Leighton. 60 

LiaigMK, 303 
Ligbtbody, 129 

La»ceU«s, 66, ». a 

Lthihos. 301 

Lightbound, 230 

Last. 169 

I^ithead. 128 

Lightfoot, 141 

Lathe, 169 

Ltjoint, 130 

Lightlad, 331 

.athrin, 308 

Ukain, afii 

Ughtollers. 93 

Latter, izo 

L*t«T<, 208 

Ughtowlpr, 93 
LiflenskjMd, 75 

Uleu, 318 

Launder, 191 

Ltnaire, 280 

Lilley, 190 

auudry, io8 

L«MKr«, 3^79 

Lillicrap, 197 

aundy, 107 

Li]!y, .24, 190 

^Mmscmeer. 399 

Lflni», '288 

Lilly crop, 197 

Lavender, 193 

Lemm, 35, »-, 130 

LiUyman, 337 

Lmain, 249. n. 

UUyrrbite, 124 

Mtmureux, ti8, n. 1 

Leng, 35. "■ 

LiniK 35,' «., 127, 1*9 

aver. 103 

Uhx. 303 

Limbert, 130 



Loveland, z6i 
Loveless, 149, ijg 
Lovell, 160, n. 1 
Lovelock. 131 
Love luck, 259 

Loveridee, 44 
Lovetock, 159 
Loveiseed, 74 
Lovesey, 44 
Love well, 2 55 
Lovibond, 230 

Lowas, 97 
Uv<, 302 
Lower, 106 
Lowis, 97 
LowKin, 310 
Loyal. 337 
Luchlerhand, 304 
Luck, lie 
Luck up, 259 
Ludwig, 44, 393 
Luffery, 44 
Lugger, 326 
Lumb, 35, n., 130 
Lung. 142 

Lu«h! 106 

Lillet, 176 
LUtjtHS, 242, 295 
Lutman, 237 
Luly, iir, 242 
Lutypns, 242 
LyaJt, 317 

Lyde, 67 
Lydiate, 67 
Lyie, loj. It. a, 327 
Lyncb, C6 
Lysons, 66 
Lyteman, : 
Lyib, 67 

Maber, 40 
Macbrain, 142 
MacCorquodale, 31 
Macer, III 
Hachell, 241 
MachfPrang, 303 

MackerutH, 294 


MaaLeisb, 23S, n. a 
Madise, I5» 
HacManus, 239, ». 
MacMiUan, 23S, r. 
Mactear, 143 
Madle, 250 
M&gdtfrav, 304 
Magpus, 239, ». J 
Magnusson, 239, •<■ 
Mabood, 327 
Maiden, 24S 
Maidland, 248 
Mailer, 104 
Main, 46, 139 
Mainpidge, 20 
Mainprlce, 20 
Mainprise, 21], «. 3 
Mair, 320, ». 4 
Maiie. 1S6 
Major, 40 
Makemaa, 263 
Makemead, 270 
Makepeace. 354 

«.«.»«, 40 

Maiaspina, 291 
Malchien, 242 
Malcolm, 23B, ». 

Malebraitclu, 291 
Malf$herb*a, 188 
Malhtrbt. 188, 291 
Malipbant, 247 
Mallse, 238, K. 
Mallelt, 169 
Mai lory, 213 
Malone, 194, 238, m. 
Malpress, 23s 
Malsber, 24s 
Malthus, 97 
Maltravers, 19 
Mammon, 212 
Hampriie, ao 
Han bridge, 150, «. 
Manchjp, 220 
Manclark, 234 
Mandlin, 176 
Manast, 303 
Manfred, 29 
Man full, 249 
Man^all, 163 
Manifold, 250 
Mankelow, 256, n. 
Mankin, 249 
Manklelow, 256, n. 
Manlove, 260 
Mann, 226, 336 
Mansbiidge, 25a, It. 
Mansbip, 220 
Hanson, 339 

D,g,t,.?<i I,, Google 

ttHitl, JO I 

mtell, m, 148 
anteufftl, J05 
mywealbers, 233, «. 

irbtow, 262 
arckandui. iji, 31 
archandy, ijt 

artot. 2St 
tr^olon, 1S4 

irkgraff, 199 
irklana, 99 
irklove, a 61 
irklow, 161 

iimon, 315, n. 3 
irot, aB4 
irquis 199 

mbalt, 105, 106, n. 
mhalUay, 106 
irsbalsea, 106 

iiticw, 26 1 

irlyt, 108 

irwocil, 157, »- 
uckinmiraU, 1 67, 

uii'Uon, 1S6, 283 
issingberd, 136 
luiagec, 209, ». s 

Hate, 240 
Mater, 107, n. ■ 
Mather, 107, n, i 
Mattfiaei. 194 

Matthias, 206 
Mattock, 169 

MaucUrc, 234 
JVaiuTAuy, 388 
Maudlicg, no 
Mauduit, 3SS 
Maufe, 68, 246 
MaufiUtre, 150 
Mauger, 40 
Maugirard, 38a 

MauDd, t6s 
Maunovry, 2 88 
MaupertHU, i86 
Maw, 67, 246 
Mawditt, 2 83 
Mawer, 17, 323 
Mawhood, 327 
Mawman, iia 
May 146, 248 

May dew, 197 
Mayes, 1S6 
Maybew, 197 
Mayle, 149 
Maynard, 28, 46 
Mayne, 46, 139 
Mayo, 197 
Mayor, 3Z0, n. 4 
Mead, 248 
Meader, 114 
Meadows, 96 
Meadus, 96 
Meals, 68 
Mean we II, 255 
Mears, 68, 31 
Measure, 104 
Meat, 186 
Meatman, 237 
Meaty ard, 164 
Medlar, 193 
Medlicott, 148 
Mtgtnlutrd, 293 
Meiklejohn, 242 
Meiklereld, 2ti 
MeilUur, 323 
Meissomitr, 3 87 

Meller, 321 
Mellers, 97 
Mellis, 97, 23 

320, 1 

Hellon, 194 

Mellsop, 268 
Melody, ii; 
Menbery, 217 
Memmett, 212 

Memory, 117 
Mempnss, 20 
Atinagi, 105 
Mendary, 110 
Meade l^bD, 294 
Meolove, 260 
Mtrceriau, tSj 

ISwSldy, 197 
Merriman, 213' 
Merriment. 215 ' 
Merr7weather,j3 i "■ 
Mesher, 104 
Messenger, 209, n, 
Metcalfe, 241 
Mete^ari 164 
Me WIS, 98 
Afayer, 298, 303 
Meyler, 104 
Meymott, 312 
Hej^eU, 42 
MUU, 103, n. X 
Michael waite, 88 
Micklejohn, 241 
MickUwright, 217 
Middleage, 95 
Middleditch, 237, 1 
Middleman, 237 " 
Middlemass, 137 
Middlemias, 97 
Middle mbt, 97 
Middleweek, 9] 
Midgall, 62 
Midnight, 235 
Midy, 23s 
Mlggles, 103, n. 2 
Mighilt, 103, n. t 
Mildmay, 208, 148 
Miles, 103, ». 2 
Milk, 174 
Millard, 180, 322, n 
HUlband, 230, n. 3 
Millett, t86 
MiUhouie, 97 
Milliard, iSo - 
Milliner, 119 
Million, 180 
Millist, 97 
MUlmsker, 226, n. i 
Millward, 322. h. 2 
Milner, 119 


MDsopp, 340, 368 
Mil vain, 13S, n. 
Mlmpress. to 
Minchin, no 
Mingay. 68 
Mlnlken, J49 
Minister, 68 
MiostM, 68 
Minstrell, tij 
Miskin, 186, ». 
Mister, 68 
Mitten, iji 
Mitttiuweig, 193 
MiUnacht, 133 . 
Mobius, 295 
Mockler, 33s 
AfoAn, 190 
Mohnkopt, 190 
Moist, I a? 
Mold, 31s 

htolUrt, »90 
Molinari, 305 
MoHnitT, 188 
MoUki, 197 
Momerie, 117 
MoBcer, 148 
AfoncA, 300 
Monement. no 
Moneypenny, 177, « 
Monkhouse, 320 
MoQkman, 236 
Monnery, no 
Manlaigu, 360 
MonUgut, 280 
Jl/oiagD//W, 33 

Ufoonnaii. 237 

Alorant, 329 
Mordaunt, 339 
Mordecai, 206 
Mordey, 180 
Mordue, 180 
Morebea, 92 
Mocfey, 213 
MorStl, i6g 
Morfitt, 9t 
MoTgtHrat, 304 
Mofgen*Aa«, 197 
Motphew, 213 
Morphy, 313 

Morrow, 85 
Mori, 231. n. 
Moctiboy, 331, n.'i 

I Moctiboys, 231, ft. 

I HocUemaD, 331, h 

Mosseni&n, 109 
Mothers, 144 
Motbersole, 181 
MotbersiU, 1S2 
Mould, 297, 313 
Moule, 313 
Mounljoy, 68 
Hountsier, 348 
Moutb, 134 
Mowbray, 217 
Mudd, 38 
Mudge, 68 
Mufl. 68, 246 
Muirbead, 126 
Mulberry, 193 
Mulbry, 194 
MiUier, 297, 305 
Mulliner, 119 
Mullins, 279 

Murcti, 249, n. 
Hurcott, 92 
Murfitt, 91 
Murrant, 339 
Muscat, 193 
Muse, 326 
Musliett, 193 
Musselwhite, 89 
Mussoti, 24a 
Mussotter, 399 
Mustard, 134, (88 
Musteil, 134 
Mustol. 134 
Muuell, 134 
Myer, 320 
Myers, 320, <l. 4 
Myhlll, 103, »■ * 
Mylecrisl, 238, ». 
My lord, 313 

Nadawl, 283 
Nadot, 383 
Nagtl. 165 
NaQ, 163 
Nail, 30 
Narraway, 100 

Nasmyth, 223 
Nation, 123 
Navd. 9 
Naudol, 9 

Nayland, 50 
Naysmith, 228 
Neale, 62, 331 

NeaiDe, 349 
Neander, 30 j 
Neap, 193 
Neath way, 3J 


Needle, 166 
Needier, 166, n. 2 

Neelder, 166, n. 2 
Neep, 19s 
Neese, 132, r>. i, 34 
Negoose, 341, n. a 

Newhtour,' 237 
Neild, 61, 166 
Nendick, jo 
Nepbew, 345 

Netherwood, 32 
NeuHiig, 304 
Newball 33 
Newbold- 53 
Newbond, 330 
Newbound, 230 
Newcorae, 130 
New ho use, 96 
Newls, 97 
Newlove, 260 
NicboU, 30 S 
Nickless, 149 
Nicolai. 294 
Nicoll, 308 
NkBt. 283 
Niidkatit, 394 
Nitltsclu, 294 
Nightiogale, 33, 301 

Nuani', 10, 382 
Noah, 306 
Noaies, jo 
Noiier, 43 
NoUt, 9 

Norchard, 30 
Nordtrukjoli, 73 
Norkett, 91 
Norland, 99 
Norman, 43 
Nonnansell, 73 
Norwebb, 230 
Norwood, 90 
Nothard, 16, 31S 
NotlitT, 43 
Noumtion, 349 
Novice, 210 

D,g,„.«n„ Google 


Noy, 3o6 
Noyce, ao6 
Noyes, ao6 
Nunoeiy, aat 

Nunaiss. gj 



Nunery, i( 
Kunllng, 1 

Nutbeam, : 
Nutter, 4a 

Oakenfull. tso. "' 
Gates, 186 
OaU, iSj 
Odam, 146 
Odgen, 38 
OailrncA, 29} 
0£&ce, no 
Officer, 307 
Oag. 105 
Ohm, 301 
Oknaort, 149, 30a 
Oldacre, 93 
Oldcorn, 185 
Oldenhaw, 93 
Oldknow, 31S 
OldmUon, 8; 
Oldreive, 331 
Oldrey, *3i 
Oldtrcight, as? 
Olifie, 42 
Oliver. 42, «. i 
Ollanil, 99 
OUerhead, 93 
OUerenshaw, 95 

urange, 194 
Otd, 38 
Ordway, jS 
Organ, 176 

Orgar, 38 
OrgUl, 118 
Orglet, 176 
Orlebu, 87 

Ormeshire, 76 
Omeblow, a 68 
Oipe, 44 
Orpen, 44 
OrwiD, 3S 

Oshom, 31 
Osgood, 30, 261 
Osmon, 31, a 37 
Osmond, 31 
Ostertag, 303 
Oswald 31 
Ott, aj5 
Ottcrwell, 2S5 
Ottewell, 2SS 
Otto way, 37 
Otway, 37 
Oughlied, 43 
OuteisoD, 246 
Outlaw, 113, ill 
Outright, 43 
Over, 321 



Ozbrow, 13 r 
OitiKUrrH, 131 
OlOfifM. 280 
Oint/ant, a Bo 
Oiiecbrook, 8j 

Pabst, 300 
Pack, 1J7 
Pagan, an 
Page, 105 
Painiaii, r73 
Painting, 3a H 
Palfreyman, 237 
Pallant, 69 
Pallet!, 169 
Pament, 69 
Paraflett, 3a 6 
Pammant, 69 
Patieouckt, 173 
Pancutt, 173 
Pannifer, 146, H, 
Panter, 10 J 
Panther, 106 
Pant in, 329 
Paotlng, 33B 

Pan trey, 106 
Panttr, 159, 301 
PdquiH, 283 
Paradise, a 10 
Paragreen, 209 
Paramof, ia2 

Pardy, 180, iSa 
Parent, 24s 
Parkers, 96 
Parkman, 337 

Parlby, 167 
Parlour, loB 
Pamell, 14 
Parsley, 1B8, 189 
Parslow, 36} 
Partlett, 147 

PotuI, a 90 
Pascoewebb, aaS, ■ 

iio, 241 
Pashler, 1(5 
Pasbley, 16] 
Pasley, 363 
Fallow, 26s 
Pasqud, a 83 
Pasquitr, aBj 
PasqviH, 2 83 
Passant, aej 
Passavant, 265 
Passtlae, 26s 
Possslaiffiw, a6j 
Paaipont, 26i 
Pas%tn*it, a6s 
Passfield, 263 
Passiiull, 36s 
Passinore, 265 

Paston, 19 

Patent, 337 
Pater, 107, "■ i 
Patience, 330 
Pa ton, 317 
Patten, 317 
Pattern, 327 
Patvine, 363 
Paunce/ote, 141 
Pavol. 190 


Peace, 221 

Peachmay, 248 
Peacock, 9a, aoo. 

Peagrlm, 209 

Pearcey. a 6s 
Pearl, 1^8% 
Fearless, 149 

Peartree, 192 
Peaicod, 196 
Pease, 194 
Peasegood, 196 



Peberdy, 139 
Peckover, j 
Pecksaifi, 234 
Pee 194 

Peetlesj, 149 
P«evet, 189 
Pefler 189 
PtUtmllain, aj, 2S9 
PMissier, aS8 
Pelly, 118 
P«Dder, 97 
Penderell, 159 
Peudriss, 97 
Pendrous. 97 
Penfare, 146, n. 
Penfold, S13, n. 3, 369 
Peakethman, 137 
Pennance, 110 
Peimefather, 146 
Pennifold, 269, n. 
Penoy, r?? 
Peonycad, 341, n. i 
Pennycard, 141, h. i 
Penny cock, Z41 
Penny cook, 941 
Peony fealhei, 146 
Peplet. 104 
Pepper, 188, 189 
Peppercorn, 196 
Pepperday, 129 
Pepperell, 1S9 
Pepperwell, 189 

Perceval, 36j 
PercivaJ, »6j 
Percy, 165 
Peretmire, 146 
, Perreta, 386 
Penett, 118, 192 
PerritT, 288 

Penbouse, 265 

Pert wee, 2B6 
Pescott, 196 
Peskett, 196 
Pester, iii 
Pe»teifield, 90 
Petcber, iii 
PtUrs, 294 

Pdtrsilj'e, 189 

, Puigoi'.zig 

I Pitinicol, 31S, "■ a 
> Pttitperrin, 385 
Petivallet, 213 
k Pett 69, 98 
n Pettifei, 140, 141 


Pettiford, 140 
Pettigrow, 141 
Pettinger, 130, n. 
Pettilt, J79 
Pettiward, 133 
Pettus, 98 
Peverail, tg, 189 
Pewtress, 230 
Pfaff. 300 
Pfanntbecktr, 298 
Pfau. 301 
Pfingst, 3M 
FfundKiUtT, 302 
Tliaraob, zoj 

Phetbean, 39 
PhiMcklea, 20 
Phizakarley, 10 
Pbilpot, 12 s 
Pbippen, 193 

Pbysick, 213 
Phythiaa, 39 
Pick, 201, n. 
PIckance, 268 
Pickard, 103, n. 2 
Picks vance, 168 
Pickavant, 268 
Pickemell, 11 1 
Pickervance, 268 
Pickles, 69 

Pietor, 81 
PiepaP: 375 

Puie, tei' 
Pilbeam, 25S 
PUcb, 148 
Pile, 69 


Pillar, 117 
Pillatt, 207 
Pillaway, 69 
Pillbrow, 26 
Piller. 117 
PiDinger, 11 1 
Pillivant, 247 
Pillmao, 69 
Pirapemeli. 191 
Pincfi, 207, ». 
■■inchback, 263 

field. 269, n. 
. ^ifold, 269, n. 
Pinion, 326 
Plsk, III, It. I 

Piukbaidf 307, M. I 
Pipe, 177 
Piper, 176 
Pippeiday, iig 
Plppio, 193 
Pirie, 31a 
Pirk^, ZI3 
Pistor, III, n. a 
Piilorius, 30 s 
Pilchlork, 169 
Pitt, 69 
naice, 70 

Plank'. 70 
Plant, iSs 
PUntrcse, 2 68 
Plaaked, 70 
Haskett, 70 
Piatt, 70 
Playfaic, 318 
Playfoot, 91 
Pieass, 70 
Plenty, 223 
Plasu, 70 
Plews, 170 
Plimmer, 130, H. 
Plott, 70 
Plow, 170 
Plowman, 17 
Plowrigbt, 127 
Pluck, 70 

Plucknett, 134, n. t 
Plucktose, 268 
Plues, 170 
Plumb, 192 
Plumtree, 192 
Plunkett, IS4 
Plyer, 120 
Poad, 196 
Poat, 196 
Pobgee, 2M 
Pobjoy, 300 
Po t hkammtr, 303 
Pockett, is6 
Pocock, 300 
Podd, 196 
Poe, 194 


Poitnin, 163 
Poke, 213 
Pofack, 29J 
Poll, 130, 319 
Pollett, 130, 319 
PoUikelt, 342 
Pidton, 130 

D,g,„.«n„ Google 


Polyblank, 131 

Pomard, ao?, n. 
PoDsonby, 1 1 , «■ 
Pontifei, 108, ». 2, 30J 
Pook, J 13 
Pool, 319 
Poole, 307 
Pooler, lao 
Pope, 199, 100 
Popejoy, 100 
Popjoy, 200 
Poppy, tga 

Porkiss, i»% 
Poctas, 156 

Poiteas, i}6 
ParUbots, 373 
Porteous, 96, B. a, 156 
Portifait, a 75 
Porttlanct, 273 
Parttningnt, 27 J 
Porter. 16, los, 117 
Portess, 96 
Porterhouse, 97 
Porthouse, 96 
Portman, 331 
Port wine, 263 
Poskitt, 01 
Posselwhite, 89 
Poslans, rog 
Posthill, 308 
Postle, ao8 
" ■ 273 

Potgider, »99 
PotmaD, 236 

Pott, 125 

Pottage, 17+ 
Pottlphai, zo; 
Potwm, 163 
Pouch, 156 
Poucber, 120 
Poulter, 16 
Poimd, 177 
Pounder, 97 
Powe, 195 
Powell, 18, «. 1, 

Powies, 319 
Powncer, 1*0 
Pownet, 104 
Poye, 19s 
PosTier, »o7 
Peyser, 171 

Prater,' aoS, 
PrStorius - 
Pray, iii 


Preater, loS, n. I 
Preece, 128, n. a 
Pieferment, 210, 1 
Premier, 180 

Preodergast, 4 

Prmicvi, 275 
Pcetor 208, n. 2 
Pretty body, tag 
Pretty John, 342 
Prtust, 2 93 
Prew, 342, n. i 
Prewelt, H2, n. i 
Prewse, 242, n. I 
Price, 218, n. a 
Prickman, 161 

Pride. 218 
Pridgeon, 24a 
Priest. 198 
Priestner, 104 
Prime, 180 
Primmer, 180 
Primrose, igi 
Prin, 180 
Prindeville, 267 
Pring, 180 
Print, 180 
Prinlempii, 79 

Prillove, a 60 

Prizeman, i6z 
PtoM, 300 

Proper John. 24a 
Prophet, 198 
Prothero, a 9 
Proud, a42, n. t 
Proudfoot, 141 
Proudlove, 260 
I^oudman, 337 
Prout, 24a, X. r 

Prowse, 24a, H. 1 
Prudence, aao 

Pruett, 343, ■. I 

Prytheiick, a 9 
Ptolomey, aos 
Puckle, a 13 
Puddephatt, . 
Puddifant, 14. 
Puddifoot, 141 
Pudding, 174 
Pugb, 319 


Punch, a07, n. 
Puncbardi, 307 
Puncher, 307 
PunshoD. II, «■ 
PunI, 112, fl. r 
Punter, iia 

pU^feu', 'lis, «. I 

Purdfer, 163 
Purdue. 182 
Purdy, 1 8a 
Purefoy, 182 
Purgold, 137 
Pur kiss, 233 
Purple, 143 

Pursey, 265 
Pursbouse, 365 

Pushfirth, 356, H. 
PutI, 69 
PulUfent, 141 
Puttifoot, 141 
PtMhammer. 303 
Pu twain, 263 
Pyle, 69 

QuadratsUin, 167, • 

Quaintance, aao 
Quairier, 38, ». 
Quarterman, 139 
Quarton, 70, 138 - 
Quateimain, 139 
Quick, 7c 
QuiUer, i 

Rabbetts, 243, h. 3 
Rabjohns, 242 

Racbell. 20G 
RacKUdt, 206 
Radrtt, 290 
Racks traw. 267 
Raddle, 36 
RadtniKuhtr, agS 
Rae, 313 

Raentaker), a 98, h. 
Raickstraw, 367 
Raikes, 170 
Rainbiid, loi, ». 
Rainbow, 158 
Ralne, 43, 70 
Raines, 43, 70 
Ralsm, 193, 239 


in.' "39 ' ; 

70, 363 V 

38. ». \ 


Redrup, 93 
Red way, 37 
Redwood, ajS 
Ree, 71 
Reed, 18*, all 
Reel. 331 

Rees, '71 

RtgtdtMt, JO 3 

Regelovis, an 

Regcster, iit 
Reglar, an 
Rlnitr, 44 
Rihbein, 301 
Relf, 36, 43 
Remnant, 329 
Rmard, 44 

fffROH, 44 

Render, 115 
Rendle, 38 
Rmttrnkiimpf, 296 
Renouf, 36 
Ren yard, 44 
Rett«r, IIS 
Roller, 197 
Revel, 120, n.a 
Reverand, 210 

ReviB, '83 
Rew, 73 
Rex, 170 
Reltrew, a 67 
R»y. z8i 
Reynard, 44 
Reynolds, 14, 44 
Rhind, 7z 
Rhine, 7a 
Rhymes, 71, n. 
Ribbans, IJ7 

Richards, 16 
RichbeU, 44 
Richtpamt, 144 
Richer, 29 
RicUtr, 300 
Rickard, 44 
Rickman, 337 
Rickwood, 44 
Riddick, 334 
Ridding, 72 
Riddy, 71 
Ridebaigh, ec 
Rideout, 2:9 
Riding, 72 
Ridland, a 38 
Ridout, 2S9 
Ridwood, 358 


KUnuiachntidtf, 299 
Riggail, 44 
Rigmaiden, a 
. Riglec, an 
Rind, 73 
Rinder, iij 
Ring, 157 
Ringer, 102 
Ringrow, 85 
Ringrose, 85 
Ringshall, 88 
Riolte, 184 

Risk, 7» 

Rissbcook, 7* 
RitUr. 300 
Rivis, 83 
Rii, 73 

Roadnight, ajj 
Roath, 73 
Rocks tio, 367 
Rodaway, too 
Rod, 385 
Roddii, 73, 9? 
Roderick, 39 
Rodick, 324 
RoAb. 383 
Rodman, 333 
Rodnight, 23s 
Rodw^l, 73 
Ro0, 42, "- 1 
Roffey, 134 
Roggmbrod, 303 
RokJatdJtr, 304 
Rolle, 42, »■ 2 
RdmhOd. 393 

Root, 177 
Ropes, 172 
Rosamond, 34 
Rose, 84, 190 
Roseblade, 196 
Roseman, 34 
RostnbUM, 196 
Rostnschmidt, 298 
RosintriUr, 266, n. a 
Roseworm, 327 
Roskill, 33 
Rosontree, 192 
Roster, 86 
Ro(A, 300 
Rotheca, 84 
Rotkarm*t, 301 
Rougb, 147 
Rougbead, IZB 
Rougbley, 147 
Roughsedg*. 147 

D,g,„.«n„ Google 


RovhacD, 89, N. 3 
Rouncew«II, 13 j 
RounMval, 253 
Ronntwell, 353 
Ronth, Ji 
Roatledge, ji 

Rowat, 9t 
Rowe, 64 
Rowed, iiS 
Row«ll, B6 

Rowland, 1S8, n. 
Rowney, 133 
Rowntree. 191 
Royal, 327 
Rof lance, 161 

RimdK 38, 41, * 
Rum, «4, x. 3 
Rusbaway, iGS 
Rushout, z68 
Riakhi, 34 
Russell, 34 
RiMett, 134 
RuUoD, 340 
Rutter, 340 
Ryall, 337 
Rpder, 3*3 
Rye, 185, 186 
Rylands, 161 
Ryle. 337 
Rjott, 230 
Ryrle, 39 

Smtsvin, 375 
S»du, 393 
SaautpJ, 27S. 
SaSery, 41, iSB 
Sagai, 41 
Saint, 309 
Saintbouse, q6 
Salt. 74 
S«k^ 180 
Sale. 73, 283 
SaUer, 118, h. i 
S«IU, 383 
Sallibank*. 161, t 
Sallts, 73 
Sallowi, 73 
Salmon. 304 
Salter, iiS 
Salterne, 73 
Salten, 96 
Saltcxistall, 170 

Salway, 100 
Sunpsoo, 304 

Santlet, 87 
Sapp, 196 
SapiwoTtb, 87 
5«RJ, to 
Sardison, 339 
Sar4oH, lo 
Saigbson, 239 
Satgoo^ 363, M. I 
SttriandtT, 305 

Sarlorius, 303 

Sarvant, 105 

Satcbell, 136 
Saa4linaeh*r, 398 
Saubtriwtig, 193 
Saiurbi*r, 303 
Smttrbret, 303 
Saul, 306 
Saundeis, 188 
Sauat, 309 
SausMoy», 2 So 
Savary, iSS 
Saveall, 334 
Savigar, 87 
Savory, 41, 188 

Savoury, 1S9 

Sawbiidge, 87, n, 4 
Sawie, 206 
Sawkill, 307 
Saiby. 2 73 
Saxty, 107 

Sayer.' 74* 
Sayera, 41 
Sayle, 73 
Saylor, 118 
Saywell, 254 
Scales, 73 
Scambler, laa 
Scare, 74 
Scarf, 147 

Scarlett. 154 
Scatteigood, 363 
Stkaanekmidl, 398 
Sciutff. 303 
ScAornAorxl, 395 
Sehattmaiin, 300 
Sckmk, 300 
SchilUr, 293 
ScAHIing, 3« 

SMiftfUwni. 303 

SMuck^iitr, 304 

Sttmuckebitt, 104 
Sdtmidt, 297 

Sckmidthtnntr, 338, 

SAiutpattg, 303 
StAttM^Mnni, 366 
Schofield, 63 
Schoolcraft, 63 
Schooling, 6s 
SchopntkMut, 393 
ScAoUUfubr, 293 
Sdtt&br, 399 
Sckrdtr, 299 
5ckrDt«f, 299 
Schuitri, 399 
ScAiwAantt, 399 
somddtkopf, 264 

Si*»(Ul, 303 
ScAvfiiacA, 226, n, 
Schumann, 399 
ScAiUto^Mr, 303 
ScMtt, 300 


ScAwarUkop/, 301 
ScJkwan, 300 
Sehmtrdtftftr, 399 
ScAwtngAamiMr, 303 
Scotcber, 11 1 
Scotter, 104 



5cdiD|er, ti3 
5cnimiig«T, II 
Scrimsbaw, 81 
■ Scull, 130 
Sculler, 10 J 

SeiKrim,' 41 
Seal, 73 
Sealer, 116 
- Seamark, 8?, 1 
Search, 38 

Seath', 73 

Seaward, aij 

Seawright, 41 

Sebert, 37 

Sebright, 27 

Stcond, 180 

Secret, 38 

Seear, 74 

Seed, 73, "96 

Seedhouse, 96 
' StidOKtUktT, 499 

Stiglt, 1 36 

SfOer, 118. n. i 

Seldeo, 74 
, Seldom, 74 

Seldoa, 74 

SeU. 74 

Seltar, irS 

Seller, it8 

Sellennaii, 137 

Selway. 100 

Semvitibecktr, 398 

Senescbal, 103 
. Sennet t, 38 
,■ Seoaicall, loj 
/ Senskelt, 10 ; 
^ Sentiuce, 333 
I Sentence, lai 

Seiaphim, 309 
, Seckitt 120 
I Serrunn, 379 
[ Service, 33 1 
' Sessions, 103, n. -. 

Seth, 73 

Settatree, 370 

Seys, 73, 1. I 

Shackcloth, 367 
) Shacklady, 364 

Sbackle, 170 
I Shaddock, 364 
' SbBcksbaft, 336 

Sbadbolt, 368 


Shade, 74 
Shadlodc, 2G7 
Sfaadrake, 20; 
Shakelady, 364 
Shakelance, 3 56 
Shakesbaft, 4, 256 
Shakespeare. 4, 3: 

Sbabks, 134, 140 
Shapler, 147 
Sbaid, 74 
Sharer, 331 
Shargold, 366 
Shailand, 74 
Sharlotte, 174 
Sbaipless. 149 

Shawsmltb. 338 
Shead, 74 

Sbearil, 74 
Shearer, 131 
Shearhod, 370 
Shears, 74, ?5. 76 
Sheaismith, 3iS 
Sbearwood, 366 
Sheat 73 
Sheath, 73 
Sbeatber, 114 
Shebear, 54 
Shed, 74 
Shedlock. 267 
Sheepshanks, 140 
Sheepwash, 73 
Sbeepy, 133 
Shekell! 177 
ShetdraJce, 305 
Sbellcroes, 130, M. 
ShepherdaoQ, 339 
Sheigold, 366 
Sherlock, 366 
Shermet, it3 
Sherria, 331 
Sherwin, 366 
Shiel, 73 
Shield, 160 
Shields, 73 
ShiUibeei, 54 
Shilling, 177 
Sbillingshaw. 177 
Shiilingsworth, 177 
ShiUito, 3 
Shine, 141 
Shinglei. I30. n. 

Shipsler, 130, n. 
Shipwash, 7S 
Shipwav 7S 
Shipwright, 337 
, Shire, 75 
Shiira, 331 
Shirt, 74 
Shitler, 115 
Shoemaker, 336, h. i 
Shoemark, 336, h. i 
Shoesmith, 338 
Shone, 141 
Shooter, 133 
Shocrock, 94 
Shtfflers. 133, n. 2 
Shorthose, 33. 133 
Shorthouse, 151 
Sbortus, 133, n. 3 
Shotbolt, 268 
Shotlock, 367 
Shoulders, 137 
Shrapnel, 147, M. t 
Shreeve, 331 
Shrive, 331 
Shrosbree. 87 
Shucksmith, 338 
Shurlock, 366 
Shurmer, it2 
Shurrock, 94 
Shuter, 133 
Shutter, 113 
Shuttle, 170 
Sibary, 38 
Sibbald, 38 
Sibome, 34 
Sibree, 38 
Sich, 76 

SKhttschmidi, 3 98 
Side, 138 
Sidwell, 187 
SMenchmuU, 398 
Silbum, 347 
Silito, 5 
Sillence, 330 
SUm>ouma, 347 
SillUant, 347 
SilloH, 383 
Silver IS7 
SUverblrd, 136 
Silverside, 139 
Silvertop, 138 
Silvery, 133 
SilotUr*, 361 
Simliter, 111, i*. 
Simmance, 161 
SimmoDds, 39, n. 3 
Sinner, 131, ». 

D,g,„.«n„ Google 


Sinister, 304, n. 3 
SinDamon, 87 
Sinnocks, 05 
SinDott, 38 
Sirdar. 120 
Sirr, J48 
Sissmore, 178 
Siteh, 76 
Sit well, 1S7 
Sivewnghl, 137 
Six, 179 
Siismith, ai8 
SUet, III 
Skeei, 291, n. 
Skeemer, 105 
Skeer, 74 
Skegg, 137 
Skew, r6o 

SkUl, 313 

Sklller, los 
SkiUIng, 177 
Skin, 143 
Skipper, iiB 
SkippoD, 7S 
Skippings, 7J 
Skirmer, 113 
Skinetl. iS; 
Skrimshlre, SS 
Sklill. 130 
Skurmer, iiz 
Slade, 76 
Slagg, 156, n. 1 
Slape, 77 
Slate, 76 
SUvin, 15 1 
SUy, 77 

Slaymaker, 326, it. I 
Slaymark, X36, n. i 
Sleath, 76 
Slee, 77 
Steeman, 337 
Slight, 223 
Slipp, 77 
Slipper, I S3 
Sloeock, 93 
Sloggelt, 91 
Sluggett, 91 
Slymao, 337 
Smallbcmes, 143 
Smalley. 133 
Smallbom, 64 
Smallpage, 241 
Smallpeace, 3»i 
Smaltpeice, 223 
Smeao, 77 
Smeatbers, 96 
Smeathman, 78, 308 
Smedes, 77 
Smedley, 77 

Smee, 78 
Smeed. 77 
Smeeth, 77 
Smidmoce, 77 
Smiles, 87, n. 1 
Smirk, 87. «- i 
Smith, 316, 308 
Smithers, 96 
Smitbett. 78 
SmithsoD, 239 
Smith yman, 337 
Smy, 78 
Snaith, 78 

Snape! 78 
Snead, 78 
Snee, 78 
SDeeiunl, 86 

Snepp, 78 
Snodgrass, 78 
Snook, 95 
Snooks, 95 
Snowball. 22 s, 1- 
Sausher. 104 

Sollas, 22a 
Soller. 109 
SiJomoD, 204 
Soltan, 212 
Sol way, 161, B. 
Sommer, 303 
Sommerlat, 333 
Sones, 344 
SoHHUtg, 302 
Sortwell, 35s. »- 1 
Sotcher, ii2 
Sotelass, 331 
Southland 99 
Southward, S3 
South wood, 90 
Souvesirt, 381 
Sowden, 212 
Spear, 160 
Spearon, 163 
Spearpoint, 160 
Warsmith, 229 
Sptcht, 303 
Speck, 201, n. 
Speed, 218 
Speight, 201, n. 
Spence, 106 

Spink, I 

, 3J8 

Spirett. 214 

Spittle, 107 
Splatt, 78 

SpOQ. 78 I 

Spong, 78 1 

Sporltdtr, 303 

Sprackling, 140 
SpratUng, 140 , 

Spray. 19s 
Spreadbrow, 131 
Spridgeon, 342 
Sprigg, 19s 
Spring, 78 
Springall, 348 
Springate, 348 
Springett, 24S 
Springhall. 248 
Spun, 78 
Spurge, 187 
Spurgeon. 242 
Spurr. 162 I 

Spurren, 163 

Spyer. lia 
Squiller, 105 
Squire, 105, 199 
Stabback, 270 
Staff. 79, 134, IS4 
SlahlsiAiUdt, 298 
Staight, 79 J 

Staines, 308 11 

Staite. 79 I 

StalUbrass, 140 . 

Stallwood, 91 1 

Stamer, 114 

Standaloft, 268 
Standevea, 268 
Standfast, 234 
Stanes, 308 
Stanler, 326, n. i 
Stanley, 16 
Stannard, 44 
Stannas, 96 
Stanner, 104 
Stanhis, 96 
Stannus, 96 
Staple, 79 
Staples, 79 
Starey, 133 
Start. 80 
Startilaut, 263 


Startln, U 
Startup, 133 
State, 79 
Slathera, 96 
Staveacre, 187 
Staveley, 8; 
Slay, 79 

Steadmances, 71, n. 
Stecldes, 79 
SteKgall, 79 
Ste(!gles, 79 
SlmluMtr, Z99 
Sttinsehntfder, 199 
Slent, 79 
Sleptoe, JJ3 
Steiilier, 93 
Stevard, 105 
Stickings, 79 


Strowbridge, 89 

Stnidgei, 311 
Stuckey, 87 
Studd, So 
StumbUs, 41 
Sturdevant, 16s 
Sturgess, 43 
Sturt. So 
Sturtivant, 165 
Stiiriaker, 93 
Stut&eld, 318 
Styance, 79 
Styanti, 79 
Styer. iij 
Styche, 80 
Styles, 79 
Such, 30 
SuckUnR, 349 
Sucksmith, nB 
Suddard, 319 
SudartHnitn, 299 
Sueter, 112 
Suetl, 173 

lavos, 75, ». 
catw. 73 

SummBT5cal», / 
SununengiU, 73 
Summeiskill, 73 

Sumpster, 12 1 
Sumptim, 323 
Sumsion, 123 
Surcb, 38 

Suigenor, 63, »., 340 
SurgeoD, 6], »., 239 

Sureison, 239 
SurEett, 120 
Surplice, 131 
Suit. 248 

Suttees. 49, n. 1 
SUssiHfuih, iot 
SUsskind, 301 
SiDsmilch. 303 
Suiermeisttr, 199 
Suthen, 97 
Sutot, 305 

Swaloson,' 239 ' 
Swale, So 

Swan. 37. 4«, 134. 3I3 
Swuiaell, 37 
Swa*b, 312, n. 
Swear*. 80 
Sweatman, 3 38 
Sweetapple, 191 
Sweeltove, z6o 

Sweetsur, 24B 
Swell So 

Swingewood, 132, I 

Swiie. 80, 133 
Sword, 1 60 
Syer. 248 
Syers, 248 

Tabborab, 176 
Taber, 150. i76 
Tabeier, 176 
Tabemade, tto 
Tabor, iji, 176 
Tabrar, i7fi 
Tabrett, 176 
Tagfiafnto, J53, m. 
TmOAok, 25S 
TailU/tr, ti6 
Tttiit4, 381 
Tail, 126 
Talfourd, 2)3 
Tallboys, 238 
Tallenta, 143 
TaiHhoMriit, 176 
TamsM, 311 
Tancred. 42, 123 
Tankard, 43, 133 
Tansey, 187 
TaphailM, 96 
Tarbath, 32 

TarbunI 33 
Tardew, 186, n. 
Tarn, 60 
TamsitI, 80 
TarscU, 193, n. a 
Tart, 80 
Tartar, 212 
Tash, 50 
Tastell :93. "' ' 
Taswell. 23G 
Tate. 136 
Taubt, 302 
Tttubmann, 303 
Ta- -- 

Tawyer, 81 
Taycell. 193. 
Taylorson, a 
Taiewell. 23 

Tear. 143 

Tearall, 261 
Tebbutt, 40 
Tee, 81 

D,g,„.?<i I,, Google 


Teed. 40 
TeistUr, 1S8 
Telfer, 233 
Telford, 25 j 
TellwTigbt, 137 
Temporall, zii 
Temptall, att 
Tennyson, jij, n. i 
Terrell, *6i 

Terse,' 180 
TtHari, 381 
r«*, lie 

Ttuftl. ioo, n. I, 303 
Tewei, 81 
Ttxlot, 30 J 
Tey, 83 

Thicker, 8t, 114 
Thackeray, 84 
Tbackster, Si 
Thackirell, 356 
Thackwray, 84 
Thake, Si 
Thay, 8. 
Theak, 81 
Theaker, 81, 114 
Tbeed, 40 
Theobald, 40 
Tbew, ijo, «. 
Tbewlesi, 13a 
ThewLs, 130 
They, 81 
TbCckbtoom, 1S4 
Tblckett, 118 
Tbicknewe, 131, n. 1 
Thickpenny, 177, n. 3 
Thitra, 180 
Third, 180 
Tbirdborou|[b, 180 
Thlrkell, 31 
Tbiikcttle, 31 
ThirkbiU, 31 
Thirlaway, 365 
Thirlway, 365 
Thistlethvaite, 89 
Tboday, 63 
Thoiomti. 20s 
Thompsoia, 3, 30 S 
Thorbum. 34 
Tbomback, ij8 
Tbomell, 63 
Tboyts, 89 

Threadgofd, 366 
Tbiidgould, 366 
Thrift, 310 
ThriDg, 334 
Tfacossell, 157 


Thiuuell, 157 
Thumbwood, 357, 1 
Tburgor. 31 
Thurgell, 31, 43 
Thurgood, 261 
TbitrEeU, ti 
Tburketlle, ji 
Tburtle, 31 
Thwalte, 47, 89 
Tibbets, 10 
Tibbies, to, 40 
TIbbs, 10 
Ticklepeony, 3^3 
Tickler, 79 
TJdbald, 40 
TIdball, 40 
Tidboald, 40 
Tidswell, 354 
Tittk. 393 
Tieman, 300 
Tierct, 180 
TiHen, 14 
Tighe, 82 
Tiraberlake, 87 
Timblick, 87 
Timbrel], 177 
Tlinperon, 177. ". 1 
Tingle, 40 
Tinnett, 138 
Tinniou, 214, n. t 
T inside, 138 
Tiplady, 3J9 
Tippenny, 17? 
Tippet t, 14S 
Tipple, 40 
TipataS, 13s 
TipUft, 135. "- 
Tiptod, 135, •■ 
TiptofI, IS5. »- 
Tirebuck, 366 
T.>*j(i, 295 
Ttsckbnn, 13s 
Todhunter, lao 
TodklU, 43 
TodMm, 331, •*. 
Todtick, 40 
Toe, 50. 14a 
Toes, 30, 141 
Tofield, 82 
Toin*. 3S1 
ToUaday, 233 
ToUiree, 31 
ToUiday, 333 
Tolputt, no 
Tolver, 253 
Tonp, 134 
Tongue, 134 
Toogood, 362, H. I 
Tooth, 137 

Toplady, 339 
Toplass, 359 
Topliss. »59 

ToTrens, 303 
Tortise, 333 
Tortiss, 33 s 
Tortoises bell, 335 
Toswill, 236 
Toltman, 338 
Tough. 147 
TaumtmtilU, 163 
Tower, 320 
Toye, 146 
Toier, 2j6 
Traheme. 7 
Trartcluvmt. «66 
Trapnell. 262, k. i 
Trask, S7 
Traveil. 333 

Treadaway, 266 
Treaddell, 266 
Tread way. 366 
TreadweU, 233 
Tredgett. 219 
Tredaold, 266 
Tredwell, 3G6 
Trtibchki, 294 
Tremble, 263 
Tress, 132 
Tret well, 233, 366 
Trevett, 166 
Trew, Si 
Trlcker, no 
Trickery, 319 
Trill, 30 
TrinkmatstT, 304 
Triphook, 94 
Trippick, 94 
Trist, 318 
Trislram, 33 
Trivett, 166 
Trodden, 50 
TrotUmt, 363, n. i 
Troliope, 37a 
Trood, 30, 73 
TropUmg, 362, n. t 
Troth, 317 
Trouncer, 123 
Trounson, 133 
TrausseaH, 136 
Trow, 81 
Truckmbrod, 303 
Trudgett, 319 
Truebody, 129 
True&tt, 99 
Trueland, 99 
Truelock, 314, )*■ 3 


Trumper, 176 
TrumiwMr, 11 j 
Trurntt, 304 
Truscott, iGi 
Truslovfl, j6i 
Trussell. 156 
Trust, 173, ai7 
Trustnun, 117 
Tubb, 115 
Tubiuf, »J7 

weei 161, H. 
weMttee, 179 

welve, 179 
Mrelvetrees, 179 
iviceaday. 180 
*i«8. I9S 
vills, 308 
vin, 3 49 
Vint, 349 . 


Twltchell, ^2 
Twilchen, 82 
TwltcUngs, 83 
Twite 80 
Twice), 81 
Two. 179 
Twopenny, 177 
Twovearold, 250 
TwybeU, 168 
Twyet, 81 
Twyman, 238 
Tye, 82 
Tyers, 180 
Tylecote, 23S 
Tyrer, 267 
TyTrell, 262 
Tyrwhltt, 87 
Tys<m. 31S 

Uff, 35 
Uffendell, 35 
Ulph, 3S 
Uncles, 24S 
Underbill, ji 
Undciy, 71 
Undrell, 52 
Unite, I So 
Unitt, 180 
Unkraut, 1S8 
Untbank, 89 
Unwin, 43 
Upcber, 88 
Upfield, S2 
Upfill, ji, 169 
Upfold, s2 
Upjohn, 242 
Uprichaid, 242 
UpsbaU. 88 
UptoD, 5J 
Upward, 52 
Urwin, 35 
Usber, loj 
Uziell, 319 

Vaisey, 186. «. 
Vale, 314 
Vandam, 298 
VandtrdtektH, 108 
Vandeistcen, 2 98 
Vandervelde, 298 
Vann, S9i 'o? 
Vuiner, jg 
Vansittarl, 2 98 
Vant, 247 
Varder, 113 
VardcBi, 103, n, 2 
Vardy. 218 
VargB, 82 
Vamdell, S9 


Vaiabh, loS 
Varty, ji8 
Vattr, 301 
Vaulkhard, 40 
Vtnigu4lin, 44 
Vaiw, 4S, n. 

Venn, sao 
Vennei, 229 
Venoor, 129 
Venten, 218,11. 2 
VentreM, 218, n. 2 
Ventiis, 218. ft. 2 
VentuT, 218 
VtnU*r, ait 
Verekei, agS 
Verge. 83 
Vergo, 208 
Verity. 2t8, aai, n 
Vtmuitk, 1 88 
Veracboyle, 298 
Vesey, 186, n. 

Ve»tey, 107 
Vftttr, 301 

Vice, '2 1 8 
Vickerstaff, 90 

Victress, 230 

VidX^'74' »■ 
Vidler, 176 
Vigers. 87, ". 3 
Vfiors, 87. n. t 
VUmar, 293 
Vinpany, 163 

Vinellock, 135 
Vinson. 172 
Violett, 134, 191 
Virgin, zo8 
Virgoe, 208 
Virtue, 218 
Vittles. 174 
Vivers, 174 
VUe, 83 
Viier. itt 
Vltor, 111 
Voase, 82 
Voce, 62 
VottittS4mt, 304 


Volkes, 43 

D,g,t,.?<i I,, Google 


von dtr GoIU, agG, 397 

voit dtr Hiyde, 196, 397 
Don dtr TatM, 196, Z97 
Vortnach, 396 
VoTderbmgi, 196 
Vose, 81 
Vois, 402 
Vowier, 107. 1. 2 
Voysey, 186, «. 
Vulpiia, 30s 
Vyse. 83 

Wace, 312 
WicUtT, 300 
tCocAmtagd, 1 66, 
Woddlcar, 93 
Waddicket, 93 
Waddilove, 260 
Wademan. 121 
Wader, i?" 

J 64 


WagE — , .^, 
Wagstaff, 264 
W^, 171 
Wain Wright, 227 
Wflister, 163 
Waistcoat, 150 
Wait, i8j 
Waite, 312 
Waiter, 105 
Wakelaro, 270 
Wakeling. 44 
Wakem, 270, «. 2 
Wakens haw, 169 
Waldo, 43 
Wale, 311 
Wales, 31" 
Walkinsbaw, 269 
Walkland, 370 
Walklate, 270 
Watkling, 44 
Walkman, 237 
Wall, 311 
Wallen, 40, 3" 
Wallet. 156 
Walliker, 93 
Wallis, 3U8 
WalJraven, 36 
Walhe, S3 
Waltbew, 43 
Waltho, 43 
Walwin, 40 
Wand, I S3 
Wandiess, 149 
Wanehope, 149, n. 
Wiiface, 149 
Wanlass, 149 

waniess, 149 
WtttmemacktT, 2 98 
Want 155 
Waraker, 93 
Warboy, iji, », I 
Wardhaugh. 62 
Watdlaw, 62 
Wardle, 62 
Wardlow, 62 
Wardrop, 95 
Ware, 311 
Warlock, 214 
Wallow, Z14, It, X 
Warren, 329 
Wartioe, 329 
Warwicker, 93 
Wash, jti 
Wason, 31a 
Wasp, 325 
Wass, 31a 
WaatalT, 262 
Waslell, ti4, «■ I 
Waterfall, 59 
Watering, 6s 
Wath, 8j 
Wathe, 83 
Watking. ■■ ~ 
Wat ' 

lough, : 

Watrelt, 120, n. I 
Waud, 83 
Waule, 3" 
Wawn, 83 
Waygowt 37 

Wayleltl 83 
Waymark, 37, 41 
Waythe, 83 
Weale, 83 
Wearing 320 
Weatherhead, 128 
Weatherhogg, 242 
Webb. 226 
Weeds, 188 
WeUUieoker. 298 
WeihnacM, 302 
W*iss, 300 
Weisibecktt, 299 
Wtissbrodl, 303 
Weiss^erbit, 299 
Wtiismatitel, 301 
Wtissptennig, 302 
Welch, 308 
Welcome 254 
Weld. 83 
Welfare, 22» 
Welfitt, 91 
Wei lad vise, 224 
Wellavize, 224 
Wellbelove, 235 

WeUbeloved, 395 
WeUbetow, 225 
WtrckmiisltT, 999 
Werlock, 214 
WtnHutSi, 303 
Weskeft, 150 
Wesson, 240 
Westaway, 76, B, 
Westland; 99 
Weslrope, 9s 
West wood, 90 
Wetbered, 128 
Wet wan, 84 
Whackum, 370, «. 
WbalebeUy, 138, 2 

Wham, 83 

Wban, 83 

Wbar/e, 161, ». 

Wbatklns, 318 

Wbatmaugb, 247 

Whatmore, 247 

Whatrup, 95 

Wbattler, 114, •>- t 

Wheat, 124, i8j 

Wheelwright, 227 

Whence, 328 

Where. 328 

Whereat, 338 

Wherry, 171 

Wbiddett, 91 

While, 327 

Whinray, 84 

Whipp, 156 

Whish, 84 

Whisker, 137, 328 

Whitbread, 136 
Whit Cher, 106 
White, IS4 
Whitear. 13S 
Whiteaves, jg 
Whitebom, 347 
Whllefoot, 141 
Whitehair. 13s 
WbitehaU, 63 
Whitehand. 139 
Whitehead, 15.23, 
Whitehead, 231 
Whitehom. 6«, 89, 
Whitehouse, 96, i 
Whitelam, 241 
Whitelark, 131 
Whitelegg, 140 
Whiteoow, 318 
Whiteoak, 94 
Whiterod, 155 
Whiteside, 138 
Whitesmith, 227 
Whilewhite, 89 


Whitewisb, 114 

Whltewrigbt, 117 

Whitey. IJ3 

Whitlock, 131 

Whitmee, 24S • 

Whilseed, 74 

Whitt alter, 93 

Whittard. 231 
I Whitlear, 135 
I Whittick, 94 

Whittier, 135, 3t6, », 

Whittock, 94 
' Whittrick, 43 

Whit warn, 137 

Whit wham, 138 

Wholehouse, 97 

Whybird, 38, 32S 

Why bom, 34, 38 

Whybrow, 130 

Wickfield, 70 

Widdeatt, 91 

Widdcfkop, 30t 

Widdiwiss, 214 

Widdows, 24s 

Widger, 43 

Widgerv, 86, n. a 

Wiegold, IS7 

Wigfall, 70 

Wigg, 46 

Wilt>erforce, 60 

Wilbur, 39 

Wild, 83 

Wildash, 83 

Wildblood. [43 

WUdbore, J4" 

WHdigans, 302 

Wilder, 141 

WUdey, 133 
J Wildgoose, 341 
f, Wlldeust, 341 

WUdmg. 6s 
' WUdish, 83 

Wildlove, a6l 

Wildman, J41 

WUdrake, 341 

Wildsroitli. 328 
I Wiles, 83, 169 

Wilesroith, 328 

Wilford, tio, "■ 

Wilgres*. 341 

Willacy, 140 "■ 

WilUvise, 234 

Willbond. 230 

Willctt, 332 

WUIgt»«, 14 1 
. Willis, 33 » 

WilU. 308 

Willsher, 88 

„ne""t - 6 

urilinan, 2j 


Wilmot, 169 

Wilsfocd. 350. «. 
Wilsbaw, 88 
Wimble. 40, 170 
Wimble tt, 169 
Wimbolt, 170 
Wimlolt, 169 
Wimpenu}', 363 
Wimple, 150 
Wirapress, 107 
Winbolt, 43 
Win bow, 363 
Wiocer, 89 
Winch, 170 
Winckilmann, 395 
Wiadeatt, 91 
Windtlband, 167 
Windlass, 170, 163 
Windless, 170, 363 
Windows, 96 
Windram, 263 
Windus, 96 
Winearb, 264 
Winlarthing, 89 
Winfrey, 310 
Wingood, 30, 361 
Winks, 46 
Winnery, 84 
Winpenny, 363 
Winrose, 363 
WJDship, 364 
Winspear, 162, 263 
Winsper, 163, n. 
Winspur, 162, n., 363 
Winter, 75, "■, 79 
Winter, 303 
Wintecage, 95 
Wintecbottom, 75, n. 
Winteibum, 75. *». 
Winterflood, 75, "■ 
Wioterlord, 75, "■ 
Wlnterscale, 7S 
Wiotersgili, 75 
Winlhrop, 95 
Win ward, 310 
Wiper, 103 
Wire, 112 
Wiscard, 137 
Wisdom, 333 
Wiseinao, 21s 
Wish, 84 
Wishart, 137 
Witcher, 106 
With, 84 
Witherow, 8; 
Wltbhishaw, 53 
Wittaitr, 301 
Wodehotise, 314 
Wohljart, ixo, 301 


Wolfe, 35 
Woliendale, 35 
Wolff, 302 
Wolfram, 36 
Wolstencroft, 3 J 
Wolslenholme, 35 
Woliogai, 288. 303 
Wonder, 218 
Wong, 84 
Wood, 47. 308 
Woodage, 95 
Woodbine, 192 
Woodcock, 201, ». 
Woodfail, S9 
Woodfin, 84 
WoDdfine, 84 
Woodger, 226, <t. 1 
Woodbead, 12S 
Woodhouse, 214 
Woodier, 226, «. 1 
Woodison, 240 
Woodiwiss, 3t4 
Woodman, 308 
Woodmason, 337 
Woodnough, 318 
Woodrofle, 331 
Woodrow, 85 
Woodruff, 331 
Woodward, 231 
Wood Wright, 227 
Woof, 35 
Woolcock, 91 
Woolirey, 3 s 
Wool tries, 33 

!. 96 


Wool! ^. ^ 

WooUard, 154 
Woollen, 33 
Woolley, 35 
WoolloO, 360, n. I 
Woolnough, 35 
Woolven, 35 
Woolward, 134 
Woolwright, 127 
Woor, 133 
Worlock, 314 
Wormald, 37 
Worms, 46 
Wormwood, |88 
Worship, 320 
Wortos, 98 
Would, 328 
Wouldbave, 39 
Wraight, 236, H. 3 
Wraith, 126, n. 3 
Wtay, 84 
Wreath, 226, it. 3 
Wright, 236 


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